Article

Feeding dried purple laver (nori) to vitamin B12-deficient rats significantly improves vitamin B12 status

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Abstract

To clarify the bioavailability of vitamin B12 in lyophylized purple laver (nori; Porphyra yezoensis), total vitamin B12 and vitamin B12 analogue contents in the laver were determined, and the effects of feeding the laver to vitamin B12-deficient rats were investigated. The amount of total vitamin B12 in the dried purple laver was estimated to be 54.5 and 58.6 (se 5.3 and 7.5 respectively) microg/100 g dry weight by Lactobacillus bioassay and chemiluminescent assay with hog intrinsic factor respectively. The purple laver contained five types of biologically active vitamin B12 compounds (cyano-, hydroxo-, sulfito-, adenosyl- and methylcobalamin), in which the vitamin B12 coezymes (adenosyl- and methylcobalamin) comprised about 60 % of the total vitamin B12. When 9-week-old vitamin B12-deficient rats, which excreted substantial amounts of methylmalonic acid (71.7(se 20.2) micromol/d) in urine, were fed the diet supplemented with dried purple laver (10 microg/kg diet) for 20 d, urinary methylmalonic acid excretion (as an index of vitamin B12 deficiency) became undetectable and hepatic vitamin B12 (especially adenosylcobalamin) levels were significantly increased. These results indicate that vitamin B12 in dried purple laver is bioavailable to rats.

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... The higher content and bioavailability of Vitamin B 12 (VitB 12 ) in raw, as opposed to dried, laver may imply the conversion of VitB 12 in raw laver to its analogues (which are not bioavailable to mammals) by the air-drying process [37]. Drying of laver by lyophilization was suggested to prevent loss of bioactive VitB 12 [38]. With respect to further processing, roasting or deep-frying of dried laver results in decreased mineral content (calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate, potassium). ...
... Anti-cancer polysaccharides (dietary fiber, porphyran), phospholipids, sterol, peptide [17,[46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54] Prevention of cardiovascular disease (e.g., hypertension, atherosclerosis, ischemia) betaine, dietary fiber, taurine, porphyran [17,[55][56][57][58][59][60][61] Antioxidant effect (e.g., Anti-ageing) porphyran, glycoprotein, polyphenols, tocopherols, peptide [62][63][64][65][66][67] Anti-inflammatory effect and immunomodulation glycoprotein, porphyran [64,[68][69][70][71][72][73] Alcohol metabolism glycoprotein [74,75] Prevention of nervous diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's diseases, methylmalonic acidemias) taurine, porphyran [38,76,77] Prevention of bone disease (e.g., osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis) porphyran, glycoprotein [64,78] Anti-diabetes mellitus phenolic compounds (carotenoids, anthocyanins), polysaccharides (porphyran), peptide [79][80][81][82] Porphyran is the distinctive dietary fiber found in laver, and its health effects were intensively studied to determine the nutritional/functional quality of lavers [83]. Important bioactivities that can be attributed to porphyran include anti-cancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects and/or immunomodulation and prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular, nervous, bone, and diabetic disorders [9,10]. ...
... Lavers produce exceptional quantities of VitB 12 and thus can be used to counter the deficiency of VitB 12 (e.g., methylmalonic acidemias) in vegan diets by the consumption of laver [86][87][88]. The bioavailability of VitB 12 was also confirmed by increases in the hepatic VitB 12 level of rats by the intake of laver [38,89] and by the release of VitB 12 from laver after human consumption simulated through in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments [41]. ...
Article
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The growing interest in laver as a food product and as a source of substances beneficial to health has led to global consumer demand for laver produced in a limited area of northeastern Asia. Here we review research into the benefits of laver consumption and discuss future perspectives on the improvement of laver product quality. Variation in nutritional/functional values among product types (raw and processed (dried, roasted, or seasoned) laver) makes product-specific nutritional analysis a prerequisite for accurate prediction of health benefits. The effects of drying, roasting, and seasoning on the contents of both beneficial and harmful substances highlight the importance of managing laver processing conditions. Most research into health benefits has focused on substances present at high concentrations in laver (porphyran, Vitamin B12, taurine), with assessment of the expected effects of laver consumption. Mitigation of chemical/microbiological risks and the adoption of novel technologies to exploit under-reported biochemical characteristics of lavers are suggested as key strategies for the further improvement of laver product quality. Comprehensive analysis of the literature regarding laver as a food product and as a source of biomedical compounds highlights the possibilities and challenges for application of laver products.
... Cobalamin is synthesized only by prokaryotes (Warren et al. 2002), and it has been shown that B 12 -synthesizing bacteria are closely associated with or reside on eukaryotic algal surfaces (Croft et al. 2005;Wagner-Döbler et al. 2010). Pyropia yezoensis (nori) contains up to ∼0.06 mg vitamin B 12 (100 g) −1 algal dry wt, comparable to that found in beef liver (Watanabe et al. 1999b;Takenaka et al. 2001). Lower levels are found in other sea vegetables such as kelps (including wakame) and hijiki, although reported concentrations vary among studies, possibly reflecting differences among strains, growing conditions, or harvesting periods (Watanabe et al. 1999a;Miyamoto et al. 2009). ...
... However, their very small treatment group (n = 5) may have been insufficient to draw firm conclusions. Takenaka et al. (2001) showed that feeding nori to vitamin B 12 -deficient rats yielded a 1.9-fold increase in hepatic levels of total B 12 compared to those without nori supplementation. Similarly, increased consumption of Chlorella or nori by vegan participants prevented B 12 deficiency (Rauma et al. 1995). ...
... For example, Yamada et al. (1999) showed that air-drying Pyropia tenera (asakusa-nori) produced B 12 analogs that are biologically inactive. Drying by lyophilization might have better nutritional outcomes (Takenaka et al. 2001), although this has yet to be rigorously demonstrated. Other factors of particular importance to preserving vitamin content include washing methods, storage temperature, light, and moisture content (Online Resource 1, Brown 1995;Jimenez-Escrig et al. 2001;Lage-Yusty et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches.
... Cobalamin is synthesized only by prokaryotes (Warren et al. 2002), and it has been shown that B 12 -synthesizing bacteria are closely associated with or reside on eukaryotic algal surfaces (Croft et al. 2005;Wagner-Döbler et al. 2010). Pyropia yezoensis (nori) contains up to ∼0.06 mg vitamin B 12 (100 g) −1 algal dry wt, comparable to that found in beef liver (Watanabe et al. 1999b;Takenaka et al. 2001). Lower levels are found in other sea vegetables such as kelps (including wakame) and hijiki, although reported concentrations vary among studies, possibly reflecting differences among strains, growing conditions, or harvesting periods (Watanabe et al. 1999a;Miyamoto et al. 2009). ...
... However, their very small treatment group (n = 5) may have been insufficient to draw firm conclusions. Takenaka et al. (2001) showed that feeding nori to vitamin B 12 -deficient rats yielded a 1.9-fold increase in hepatic levels of total B 12 compared to those without nori supplementation. Similarly, increased consumption of Chlorella or nori by vegan participants prevented B 12 deficiency (Rauma et al. 1995). ...
... For example, Yamada et al. (1999) showed that air-drying Pyropia tenera (asakusa-nori) produced B 12 analogs that are biologically inactive. Drying by lyophilization might have better nutritional outcomes (Takenaka et al. 2001), although this has yet to be rigorously demonstrated. Other factors of particular importance to preserving vitamin content include washing methods, storage temperature, light, and moisture content (Online Resource 1, Brown 1995;Jimenez-Escrig et al. 2001;Lage-Yusty et al. 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Global demand for macroalgal and microalgal foods is growing, and algae are increasingly being consumed for functional benefits beyond the traditional considerations of nutrition and health. There is substantial evidence for the health benefits of algal-derived food products, but there remain considerable challenges in quantifying these benefits, as well as possible adverse effects. First, there is a limited understanding of nutritional composition across algal species, geographical regions, and seasons, all of which can substantially affect their dietary value. The second issue is quantifying which fractions of algal foods are bioavailable to humans, and which factors influence how food constituents are released, ranging from food preparation through genetic differentiation in the gut microbiome. Third is understanding how algal nutritional and functional constituents interact in human metabolism. Superimposed considerations are the effects of harvesting, storage, and food processing techniques that can dramatically influence the potential nutritive value of algal-derived foods. We highlight this rapidly advancing area of algal science with a particular focus on the key research required to assess better the health benefits of an alga or algal product. There are rich opportunities for phycologists in this emerging field, requiring exciting new experimental and collaborative approaches. Open Access: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10811-016-0974-5
... AdoCbl, MeCbl and H 2 OCbl + (H 2 OCbl + ↔ HOCbl + H + ; pK a = 7.8) (140) are the major cobalamin metabolites isolated from biological samples (141)(142)(143)(144). Sulfitocobalamin (SO 3 Cbl -) is also isolable from mammalian cells and foods (45,48,(143)(144)(145)(146)(147)(148)(149)(150)(151), and there are also reports on the isolation of nitrocobalamin (NO 2 Cbl) from biological sources (145,152). Whether or not cyanocobalamin is truly "naturally occurring" is controversial; ...
