Physical Activity and Television Watching in Relation to Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Men

Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 06/2001; 161(12):1542-8. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.161.12.1542
Source: PubMed


Television (TV) watching, a major sedentary behavior in the United States, has been associated with obesity. We hypothesized that prolonged TV watching may increase risk for type 2 diabetes.
In 1986, 37 918 men aged 40 to 75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer completed a detailed physical activity questionnaire. Starting from 1988, participants reported their average weekly time spent watching TV on biennial questionnaires.
A total of 1058 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed during 10 years (347 040 person-years) of follow-up. After adjustment for age, smoking, alcohol use, and other covariates, the relative risks (RRs) for type 2 diabetes across increasing quintiles of metabolic equivalent hours (MET-hours) per week were 1.00, 0.78, 0.65, 0.58, and 0.51 (P for trend, <.001). Time spent watching TV was significantly associated with higher risk for diabetes. After adjustment for age, smoking, physical activity levels, and other covariates, the RRs of diabetes across categories of average hours spent watching TV per week (0-1, 2-10, 11-20, 21-40, and >40) were 1.00, 1.66, 1.64, 2.16, and 2.87, respectively (P for trend, <.001). This association was somewhat attenuated after adjustment for body mass index, but a significant positive gradient persisted (RR comparing extreme categories, 2.31; P for trend,.01).
Increasing physical activity is associated with a significant reduction in risk for diabetes, whereas a sedentary lifestyle indicated by prolonged TV watching is directly related to risk. Our findings suggest the importance of reducing sedentary behavior in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

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    • "In addition, sedentary behaviour (excessive sitting as opposed to insufficient physical activity) has recently emerged as a potential independent risk factor for poor health[16]. Prospective studies have shown that adults who accrue high volumes of sedentary behaviour are at a higher risk of developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes171819and cardiovascular disease[20], as well as at a higher risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality2122232425. Importantly, the association between prolonged sitting and detrimental health outcomes remains significant even after adjustment for time spent in MVPA[16,262728, indicating that, for optimal health benefits, people should both be active and limit their time spent in sedentary behaviour. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The current Australia's Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines recommend that adults engage in regular moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and strength training (ST), and minimise time spent in sedentary behaviours (SB). However, evidence about the specific individual and concurrent distribution of these behaviours in Australia is scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of MVPA, ST and SB in a national-representative sample of Australian adults. Methods Data were collected using face-to-face interviews, as part of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011–12. The population-weighted proportions meeting the MVPA (≥150 min/week), ST (≥2 sessions/week) and combined MVPA-ST guidelines, and proportions classified as having ‘low levels of SB’ (<480 min/day) were calculated, and their associations with selected sociodemographic and health-related variables were assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. This was also done for those at potentially ‘high-risk’, defined as insufficient MVPA-ST and ‘high-sedentary’ behaviour. Results Out of 9345 participants (response rate = 77.0 %), aged 18–85 years, 52.6 % (95 % CI: 51.2 %–54.0 %), 18.6 % (95 % CI: 17.5 %–19.7 %) and 15.0 % (95 % CI: 13.9 %–16.1 %) met the MVPA, ST and combined MVPA-ST guidelines, respectively. Female gender, older age, low/medium education, poorer self-rated health, being classified as underweight or obese, and being a current smoker were independently associated with lower odds of meeting the MVPA, ST and combined MVPA-ST guidelines. A total of 78.9 % (95 % CI: 77.9 %–80.0 %) were classified as having low levels of SB. Females, older adults and those with lower education were more likely to report lower levels of SB, whilst those with poor self-rated health and obese individuals were less likely to report lower levels of SB (i.e. SB = ≥480 min/day). A total of 8.9 % (95 % CI: 8.1 %–9.6 %) were categorised as individuals at potentially ‘high-risk’. Those with poorer self-rated health, obese individuals, those aged 25–44, and current smokers were more likely to be in the ‘high risk’ group. Conclusions The large majority of Australian adults do not meet the full physical activity guidelines and/or report excessive SB. Our results call for public health interventions to reduce physical inactivity and SB in Australia, particularly among the subgroups at the highest risk of these unhealthy behaviours.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · BMC Public Health
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    • "Physical activity (PA) has been inversely related to fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD)123456 . Attention has more recently been drawn to the association between sedentary behaviors and negative health outcomes, including CVD789101112131415. Sedentary behavior refers to any waking behavior that involves an energy expenditure of less than 1.5 metabolic equivalent units (METs) [16, 17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently attention has been drawn to the health impacts of time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors. While many studies have investigated general physical activity (PA) in relation to blood lipid levels, the current study aimed to examine the intensity of activity, including sedentary behavior time, and time spent engaging in moderate and intense PA, with concentrations of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Participants comprised 1331 individuals, aged 18 to 70 years, from the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg (ORISCAV-LUX) study, who underwent objective cardiovascular health assessments and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Time spent engaging in sedentary behaviors (screen time on a workday and a day off, and total sitting time on a work day), and moderate and intense PA, were related to levels of HDL and LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample, and then with stratification according to BMI (normal weight versus overweight/obese). Both lower screen time during days off and higher intense PA time were significantly associated with higher HDL-cholesterol after full adjustment for socio-demographic factors, dietary factors and smoking (both p < 0.05). In normal weight individuals, consistent positive relations between triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol with all sedentary behavior time variables were observed (all p < 0.05; adjusted for age, education, gender). There were no statistically significant associations between any intensity level of PA or sedentary behavior time variable and lipid levels in those overweight or obese. Spending less time in sedentary behaviors, and engaging in medium levels of intense physical activity may be associated with a more favorable blood lipid profile, particularly with regard to levels of HDL and triglycerides.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Lipids in Health and Disease
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    • "Moreover, recent studies have shown that even people who practice some kind of physical activity could also be on health risk because of sedentary habits (Owen et al., 2011; Thorp et al., 2011), which refer to different behaviours associated to be sitting (as watching TV or working on the computer) (Owen et al., 2010). For example, one longitudinal study that controlled the amount of time spent on watching TV over a eight-year period found that the sedentary behaviour was directly associated to higher risk for type 2 diabetes in comparison to those who spent less time watching TV (Hu et al., 2001). Similarly, another study compared the amount of hours that women spent sitting or lying down during the day and their relative risk of cardiovascular disease, showing that those types of behaviours were significantly associated with risk of cardiovascular events (Manson et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to create a “physical activity break” (PAB) satisfaction scale, for this, the RATER dimensions of the service quality model SERVQUAL were used. Design/methodology/approach – The study opted for a correlational study and used a psychometric approach. Totally, 69 administrative workers at a public university of Chile participated in a physical activity programme and completed a satisfaction questionnaire including sections adapted from the SERVQUAL model. Findings – The study created a PAB satisfaction scale, which shows appropriate psychometric indicators. Furthermore, satisfaction scores were positively correlated with perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes. Research limitations/implications – Because measures perceived psychological and physical benefits, attendance motivation and intention to participate again in future programmes are measured by single items, futures studies should evaluate association of the satisfaction scale with more consistent measures, as well as include anthropometric measures (e.g. body mass index and weight). Practical implications – This study created a PAB satisfaction scale, using appropriate psychometric indicators which enable the evaluation of the quality of these programmes from the participant’s perspective. Originality/value – Despite the popularity of PAB programmes, to the authors knowledge, up to day there is no way of evaluating these programmes from the participant’s perspective.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Journal of Workplace Health Management
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