Tsutsumi A, Kayaba K, Theorell T, Siegrist J. Association between job stress and depression among Japanese employees threatened by job loss in a comparison between two complementary job-stress models
This study compared the separate effects produced by two complementary stress models--the job demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model--on depression among employees threatened by job loss.
A cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine these associations among 190 male and female employees who responded to a self-administered questionnaire in a small Japanese plant with economic hardship. The employees were engaged in 2 job types--direct assembly line and indirect supportive tasks--and the latter was threatened by job loss because of downsizing. Independent variables were measured by the Japanese versions of Karasek's demand-control questionnaire and Siegrist's effort-reward imbalance questionnaire. Depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale.
The employees with indirect supportive tasks (target for downsizing) were more likely to have depressive symptoms than direct assembly-line workers. Job strain, a combination of high demand and low control at work, was more frequent among the latter, while the combination of high effort and low reward was more frequent among the former. After adjustment for work environment factors, low control [odds ratio (OR) 4.7], effort reward imbalance (OR 4.1), and overcommitment (the person characteristic included in the effort-reward imbalance model) (OR 2.6) were independently related to depression. There is some indication that these effects were particularly strong in the subgroup suffering from potential job loss.
This study confirms that the 2 job stress models identify different aspects of stressful job conditions. Moreover, effort-reward imbalance and low control at work are both associated with symptoms of depression.
Available from: Fu-Min Tseng
- "The number of children and household size are regarded as the proxies of social or emotional support that may have a positive association with health (Uchino 2006). There are many reasons why income and job type, which reflect socioeconomic status, may influence health and LS (Frijters et al. 2004; Iverson and Maguire, 2000; Strully 2009; Tsutsumi et al. 2001) however, the empirical evidence is mixed. Regional dummy variables control for differences in treatment access and health hazards that vary across geographical locations. "
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ABSTRACT: This paper uses an exogenous increase in income for a specific subgroup to explore the extent to which higher income leads to higher levels of health and well-being. In 1995, the Taiwanese government implemented the Senior Farmer Welfare Benefit Interim Regulation (SFWBIR) that was a pure cash injection to senior farmers. A difference-in-differences (DiD) approach is used on survey data from the Taiwanese Health and Living Status of Elderly in 1989 and 1996 to evaluate the short-term effect of the SFWBIR on self-assessed health, depression, and life satisfaction (LS). Senior manufacturing workers are employed as a comparison group for senior farmers in the natural experiment. This paper provides evidence that the increase in income caused by this pension reform significantly improved the mental health of senior farmers by reducing 1.697 points of the depression scale in DiD and 2.178 points in the robust estimation; however, it had no significant short-term impact on self-assessed health or LS.
Available from: Margda Waern
- "Lack of job mobility can also be caused by a saturated job market. Studies show that the combination of poor psychosocial work environment and limited work options increases mental ill-health [6,23,31], days on sick leave [21,23] and delays return to work . The quality of this process is likely to be different than that which is self-inflicted, since it is involuntary and unlikely lead to future profits. "
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Throughout the literature, substantial evidence supports associations between poor psychosocial work characteristics and a variety of ill-health outcomes. Yet, few reports strategies workers carry out to improve detrimental work conditions and consequently their health, such as changing jobs. The aim of this study was to examine if adverse psychosocial work exposure, as measured with the job demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models, could predict job mobility over a 5 years observation period.
Participants were working men and women (n = 940; 54.3% women), aged 24–60 years from the population of Gothenburg and surrounding metropolitan area. Job demand-control and effort-reward variables were compared with independent t-tests and chi2-test in persons with and without job mobility. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse whether psychosocial factors could predict job mobility. All regression analyses were stratified by gender.
Exposure to a combination of high demands-low control or high imbalance between effort and reward was related to increased odds of changing jobs (OR 1.63; CI 1.03-2.59 and OR 1.46; CI 1.13-1.89 respectively). When analysing men and women separately, men had a higher OR of changing jobs when exposed to either high demands-low control (OR 2.72; CI 1.24-5.98) or high effort-reward imbalance (OR 1.74; CI 1.11-2.72) compared to reference values. The only significant associations for women was slightly decreased odds for turnover in high reward jobs (OR 0.96; CI 0.92-0.99).
The results indicate that workers will seek to improve poor work environment by changing jobs. There were notable gender differences, where men tended to engage in job mobility when exposed to adverse psychosocial factors, while women did not. The lack of measures for mechanisms driving job mobility was a limitation of this study, thus preventing conclusions regarding psychosocial factors as the primary source for job mobility.
Available from: Albert Nienhaus
- "There are indications that different models of work-related stress measure different psychosocial factors. In studies which record psychosocial factors using both the job demand-control model (JDC model)  and the effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) , independent effects can be observed in connection with chronic heart diseases and depression [12,13]. "
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ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal pain may be triggered by physical strains and psychosocial risk factors. The effort-reward imbalance model (ERI model) is a stress model which measures psychosocial factors in the working world. The question is whether workers with an effort-reward imbalance report musculoskeletal pain more frequently than those with no effort-reward imbalance. A systematic review using a best evidence synthesis approach was conducted to answer this question.
A literature search was conducted for the period from 1996 to 2012, using three databases (Pubmed, Embase and PsycINFO). The research criteria related to psychosocial, work-related stress as per the ERI model and to musculoskeletal pain. A quality score was developed using various quality criteria to assess the standard of the studies. The level of evidence was graded as in (Am J Ind Med 39:180-193, 2001).
After applying the inclusion criteria, a total of 19 studies were included in the review: 15 cross-sectional studies, three prospective studies and one case-control study. 74% of all studies exhibited good methodological quality, 53% collected data using the original ERI questionnaire, and in 42% of the studies, there was adequate control for physical working conditions. Furthermore, different cut-off points were used to classify exposed and non-exposed individuals. On the basis of 13 studies with a positive, statistically significant association, a moderate level of evidence was inferred for the association between effort-reward imbalance and musculoskeletal pain. The evidence for a role of over-commitment and for its interaction with effort-reward imbalance was rated as inconclusive - on the basis of eight and five studies, respectively.
On the basis of the available evidence, no reliable conclusion may be drawn about any association between the psychosocial factors ascertained using the ERI model and musculoskeletal pain. Before a reliable statement can be made on the association between ERI and musculoskeletal pain, additional longitudinal studies must be performed - with a standardised method for recording and classifying exposure, as well as control of physical confounders. Appropriate preventive measures can then be specified.
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