... It was also of interest to see whether the synthetic procedure could be used to synthesize other non-thiol cobalamin derivatives, such as the sodium salt of sulfitocobalamin (Na[SO 3 Cbl]). Although SO 3 Cbl is isolable from biological samples (145)(146)(147)(148)(149)(150)(151)(152), and is well studied and structurally characterized (86,87,155,161,166,167,(179)(180)(181)(182)(183)(184)(185)(186)(187), it is not commercially available. ...
... SO3 Cblis a biologically important B 12 metabolite(145)(146)(147)(148)(149)(150)(151), and there are several reports concerning the synthesis and isolation of this derivative(149,165,201). These Plots of k obs vs pH for the decomposition of RSCbls. ...
Thesis
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Cobalamins (vitamin B12 derivatives) are essential cofactors for two enzymes in mammals: cytosolic methionine synthase and mitochondrial methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. In addition to its function as cofactor, a further role as a modulator of inflammatory and immune processes has been suggested for vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a major health problem in the US population, especially amongst the elderly. The vascular endothelium lacks the transsulfuration pathway and hence, relies solely on the B12-dependent methionine synthase to metabolize homocysteine. Thus, vitamin B12 deficiency is the primary modifiable cause of hyperhomocysteinemia, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, in the post folate fortification era. Although vitamin B12 has been studied for over half a century, there remains much to be discovered regarding the biochemical pathways that lead to the synthesis of the cobalamin cofactors and the potential roles of vitamin B12 beyond its function as cofactors of methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. This research project has been designed to shed light on the key intermediates required for the metabolism of B12 in human cardiovascular cells and the effects of B12 status on vascular pathophysiology, independent of its actions as an enzymatic cofactor.
... The media contained 16.0 g of NaHCO 3 , 0.5 g of K 2 HPO 4 , 2.5 g of NaNO 3 , 1.0 g of K 2 SO 4 , 1.0 g of NaCl, 0. The suspension cultures were scaled up serially from a 150 mL Erlenmeyer flask, 5 L carboy, an inoculum pond of 500 L, and then to 5000 L in race way ponds (15). The biomass was harvested by gravity filtration, washed twice with distilled water, lyophilized, and stored at -80°C until use for effective stability of vitamin B 12 (16). ...
... True forms of vitamin B 12 are hydoxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, and methylcobalamin, which are unstable during extraction upon exposure to light. To stabilize these true forms, many researchers have used cyanide to form a stable molecule of cyanocobalamin and, therefore, also in the extraction of vitamin B 12 in S. platensis (13,16). Use of cyanide in the extraction procedure will not help in identifying true forms of vitamin B 12 , because cyanide converts all natural forms to cyanocobalamin. ...
... Biologically active vitamin B 12 compounds, such as hydoxocobalamin, sulphitocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin, and methylcobalamin, were reported in Porphyra yezoensis, commonly known as purple laver (16). Yamada et al. (26) have also reported that methylcobalamin is predominantly found in a purple laver. ...
Article
The present study reports methylcobalamin in Spirulina platensis using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin-layer chromatography (TLC), microbiological assay, chemiluminescence assay, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Extraction of vitamin B12 from S. platensis was carried out without using cyanide. Partial purification was achieved using Amberlite XAD-2 followed by elution with 80% (v/v) methanol. Activated charcoal facilitated removal of impurities in S. platensis extract and in further purification of vitamin B12. The purified fraction was identified to contain methylcobalamin as analyzed by HPLC and TLC. Authenticity of methylcobalamin was further confirmed by LC-MS and MS/MS. Quantitation of methylcobalamin in a test sample of S. platensis biomass was performed using microbiological assay and chemiluminescence assay and was found to be 38.5±2 and 35.7±2 μg/100 g of dry biomass, respectively.
... While some studies hypothesized that algal-derived vitamin B 12 was not bioavailable to humans [179], other authors showed that increased consumption of Chlorella or nori by vegan people prevented B 12 deficiency [177]. Also, feeding nori to vitamin B 12 -deficient rats yielded a 1.9-fold increase in hepatic levels of total B 12 compared to those without nori supplementation [180]. Therefore, algal foods offer one of the few vegetarian alternatives for cobalamin in the diet [181]. ...
... Studies combining the analysis of vitamin concentrations together with testing algal product as food complements or functional food are needed to enhance the role of microalgae as food complements [180]. Also, the evaluation of the digestibility of microalgal biomass is required. ...
... While some studies hypothesized that algal-derived vitamin B 12 was not bioavailable to humans [179], other authors showed that increased consumption of Chlorella or nori by vegan people prevented B 12 deficiency [177]. Also, feeding nori to vitamin B 12 -deficient rats yielded a 1.9-fold increase in hepatic levels of total B 12 compared to those without nori supplementation [180]. Therefore, algal foods offer one of the few vegetarian alternatives for cobalamin in the diet [181]. ...
... Studies combining the analysis of vitamin concentrations together with testing algal product as food complements or functional food are needed to enhance the role of microalgae as food complements [180]. Also, the evaluation of the digestibility of microalgal biomass is required. ...
Article
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Background Vitamins’ deficiency in humans is an important threat worldwide and requires solutions. In the concept of natural biofactory for bioactive compounds production, microalgae represent one of the most promising targets filling many biotechnological applications, and allowing the development of an eco-sustainable production of natural bioactive metabolites. Vitamins are probably one of the cutting edges of microalgal diversity compounds. Main text Microalgae can usefully provide many of the required vitamins in humans, more than terrestrial plants, for instance. Indeed, vitamins D and K, little present in many plants or fruits, are instead available from microalgae. The same occurs for some vitamins B (B12, B9, B6), while the other vitamins (A, C, D, E) are also provided by microalgae. This large panel of vitamins diversity in microalgal cells represents an exploitable platform in order to use them as natural vitamins’ producers for human consumption. This study aims to provide an integrative overview on vitamins content in the microalgal realm, and discuss on the great potential of microalgae as sources of different forms of vitamins to be included as functional ingredients in food or nutraceuticals for the human health. We report on the biological roles of vitamins in microalgae, the current knowledge on their modulation by environmental or biological forcing and on the biological activity of the different vitamins in human metabolism and health protection. Conclusion Finally, we critically discuss the challenges for promoting microalgae as a relevant source of vitamins, further enhancing the interests of microalgal “biofactory” for biotechnological applications, such as in nutraceuticals or cosmeceuticals.
... However some freshwater green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Watanabe et al. 1991) and Chlorella vulgaris (Watanabe et al. 1997) contain vitamin B 12 . When dried purple lavers were fed to vitamin B 12 deficient rat, it was observed that the algal B 12 is bioavailable to rats (Takenaka et al. 2001). While in halotolerant green algae there is little information available on the B 12 content. ...
... To evaluate the forms of vitamin B 12 found in Dunaliella, the extraction was carried out in aqueous solution without cyanide. Lyophilized sample was used for extraction since it exhibited higher stability for biologically active vitamin B 12 (Takenaka et al. 2001). Forms of vitamin B 12 in lyophilized Dunaliella cells were determined after extracting the lyophilized algal cells in aqueous condition and purifying vitamin B 12 by passing the extract through Amberlite XAD-2 column and immunoaffinity column. ...
Article
Vitamin B12 is one of nature’s complex metabolite which is industrially produced using certain bacteria. Algae could be an alternative source of vitamin B12 and in this study, vitamin B12 from a halotolerant green alga, Dunaliella salina V-101 was purified and characterized. The extract of Dunaliella was purified by passing through Amberlite XAD-2 and EASI-extract vitamin B12 immunoaffinity column. The total vitamin B12 content in purified sample fractions was 42 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as determined by the chemiluminescence method which was almost close to 49 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight as estimated by microbiological method. Further quantification of total vitamin B12 using gold nanoparticle (AUNPs) based aptamer showed 40 ± 0.8/100 g dry weight. There was a good correlation among all the methods of quantification. Adenosylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 which is a cofactor for methylmalonyl CoA mutase was identified by HPLC. Upon quantification, Dunaliella was found to contain 34 ± 4 μg of adenosylcobalamin for 100 g dry biomass. Authenticity of adenosylcobalmin was confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) studies.
... Shaw and Liu [8] revealed this plant food as rich in iron. Takenaka et al. [9] reported purple laver as a good source of vitamin B 12 . So far, less information is available regarding its phytochemical composition. ...
... It is reported that purple laver contains iron and vitamin B 12 [8,9]. Our study found purple laver aqueous extract containing carotenoids and anthocyanins. ...
Article
Background: Purple laver ((Porphyra dentate) is a popular edible seaweed in Asia. This study examined protective effects of extract from purple laver extract (PLE) in diabetic mice. Methods: Content of carotenoids and anthocyanins in PLE was analyzed. PLE at 0.5 and 1% was supplied for 7 weeks. Results: PLE was rich in anthocyanins. PLE intake at 0.5 and 1% lowered plasma glucose level (P<0.05); only at 1% raised plasma insulin level, and decreased plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol levels (P<0.05). PLE treatments at 1% lowered hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol (P<0.05); it reduced renal reactive oxygen species level (P<0.05); retained renal glutathione level, maintaining renal glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities (P<0.05). Conclusion: Porphyra dentate aqueous extract could attenuate diabetic progression via anti-oxidative and lipid lowering effects. This seaweed could be considered as potent healthy food, and used for personalized medicine.
... The release of free Vitamin B 12 from the purple laver significantly decreased to approximately 2.5% at pH 7.0 (as a model of severe atrophic gastritis) [57]. Edible purple laver predominantly contains coenzyme forms (5′-deoxyadenosylcoblamin and methylcobalamin) of Vitamin B 12 or hydroxocobalamin (or both) [57][58][59]. ...
... To measure the biological activity of Vitamin B 12 in lyophilized purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis), the effects of laver feeding were investigated in Vitamin B 12 -deficient rats [58]. Urinary methylmalonic acid excretion was undetectable within 20 days of initiating a diet supplemented with dried purple laver (10 μg of Vitamin B 12 /kg diet), and the hepatic Vitamin B 12 (especially coenzyme Vitamin B 12 ) levels significantly increased. ...
Article
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The usual dietary sources of Vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, although a few plant-based foods contain substantial amounts of Vitamin B12. To prevent Vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians, it is necessary to identify plant-derived foods that contain high levels of Vitamin B12. A survey of naturally occurring plant-derived food sources with high Vitamin B12 contents suggested that dried purple laver (nori) is the most suitable Vitamin B12 source presently available for vegetarians. Furthermore, dried purple laver also contains high levels of other nutrients that are lacking in vegetarian diets, such as iron and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Dried purple laver is a natural plant product and it is suitable for most people in various vegetarian groups.
... Some studies have suggested that vitamin B 12 from algae is not bioavailable to humans [82]. However, other studies have found that C. vulgaris contains the active form of vitamin B 12 . ...
Article
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The beneficial properties of algae make them perfect functional ingredients for food products. Algae have a high energy value and are a source of biologically active substances, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and macro- and microelements. They are also rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, proteins, mycosporine-like amino acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, carotenoids, sterols, steroids, lectins, halogenated compounds, polyketides, alkaloids, and carrageenans. Different extraction parameters are used depending on the purpose and the substances to be isolated. In this study, the following parameters were used: hydromodule 1:10 and an extraction duration of 1–2 h at the extraction temperature of 25–40 °C. A 30–50% solution of ethanol in water was used as an extractant. Algae extracts can be considered as potential natural sources of biologically active compounds with antimicrobial activity and antiviral properties. The content of crude protein, crude fat, and carbohydrates in U. Prolifera, C. racemosa var. peltata (Chlorophyta), S. oligocystum and S. fusiforme (SF-1) was studied. It was found that C. muelleri (Bacillariophyta), I. galbana (Haptophyta), and T. weissflogii (Bacillariophyta) contain about 1.9 times more omega-3 than omega-6 fatty acids. N. gaditana (Ochrophyta), D. salina (Chlorophyta), P. tricornutum (Bacillaryophyta) and I. galbana (Haptophyta) extracts showed inhibitory activity of varying intensities against E. coli or P. aeruginosa. In addition, algae and algae-derived compounds have been proposed to offer attractive possibilities in the food industry, especially in the meat sector, to evolve functional foods with myriad functionalities. Algae can increase the biological activity of food products, while the further study of the structure of compounds found in algae can broaden their future application possibilities.
... Therefore, a comprehensive study which combines both these approaches need to be adopted for obtaining better insights on true potential of microalgae as a vitamin source [191]. ...
Article
Microalgae have been explored as a sustainable alternative to fuel and feed on natural resources. Microalgae possess numerous advantages over their renewable counterparts such as soybean and palm oil. It does not compete with agricultural land or freshwater for food crop production, making it a potential biofuel source. However, commercialisation of microalgae biodiesel is yet to make a presence in the billion-dollar biofuel industry due to the bottlenecks. These include rigid microalgae cell wall, low biomass concentration in the harvested culture and high downstream costs. Therefore, a fossil fuel-derived concept of refinery can be introduced to microalgae to overcome as aforementioned challenges. This project aims to focus on the algae downstream process for biorefinery applications. First, a novel biocomponent extraction method, named sugaring-out assisted liquid biphasic electric flotation (LBEF) system, for protein separation from Chlorella vulgaris was developed. High yield of proteins (69.66±0.86 %) was extracted from microalgae with a rapid and single-step process. Following this, a multiphase integrated system that focused on the extraction of two or more biomolecules in microalgae was introduced. This system focused on simultaneous component extraction rather than conventional cascade approach. The system were incorporated in two different studies. First study aimed to extract two biomolecules (protein and lipid), whereas second study focused on a concurrent three biomolecules extraction approach. The parameters of this system such as volume ratio of ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, flotation air flowrate, flotation time, ultrasound pulse settings and pH were optimised to achieve a high recovery of biomolecules. Highest yield of protein, lipids and carbohydrates were observed at 96.59±8.15 %, 61.02±0.91 % and 52.69±1.90 %, respectively. Control run without flotation technique resulted in lower yield of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates at 25.33±3.50 %, 52.96±4.59 % and 32.44±0.29 %, respectively. Whereas, control run without flotation and cell-disruption technique had lowest yield of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates at 16.73±1.26 %, 51.13±6.27 % and 26.21±0.23 %, respectively. Besides, a large-scale set-up up to 10-15 times was tested out. Recycling ability of the chemicals involved in the extraction were presented. Up to 90 % of the alcohols and salt used in the experiment were recycled. Lastly, the extracted proteins from the multiphase integrated system were purified and its application in wound healing of human keratinocyte cells was investigated. Proteins were adsorbed on a gelatine-glutaraldehyde membrane. This membrane system was used to observe the wound healing of keratinocytes. The biocompatibility, cell adhesion, proliferation and wound scratch of human keratinocyte cells were studied and presented. Overall, multiphase integrated system presented in this project serves as a successful demonstration of microalgae biorefinery concept. The improved yield of biomolecules provide potential applications of microalgae in biofuel, food and medicine field industry. Future studies should focus on analysis of life-cycle cost and optimising the operational cost required for this whole biorefinery set up. The project presented in this thesis offers a platform for future biorefinery research and possible commercial large-scale utilisation.
... Higher plants do not require or combine cobalamin [25]. Pyropia yezoensis contains as much as 0.06 mg of Vitamin B12 (100 g) −1 algal dry wt., almost identical to that observed in the liver of bovine animals [26]. Takenaka established that nourishing nori with Vitamin B12-deficient rats produced a 1.9fold increase in hepatic levels of aggregate B12 compared to those without nori supplementation. ...
Article
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Objective: The current investigation focuses on determining the vitamin content of marine red alga Champia parvula. Methods: Vitamins were divided and analyzed using Milichrom A-02 LC and multiwavelength ultraviolet visible as a detector. A 2 mm (ID)×250 mm (l) column was used to filter comprising C18 in the inverse stage used for separation. Results: The results suggest that the seaweed, C. parvula, contains 0.583±0.01, 3.43±0.01, 4.95±0.01, 1.95±0.01, 6.33±0.00, 174.74±0.01, and 15.75±0.01 μg of Vitamin A, B1, B5, folic acid, B12, C, and E, respectively, per gram of dry weight of the seaweed. Conclusion: The findings indicate that the seaweed, C. parvula, has a higher nutritional value and could be used as great dietary supplements for vitamins.
... In all the cases the consumption of nori supplied vitamin B12 needs and there were no significant differences between the experimental and the non-vegan age-matched control group in any of the analyzed parameters (Suzuki 1995). In 2001, the impact of feeding dried purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis) in rats with vitamin B12 deficiency significantly increased hepatic vitamin B12 and index of vitamin B12 deficiency became undetectable which indicates that this vitamin is bioavailable in rats (Takenaka et al. 2001). These preliminary results open an important research opportunity that has been forgotten in recent years. ...
Article
The strict connection between nutritional intake and health leads to a necessity of understanding the beneficial and protective role of healthy nutrients and foods. The marine environment is a source of a plethora of many organisms with unique properties, extremely rich in bioactive compounds and with remarkable potential for medical, industrial and biotechnological applications. Marine organisms are an extreme valuable source of functional ingredients such as polysaccharides, vitamins, minerals, pigments, enzymes, proteins and peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), phenolic compounds and other secondary metabolites that prevent or have the potential to treat several diseases given their cardiovascular protective, anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidant, anti-coagulant, anti-proliferative and anti-diabetic activities. This review provides an overview on the current advances regarding health benefits of marine bioactive compounds on several diseases and on human gut microbiota. In addition, it is discussed a crucial factor that is related to the effectiveness of these compounds on human organism namely its real bioavailability.
... Macrocystis pyrifera area good source of a-tocopherol and carotenoid b-carotene, whereas Codium fragile and Gracilaria chilensis contain good source of pro-vitamin A ( Ortiz et al., 2009;Skrovankova, 2011). Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlorella stigmatophora, Pyropia yezoensis and Tetraselmis suecica are good sources of Vitamin A and E which are lipid-soluble in nature; vitamins B 1 , B 2 , B 6 and B 12 are group-B vitamin (Fabregas & Herrero, 1990;Watanabe et al., 1999b;Takenaka et al., 2001). Fabregas and Herrero (1990) showed that Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlorella stigmatophora, Sargassum hemiphyllum and Ulva fasciata are good sources of vitamin C (McDermid & Stuercke, 2003). ...
... Because of their rich nutritional profile, there has been broad interest to explore these algae as a potential source of vitamin B 12 . While the macroalga nori has been recognized and validated as a source of bioavailable vitamin B 12 (Takenaka et al., 2001), the position of microalgae has remained unclear as a source of B 12 , especially from Spirulina. Though the microbiological assay showed the presence of a substantial amount of vitamin B 12 in microalgae Spirulina and Nostoc, based on the structure of the corrinoid compounds, it was suggested that the microalgal vitamin B 12 is a pseudo form (Watanabe et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Spirulina evaluated as a source of vitamin B12 through the modulation of vitamin B12 deficiency mediated physiological and biochemical changes in experimental animals. The B12 deficient male weanling Wistar rats were fed with Spirulina‐supplemented diet for 10 weeks. An increase in urinary methylmalonic acid (22.70 ± 4.08 µmol/moles of creatinine) and plasma homocysteine (16.55 ± 0.48 µmol/L) levels in the B12 deficient group was observed, while these were equal to control in the Spirulina fed group (8.71 ± 0.48 µmol/mol of creatinine and 6.88 ± 1.18 µmol/L, respectively). The vitamin B12 levels in serum (874.27 ± 89.69), plasma (615.53 ± 26.5 pg/ml), kidney (10.19 ± 1.066 ng/g), and liver tissues (6.37 ± 0.62 ng/g) in the Spirulina fed group were similar to control. Severe atrophic changes in the testes and altered tissue architecture in lung and spleen as seen in the B12 deficient group were normalized in the Spirulina fed group. The study validates that Spirulina can improve the vitamin B12 status. Practical applications The present study showed that the supplementation of Spirulina in the diet of vitamin B12 deficient rats leads to the normalization of vitamin B12 deficiency‐induced circulatory and functional biomarkers along with biochemical and histological changes. Vegetarian sources for vitamin B12 are limited and the results presented here provide scientific validation for the use of Spirulina as a potential vegetarian source of bioavailable vitamin B12.
... This result shows that algal food is an alternative source of vitamin B12 for the vegetarian population as most of the higher plants cannot synthesize B12 but it is prevalent in seaweed. A study conducted by Takenaka et al. [29] found that nori fed to vitamin B12 deficient rats had yielded 1.9-fold increase hepatic B12 levels compared to non-seaweed diet. ...
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There is a growing interest that bioactive compounds from seaweed can play a major therapeutic role in disease prevention in humans. Seaweed bioactives including polysaccharides, pigments, fatty acids, polyphenols and peptides have been proven to possess various beneficial biological properties that could potentially contribute to functional food and nutraceutical development. These bioactive are explored for functional properties such as antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, antitumor, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties, both in an in-vitro and in-vivo model system. This review critically examines the existing scientific knowledge on primary and secondary metabolites from seaweed and their functional properties for health-related conditions. It presents an update on the most recent evidence relating to their effect on health-related conditions and their action on cellular metabolism. Recent advancement and challenges for seaweed bioactive as a nutraceutical in relation to their biocompatibility and bioavailability to understand their therapeutic development is discussed. Keywords: Functional ingredients, Glucose metabolism, Lipid metabolism, Macroalgae, Bioavailability
... Nori seaweed (Porphyra sp.) has been found to be especially rich in the B complex of vitamins including vitamins B6 and B12. In addition, seaweeds varieties are rich sources of vitamin C and vitamin-A precursors, such as β-carotene [McDermid and Stuercke, 2003], [Takenaka et al., 2001], [Watanabe et al., 2002]. Though the Red Sea is diversified with Seaweeds, almost no information is available about the nutritional value of the seaweeds in Eritrea. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the preliminary information of proximate composition of the seaweeds collected from the Red Sea coast of Massawa, Eritrea. The proximate composition (moisture, protein, total soluble carbohydrates, lipids, fiber and ash) of three abundant samples; Enteromorpha clathrata, Gracilaria corticata and Sargassum linearifolium were analyzed. It was observed that the moisture content was high, ranging from 85.28% to 90.88%. High content was found in red seaweed G. corticata and minimum in brown seaweed S. linearifolium. Carbohydrate content of seaweeds ranged from 23.53% to 28.97%. The maximum carbohydrate was recorded in the green seaweed E. clathrata and the brown seaweed S. linearifolium recorded the minimum value. Quantitative analysis of protein content ranged from 6.93% to 13.64%. High protein was found in the green seaweed E. clathrata and low in the brown seaweed S. linearifolium. The lipid content varied from 0.20% to 1.42%, high in brown seaweed S. linearifolium and lower in red seaweed G. corticata. Ash content was observed to range from 51.16% to 26.86%. The maximum ash content was recorded in red seaweed G. corticata and the brown seaweed S. linearifolium recorded the minimum content. The fiber content ranged from 19.97% to 4.37%; high in brown algae S. linearifolium and lower in red algae G. corticata. The moisture and ash contents were recorded higher in red seaweed G. corticata than E. clathrata and S. linearifolium. The results of the present work indicates that, the seaweeds from the Red Sea are an alternative nutritional source. Various environmental factors as well as climatic changes affect the seaweed composition; especially minerals present in Red Sea coast are the major parameters for the ash content. Introduction:
... 93 B 12 from dried nori is significantly absorbed and functional in B 12 -depleted rats. 94,95 Green algae ...
Article
Vitamin B 12 is synthesized only by certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants. The synthesized vitamin B 12 is transferred and accumulates in animal tissues, which can occur in certain plant and mushroom species through microbial interaction. In particular, the meat and milk of herbivorous ruminant animals (e.g. cattle and sheep) are good sources of vitamin B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire vitamin B 12 , which is considered an essential nutrient, through a symbiotic relationship with the bacteria present in their stomachs. In aquatic environments, most phytoplankton acquire vitamin B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, and they become food for larval fish and bivalves. Edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of vitamin B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. Thus, humans acquire vitamin B 12 formed by microbial interaction via mainly ruminants and fish (or shellfish) as food sources. In this review, up-to-date information on vitamin B 12 sources and bioavailability are also discussed. Impact statement To prevent vitamin B 12 (B 12 ) deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify foods that contain high levels of B 12 . B 12 is synthesized by only certain bacteria and archaeon, but not by plants or animals. The synthesized B 12 is transferred and accumulated in animal tissues, even in certain plant tissues via microbial interaction. Meats and milks of herbivorous ruminant animals are good sources of B 12 for humans. Ruminants acquire the essential B 12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria inside the body. Thus, we also depend on B 12 -producing bacteria located in ruminant stomachs. While edible plants and mushrooms rarely contain a considerable amount of B 12 , mainly due to concomitant bacteria in soil and/or their aerial surfaces. In this mini-review, we described up-to-date information on B 12 sources and bioavailability with reference to the interaction of microbes as B 12 -producers.
... Vitamin B12 belongs to the corrinoid group and is usually restricted to cyanocobalamin although microbiological method may also detect other corrinoids non bioavailable for humans known as pseudo-vitamin B12 (Watanabe et al., 1999). Five types of biologically active B12 compounds were detected in P. yezoensis in which active B12 coenzymes comprised about 60% Table 5. Fucose (g kg -1 ), vitamin B12 (mg kg -1 ) and vitamin C (mg kg -1 ) contents of nine edible marine algae (n ¼ 3 AE SD) Food Science and Technology International 0(0) of the total B12 (Takenaka et al., 2001). Similarly, high contents (5013-2857 mg kg -1 ) of active vitamin B12 were found in chlorella tablets . ...
Article
The main nutritional/bioactive compounds (protein; aminoacids, AA; fucose; minerals; vitamins B12 and C; and total phenolic content, TPC) of nine commercial algae powders, used as food supplements, were studied. Undaria pinnatifida showed the highest protein/aminoacid contents (51.6/54.4 g 100 g–1). Among brown macroalgae, Himanthalia elongata showed the highest fucose content (26.3 g kg⁻¹) followed by Laminaria ochroleuca (22.5 g kg⁻¹). Mineral contents of 15–24% were observed in the algae, being particularly excellent sources of iodine (69.0–472.0 mg kg⁻¹). Porphyra spp. and Palmaria palmata showed the highest vitamin B12 contents (667–674 µg kg⁻¹). Vitamin C ranged among 490.4–711.8 mg kg–1. H. elongata showed the highest total phenolic content (14.0 g kg–1). In conclusion, the studied algae are excellent sources of protein, AA, minerals, vitamin C and some of them presented particularly high vitamin B12 and fucose contents, which may have a potential use as food supplements.
... [48][49][50][51] Accordingly, active vitamin B12 coenzymes comprised about 60% of total vitamin B12 in nori and Chlorella supplements. 52 Accordingly, the total vitamin B12 contained in 250 g portions of Chlorella and Spirulina smoothies stored for 24 days at 5 ∘ C represents 475% and 245% of the recommended vitamin B12 daily intake, which would lead to full coverage of the needed biologically active B12 levels. . Vitamin C (mg kg −1 ) of fresh fruit/vegetable smoothies with or without algae fortification stored at 5 ∘ C (n = 5 ± SD). ...
Article
Background: Some algae are an excellent source of vitamin B12, of special interest for vegetarian/vegan consumers, and of fucose to supplement fruit and vegetables beverages like smoothies. Nevertheless, the algae supplementation of smoothies may lead to possible quality changes during smoothie shelf life that needs to be studied. Therefore, the quality changes of fresh green smoothies supplemented (2.2%) with 9 edible algae (sea lettuce, kombu, wakame, thongweed, dulse, Irish moss, nori, spirulina and chlorella) were studied throughout 24 days at 5°C. Results: The initial vitamin C content (238.7-326.0 mg kg(-1) fw) of a 200 g-portion of any of the smoothies ensured a full coverage of its recommended daily intake, being still covered a 50-60% of the recommended intake after 7 days. Chlorella and spirulina-smoothies showed the highest vitamin B12 content (33.3 and 15.3 μg kg(-1) fw, respectively) while brown algae showed fucose contents of 141.1-571.3 mg kg(-1) fw. Such vitamin B12 and fucose contents were highly maintained during shelf-life. Conclusion: The spirulina supplementation of a 200 g-smoothie portion ensured a full coverage of the recommended vitamin B12 intakes with lower vitamin C degradation during a shelf-life of 17 days. Furthermore, thongweed and kombu are also considered as excellent fucose sources with the same shelf-lives.
... The typical carbohydrates in brown algae varieties consist of fucoidan, laminaran (b-1.3-glucan), cellulose, alginates, and mannitol [20]. The fatty acids content of marine macroalgae accounts for 1-6 g/100 g d.w. ...
Article
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Marine algae are well-known as a functional food for their richness in lipids, minerals, certain vitamins and also several bioactive substances like polysaccharides, proteins and polyphonies. Thus, the brown alga was analyzed for its biochemical properties for rich source of all essential nutrients which is promising as a source of pharmacognosical value. In the present study, brown alga Lobophora variegata was studied for the biochemical properties, such as Carbohydrates, protein, lipids, vitamins, sterols, fatty acid and minerals composition were carried out by using gas chromatography method and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry method respectively. Among biochemical content total protein were present in higher quantity 23.13 ± 0.05%, followed by total carbohydrates-19.34 ± 0.10% and total lipid-0.27± 0.5%. Also the experimental alga were rich in vitamins (especially vitamin C), Fatty acids (Omega fatty acid), and minerals (calcium) respectively. Comparatively the sterols also been noted. Thus, the results of biochemical composition of marine brown alga seem to be more valuable for the nutraceutical as well as pharmaceutical industry as a potential source.
... 61 Takenaka et al. fed dried purple laver (Pyropia) to vitamin B12-deficient rats, and the results showed a significantly improved vitamin B12 status of rats. 62 Another investigation from this group indicated that the compounds they obtained from Pyropia were identical to those of authentic vitamin B12, but not to those of vitamin B12 analogs inactive for humans. 63,64 Miyamoto et al. also stated that Porphyra products would be excellent vitamin B12 sources for humans, especially vegetarians. ...
Article
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Porphyra sensu lato belongs to Bangiales, the most genetically diverse order of red algae. Porphyra or Pyropia is widely cultivated in East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea. Dried Porphyra contains numerous nutritional and biofunctional compounds, including proteins, minerals, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, carotenoids, saccharides, and mycosporine-like amino acids. In addition, the compound is most abundant in Porphyra, such as polysaccharides and phycobiliproteins, and demonstrates various immunomodulating, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities. This review summarizes our current knowledge concerning the pharmacologically active substances found in Porphyra species. The biological activities and potential applications of certain carbohydrates, proteins, peptides, and other small molecules purified from Porphyra are also described, and possible areas for future studies are discussed.
... The recommended daily allowance of vitamin B 12 for adults is set at 2.4 lg/d (Institute of Medicine 1998). In a feeding trial with B 12 -deficient rats, Takenaka et al. (2001) showed that B 12 from freshly collected, lyophilized purple laver (Porphyra sp.) was bioavailable under the conditions of that study. The rats were given free access to the experimental diet and fresh water for 20 d, and in this manner of feeding, the B 12 -deficient rats were able to overcome their deficiency status. ...
Article
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Many of the pathologies leading to premature death from cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in humans are influenced by an individual's nutritional habitus. Diet-related risk factors for these pervasive, noncommunicable diseases include obesity, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, diabetes, and disproportionate cellular free-radical production. CVDs are the number one cause of premature death globally, and effective methods for ameliorating CVD risk factors associated with diet should be a primary target. Although various intervention strategies are being developed and implemented, such as healthy lunch programs, improved menus in school cafeterias, and government mandates for food manufacturers regarding the reduction of salt and trans fats in processed products, a broader, more universal approach is in order. The proliferation and ready availability of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and the powerful marketing tools used by multinational food companies seriously compromise the health and wellness potential of a significant proportion of the global population. In this review, some of the underlying mechanisms contributing to cardiovascular health are discussed in terms of human nutritional status. Unhealthy plasma cholesterol levels, obesity, nutritional energy imbalances, and inflammatory responses are identified as some of the likely precursors in the manifestation of cardiovascular issues. The favourable therapeutic impact dietary macroalgae could have by the provision of robust antioxidant suites, macro-and micronutritional elements, fibre content, and fatty acid profiles makes seaweeds viable and important contenders for involuntary intervention strategies related to food manufacturing. These components are discussed in relation to their functionality with respect to human health, and numerous edible macroalgae, such as Hypnea charoides, Mastocarpus stellatus, Palmaria palmata, Laminaria japonica, and Ulva pertusa are mentioned in light of their amelioration value. Opportunities for the practical utilization of marine macroalgae into ordinary foodstuffs are highlighted.
... Laver is one of the edible seaweeds and a mineral-rich food with superior nutritional and functional characteristics (17,23), which contains high levels of essential amino acids (e.g., isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, and valine) (2), polysaccharides (e.g., agar, carrageenan, and porphyran) (26), taurine (21), and vitamin B (24). These ingredients are known to be helpful for reducing hardening of the arteries, controlling high blood pressure, and promoting the proliferation of probiotics (9). ...
Article
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Microbiological quality of laver, one of the edible seaweeds, has not been reported in a real processing line. Laver or supplements were collected from six manufacturers (A to F) to assess potential microbiological hazards and the critical control points in commercial processing lines. Aerobic plate counts (APC), coliform counts, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were enumerated, and the presence of B. cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, S. aureus, and V. parahaemolyticus were confirmed during processing. The raw material, i.e., dried laver, had a high initial APC level (4.4 to 7.8 log CFU/g), which decreased gradually during processing (final products, 1.3 to 5.9 log CFU/g). Coliforms and B. cereus were not detected in any of the final products, but they were present in some raw materials and semiprocessed products in quantitative analysis. After enrichment for recovery of stress-injured cells, E. coli and foodborne pathogens were not detected in any samples, with the exception of B. cereus. Heat-injured and spore-forming B. cereus isolates were occasionally obtained from some of the raw materials and products after enrichment, thus B. cereus may be a potential microbiological hazard that should be controlled using strategic intervention measures. Secondary roasting (260 to 400°C, 2 to 10 s) significantly reduced the APC (maximum log reduction, 4.7 log CFU/g), and this could be a key intervention step for controlling microbiological hazards during processing (critical control point). When this step was performed appropriately, according to the processing guide for each plant, the microorganisms were inactivated more successfully in the products. This study provides scientific evidence that may facilitate the development of strategies for microbiological hazard control and hygienic management guidelines for real manufacturing plants.
... It is for this reason that vegetarians, and especially vegans, are more commonly found to have low serum levels of cobalamin (Antony, 2003). The edible macroalga Porphyra yezoensis (commonly known as purple laver or nori) has been found to contain corrinoid levels sufficient to reverse the effects of cobalamin deficiency in rats (Takenaka et al., 2001). Cobalamin has also been reported to be present at lower levels in other non-animal foods including other edible algae, some mushrooms, and fermented foods such as tempe, kimchi, and tea (Watanabe et al., 2014). ...
Article
The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities toward stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate funda- mental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities.
... 70,71 To measure the biological activity of B 12 in lyophilized purple laver (Porphyra yezoensis), the effects of laver feeding were investigated in B 12 -deficient rats. 72 Within 20 days of initiating a diet supplemented with dried purple laver (10 μg of B 12 /kg diet), urinary methylmalonic acid excretion became undetectable, and hepatic B 12 (especially coenzyme B 12 ) levels increased significantly. These results indicate that B 12 from the purple laver is bioavailable in rats. ...
Article
The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and in conjunction to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.
... In addition, seaweed varieties are rich sources of vitamin C, vitamin B-complex, e.g., folic acid and B12, and vitamin A precursors, such as b-carotene (McDermid & Stuercke, 2003;Takenaka et al., 2001;Watanabe et al., 1999, Watanabe, Takenaka, Kittaka-Katsura, Ebara, & Miyamoto, 2002Yamada, Yamada, Fukuda, & Yamada, 1999;Yon & Hyun, 2003). ...
Article
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The nutritional compositions of 34 edible seaweed products of the Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, Hizikia fusiforme and Porphyra sp. varieties were analyzed.This study determined amino acid and fatty acid (FA) distributions and contents of protein, fat, and total fibre of these seaweed varieties. In general, the marine macroalgae varieties tested demonstrated low lipid contents with 2.3 ± 1.6 g/100 g semi-dry sample weight (s.w.) and proved to be a rich source of dietary fibre (46.2 ± 8.0 g/100 g s.w). The pure protein content of seaweed products varied widely (26.6 ± 6.3 g/100 g s.w. in red algae varieties and 12.9 ± 6.2 g/100 g s.w. in brown algae varieties). All essential amino acids were detected in the seaweed species tested and red algae species featured uniquely high concentrations of taurine when compared to brown algae varieties. Interestingly, the FA distribution of seaweed products showed high levels of n-3 FA and demonstrated a nutritionally ideal n-6/n-3 FA ratio. The predominante FA in various seaweed products was eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5, n-3) which was at concentrations as high as 50% of total FA content.
... Some edible algae, including laver, have already been reported to contain large amounts of vitamin B 12 [45,48], though there are debates regarding the bioavailability of vitamin B 12 in seaweeds [49][50][51]. However, the high consumption of dried seaweeds such as laver by Koreans would, nonetheless, still be partly responsible for the normal status of the vitamin B 12 [52,53]. ...
Article
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Human longevity can be explained by a variety of factors, among them, nutritional factor would play an important role. In our study of Korean centenarians for their longevity, the apparent nutritional imbalance in the traditional semi-vegetarian diet raised a special attention, especially on vitamin B(12) status, supplied by animal foods. Interestingly, we found that the prevalence of vitamin B(12) deficient Korean centenarians was not higher compared with those from Western nations with animal-oriented traditional foods. We assumed that there might be some unveiled sources for vitamin B(12) in the Korean traditional foods. Screening of vitamin B(12) contents has revealed that some traditional soybean-fermented foods, such as Doenjang and Chunggukjang, and seaweeds contain considerable amounts of vitamin B(12). Taken together, it can be summarized that the traditional foods, especially of fermentation, might be evaluated for compensation of the nutritional imbalance in the vegetable-oriented dietary pattern by supplying vitamin B(12), resulting in maintenance of health status.
... Some edible algae, including laver, have already been reported to contain large amounts of vitamin B12 [20,40]. Takenaka et al. [41] have demonstrated that the vitamin B12 in dried purple laver is bioavailable to mammals. This study has some limitations. ...
Article
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Recently, we found and analyzed vitamin B(12) in some Korean traditional plant foods which had not reported, yet. This study was to investigate vitamin B(12) intake and its dietary sources and the vitamin B(12) status in the very old elderly Koreans. We measured serum vitamin B(12) level and estimated the amounts of vitamin B(12) intake from different dietary sources in female elderly Koreans aged 85 and over who had consumed a relatively low animal traditional diet for the whole life. The average age of the subjects (n = 127) was 98.0 years (85-108 years). The assessment on energy and nutrient intake involved a one-day 24-hour recall, and serum vitamin B(12) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Overall diet pattern was not different between the 85-99 yr-old group and centenarians, except centenarians were taking more dairy product. The average ratio of plant food to animal food consumption was 87.5:12.5 in weight. The average vitamin B(12) intake of our subjects was 3.2 microg/day, and 52.7% of subjects consumed under estimated average requirement, 2.0 microg/day. On dietary source, 67.3% of dietary vitamin B(12) was from meat, eggs and fishes and 30.6% was from plant foods, such as soybean-fermented foods, seaweeds, and kimchi. The average serum vitamin B(12) concentration was 450.5 pg/mL, and low serum vitamin B(12) (< 200 pg/mL) was found in 9.6% of subjects. Dietary vitamin B(12) intake was significantly lower in subjects with low serum vitamin B(12) (0.79 microg/day) than those with normal serum vitamin B(12) (3.47 microg/day). There were no significant difference in vitamin B(12) intake and its dietary sources and serum vitamin B(12) level between the 85-99 yr-old group and centenarians. In conclusion, several plant-origin foods including seaweed, soybean-fermented foods, and kimchi, may contribute significantly to good vitamin B(12) status in very old elderly Koreans.
... Thus, if food lowers MMA levels, it can be assumed to provide full vitamin B 12 activity [90]. Similarly, the bioavailability of vitamin B 12 in lyophilized purple laver was assessed by MMA excretion to find total vitamin B 12 and vitamin B 12 analog contents in the laver [91]. ...
Article
Vitamin B(12) is an organic compound containing cobalt and essential nutrient for all cell development and human growth. The daily requirements of vitamin B(12) are very low and deficiencies reported to be at picogram level, thus it necessitates detecting vitamin B(12) at high sensitivity in biological samples. It is also reported that several functional groups in the vitamin B(12) and analogs make more difficult to analyze in biological samples for routine analysis, as analogs are not useful for human metabolism. Many methods have been reported for its analysis like radioisotope, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, fluorimetric assay, capillary electrophoresis (CE) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). These conventional analytical techniques found to be time consuming, tedious, less safe, low sensitivity and expensive, where as combination of immuno-chemiluminescence and biosensor based analysis found to be ultra sensitive having wide application for the detection of vitamin B(12). This review aims to present a concise survey of articles for all analytical practitioners for better understanding in trends of analysis in vitamin B(12). The format selected for this survey divides coverage into various aspects like introduction of complexity in vitamin B(12) structure with challenges in extraction and analysis by various analytical methods followed by problems in raising antibody against vitamin B(12.) Within the scope of each of these areas, key articles have been selected to describe current practices in analysis of vitamin B(12) with proposed novel approaches.
Chapter
Edible algae, including seaweeds, are a source of functional food, dietary supplements, metabolites and bioactive compounds. Algal-based functional foods have potential health benefits, and their commercial value depends on their applications in the food and nutraceutical industries. This book covers several aspects of algal-based functional foods. It informs the reader about algal cultivation techniques, environmental impact, habitat, nutraceutical potential, extraction of bioactive metabolites, functional-food composition, bio-prospection, culture-induced nutraceutical compounds, algae-based bio-packaging, algal-biorefinery, toxicity, trends and future prospects. The editors present the topics in a research-oriented format while citing scholarly references. This book is a comprehensive resource for anyone interested in the nutritional benefits and industrial utilization of algae as a sustainable food source.
Chapter
Algae and a diverse array of photosynthetic protists have long been recognized as primary producer of aquatic ecosystem and as important sentinel for documentation of pollution status of both lotic and lentic habitats. However, from the later part of twentieth century, these algal forms inclusive of both micro- and macroscopic entities have been exploited as important sources of phytochemicals under in vitro conditions with significant commercial importance. These compounds like carotenoids and anthocyanins isolated from algal sources have found their applicability in both pharmaceutical industries and healthcare systems. A host of other compounds such as terpenoids, polysaccharides, vitamins, chlorophyllides, phlorotannins, and polyunsaturated fatty acid has been documented not only as antimicrobial compounds but also as antioxidants against oxidative stress generated through premature apoptosis of cancerous cells, cytotoxicity, and tumor formation. Thus, the present work puts forward a comprehensive documentation of different phytochemical compounds isolated from algal sources with nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. This work further attempts to envisage their biosynthetic pathways in selected taxa that have long been exploited as commercially important phytochemicals.
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Overpopulation and the pressure on land‐based resources have driven the aquaculture sector to increase its production since the 1980s. To address such demands, new aquafeed technologies have been developed relying on natural and artificial ingredients that are commercially viable. In addition, current global sustainable initiatives require feed technologies to reduce the pressure on limited wild fisheries and minimize negative environmental effects. Although there are numerous studies on abalone nutrition, most tend to focus on animal growth and nutrient utilization. A more holistic research approach to ensure a sustainable future for this industry will require the development of feeds that provide integrated nutrition and health benefits. In this review, we aim to synthesize the most recent scientific literature on the nutritional and health benefits and shortcomings of two main abalone feeding approaches (seaweed and formulated feeds) within aquaculture production practices. We also identify major research gaps and future directions for the development of sustainable abalone feeds.
Chapter
The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-derived foods, such as milk, meat, fish, and shellfish. Vitamin B12 is well known as the unusual vitamin that is absent from plant-derived foods. Thus, vegetarians are at high risk for vitamin B12 deficiency. It is necessary to identify vitamin B12-rich plant-derived foods to prevent vitamin B12 deficiency. Several kinds of edible seaweeds contained a substantial amount of vitamin B12. In particular, purple lavers (Porphyra spp.) are widely cultivated and have various products commercially available worldwide. This chapter deals with the characterization of vitamin B12 from edible seaweeds. The bioavailability of vitamin B12 from dried purple laver products is also discussed.KeywordsCobalaminEdible seaweedsPorphyra spp.Pseudovitamin B12Red algaeVitamin B12
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The book, written by a team of authors, describes the history of the development of research on algae and seagrasses, gives their general biological characteristics, shows areas of accumulation of the main reserves and methods of research of plant resources.
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The Korean government focuses attention on the branding of fisheries products to improve the competitive power of fisheries products, and to use regional brands as a part of fishery product branding. Accordingly, this paper examines the value of regional brands in the fishery product market, specifically seaweed, to identify price factors that reflect regional differences. The hedonic pricing method is used to examine the value of regional branding, and as a result of the analysis, geographical indication is expected to cause an approximate 30-40% increase in the unit price of sea mustard and sea tangle. Geographical indication is shown to have an effect on forming the value of a product, implying regional branding can improve competitiveness. JEL Classifications:D12, O13, R11
Article
Vitamin B12 is synthesized by only certain bacteria and archaea but not by animals or plants. In marine environments, bacterial vitamin B12 is transferred and concentrated into fish and shellfish bodies by plankton in the marine food chain. Moreover, marine macrophytic red algae, Porphyra spp. specifically contain substantial amounts of vitamin B12, due to microbial interaction. Although some meats or viscera of edible fish and shellfish are excellent sources of biologically active vitamin B12, an inactive corrinoid, pseudovitamin B12, was found in some edible shellfish using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. To prevent elderly people from developing vitamin B12 deficiency due to food protein-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption, we present a survey of marine foods containing free vitamin B12. The results of our study suggest that bonito and clam extracts (or soup stocks), which contain considerable amounts of free vitamin B12 are useful not only as seasonings and flavorings but also as excellent sources of free vitamin B12.
Article
Porphyra sp. (nori) is widely cultivated as an important marine crop. Dried nori contains numerous nutrients including vitamin B12, which is the only vitamin absent from plant-derived food sources. Vegetarian diets are relatively low in iron and vitamin B12; depletion of both causes severe anemia. Nori also contains considerable amounts of iron compared with other plant-derived foods and eicosapentaenoic acid, which is an important fatty acid found in fish oils. In nori, there are also many bioactive compounds exhibiting various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidative activities. These results suggest that the consumption of nori has benefits for human health.
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With the advent of modern biotechnology, microorganisms from diverse lineages have been used to produce bio-based feedstocks and bioactive compounds. Many of these compounds are currently commodities of interest, in a variety of markets and their utility warrants investigation into improving their production through strain development. In this review, we address the issue of strain improvement in a group of organisms with strong potential to be productive “cell factories”: the photosynthetic microalgae. Microalgae are a diverse group of phytoplankton, involving polyphyletic lineage such as green algae and diatoms that are commonly used in the industry. The photosynthetic microalgae have been under intense investigation recently for their ability to produce commercial compounds using only light, CO2, and basic nutrients. However, their strain improvement is still a relatively recent area of work that is under development. Importantly, it is only through appropriate engineering methods that we may see the full biotechnological potential of microalgae come to fruition. Thus, in this review, we address past and present endeavors towards the aim of creating productive algal cell factories and describe possible advantageous future directions for the field
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Nori, the dried sheets of Porphyra, is a popular edible seaweed and a potential source of high quality protein, vitamins, and minerals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of Nori has been investigated. For this purpose, an aqueous extract was obtained by soaking powdered Nori in KCl-HCl buffer and hydrolyzing it with pepsin. The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of crude as well as pepsin hydrolyzate was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, reducing power, total antioxidant capacity and lipid per oxidation by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and compared with L-ascorbic acid. After hydrolysis, the scavenging ability and inhibition of lipid per oxide was doubled, and a ~ 7 fold increase in reducing power activity was observed. The small molecular weight fractions (F-II) of hydrolyzate obtained after gel filtration showed further increase in the activity. These results demonstrate that hydrolysis produces better antioxidants that could be used as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants.
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During the last decade global production of marine macroalgae has increased rapidly due to expanding aquacultures. In Europe seaweed is used mainly by the textile, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The extracted polysaccharides of the algae are used in food products (e. g. dairy products, fruit juices, dressings, pudding, jam or tinned meat) as texturing, thicking and gel ling agents. There are three important types of carbohydrates (phycocolloids): agar-agar, carageenan and alginate. In the Asian countries, producing 80 % of the global algea, a considerable part is directly used for human nutrition. The high vitamin and mineral content of sea vegetables is their most obvious health benefit. Algae have more of vitamin A, B and C than fresh fruits and vegetables. They also contain more minerals than any other kind of food, and high levels of trace elements as iron or iodine. Seaweed hence is interesting especially for vegetarians. However, the vitamin content of different species varies with season, environmental conditions, freshness and method of preservation. In view of the limited nutrient supply from the terrestrial ecosystem, seaweed seems to be a promising food resource.
Article
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) belongs to group B vitamins soluble in water; it is an essential human nutrient - acts as a cofactor of two colalamin-dependent enzymes. A deficiency of cobalamin leads to anemia and neuropathy. Its recommended daily requirement for adults is 2-4 μg. Biosynthesis of cobalamin is nowadays restricted to certain bacteria and archaea; industrially is produced by selected and genetically optimized microorganisms, mainly by Propionibacterium shermanii and Pseudomonas denitrificans strains. Some plants and many animals including humans require cobalamin but do not synthetize it. Naturally rich source of cobalamin is food of animal origin: meat, fish, shellfish, milk and dairy products, eggs. In plant foods, substantial amounts of active form of cobalamin were found in certain species of edible algae-Enteromorpha sp. and Porphyra sp. (known as nori), in some eukaryotic microalgae (Chlorella sp.), edible mushrooms (e.g. Shiitake) and tempeh-fermented soya product. However, reliability of this plant sources remains uncertain.
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To evaluate the accessibility and function of phycoerythrin (a purple-pigment protein) found in purple laver (Porphyra sp.), antioxidant activity of the phycoerythrobilin compound (chromophore of the pigment protein) formed from the dried Korean purple lavers was determined by in vitro digestion. Results suggest that the apoprotein of phycoerythrin is readily digested to release the phycoerythrobilin compound during the gastrointestinal digestion process of mammals. The peroxy radical scavenging capacity was 2.7-fold greater in the phycoerythrobilin compound than in the purple laver extracts. The various therapeutic activities of phycoerythrin appear to be associated with the phycoerythrobilin compound released during mammalian gastrointestinal digestion.
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Vitamin B12 is among the most essential biomolecules required for crucial metabolic processes in humans. Vitamin B12 was extracted from Chlorella vulgaris biomass under aqueous conditions, partially purified by passing the extract through amberlite XAD-2, Sep-Pak columns, and further purified by HPLC. The target peak eluent was subjected to characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), selected ion recording (SIR) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and identified as methylcobalamin (Me-Cbl). Quantification of Me-Cbl was carried out by microbiological and chemiluminescence methods, and found to be 29.87 ± 2 μg/100 g and 26.84 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight, respectively. The presence of Me-Cbl was further substantiated using gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) based aptamer analysis, and found to be 28.02 ± 2 μg/100 g dry weight. Good similarity was observed among all the methods. Methylcobalamin, a form of vitamin B12 was identified in C. vulgaris and this finding enhances its use as a nutritional supplement.
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To evaluate why differences between the vitamin B-12 contents determined by both microbiological and intrinsic factor-chemiluminescence B-12 assay methods occur in some edible shellfish and algal foods, or how much loss of B-12 occurs in food during microwave heating, some B-12-compounds and their degradation products formed during microwave heating were purified and characterized using silica gel 60 thin layer chromatography. Although dried green and purple lavers (nori), some algal health foods, and most shellfish contained considerable amounts of true B-12, pseudovitamin B-12, an inactive B-12-compound, predominated in spirulina tablets. Significant loss of B-12 occurred in foods during microwave heating due to the conversion of B-12 to inactive B-12 degradation products. These results indicate that thin-layer chromatography has great advantages (simplicity, flexibility, speed, and relative inexpensiveness) for the separation and analysis of B-12 compounds in foods.
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Glycerol galactoside (GG; floridoside: 2-O-glycerol-α-d-galactopyranoside, and isofloridoside: 1-O-glycerol-α-d-galactopyranoside) is known to be a component of edible red seaweed nori. Recently, we have found that low-quality nori (color-faded nori), which has a low protein content, contains a large quantity of GG. From further studies, we have also found that GG has prebiotic characteristics in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the in vivo prebiotic activity of GG in rats. Dietary GG selectively increased the cecal Bifidobacterium count in rats. Other indices of prebiotics, such as pH of cecal content, organic acid concentrations, and fecal weight, also supported the existence of prebiotic activity of GG. The present data will also contribute to the development of a new method of utilizing color-faded nori as a health-promoting foodstuff. KeywordsGlycerol galactoside-Floridoside-Nori-Prebiotics
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The effect of algae (nori and spirulina) and fermented plant foods on the hematological status of vitamin B-12-deficient children was evaluated. Although rising plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations in children consuming only plant foods (0.1-2.7 micrograms vitamin B-12/d) indicated that the vitamin B-12 was absorbed, elevated baseline values of mean corpuscular volume (MCV) further deteriorated. In contrast, MCV improved in children receiving fish containing 0.15-0.5 microgram vitamin B-12/d or a vitamin B-12 supplement. Further studies on the specificity of current vitamin B-12 assays are warranted. It seems unjustified to advocate algae and other plant foods as a safe source of vitamin B-12 because its bioavailability is questionable.
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In vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) deficiency the metabolism of propionyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA are inhibited secondarily to decreased L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity. Production of acylcarnitines provides a mechanism for removing acyl groups and liberating CoA under conditions of impaired acyl-CoA utilization. Carnitine metabolism was studied in the vitamin B-12-deficient rat to define the relationship between alterations in acylcarnitine generation and the development of methylmalonic aciduria. Urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid was increased 200-fold in vitamin B-12-deficient rats as compared with controls. Urinary acylcarnitine excretion was increased in the vitamin B-12-deficient animals by 70%. This increase in urinary acylcarnitine excretion correlated with the degree of metabolic impairment as measured by the urinary methylmalonic acid elimination. Urinary propionylcarnitine excretion averaged 11 nmol/day in control rats and 120 nmol/day in the vitamin B-12-deficient group. The fraction of total carnitine present as short-chain acylcarnitines in the plasma and liver of vitamin B-12-deficient rats was increased as compared with controls. When the rats were fasted for 48 h, relative or absolute increases were seen in the urine, plasma, liver and skeletal-muscle acylcarnitine content of the vitamin B-12-deficient rats as compared with controls. Thus vitamin B-12 deficiency was associated with a redistribution of carnitine towards acylcarnitines. Propionylcarnitine was a significant constituent of the acylcarnitine pool in the vitamin B-12-deficient animals. The changes in carnitine metabolism were consistent with the changes in CoA metabolism known to occur with vitamin B-12 deficiency. The vitamin B-12-deficient rat provides a model system for studying carnitine metabolism in the methylmalonic acidurias.
Article
An assay for urinary methylmalonic acid by high-pressure liquid chromatography was devised. Methylmalonic acid could be assayed over a range of 5–80 μg by this method, which is one of the most convenient and useful assays for the acid in urine as an index of cobalamin deficiency.
Article
Rats were deprived of vitamin B12 in order to study the effect of this deprivation on the metabolism of lipids in the liver and the nervous system. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations of 102.7 and 78 pg/ml were found at sacrifice after 5 and 6 months, respectively. Neurological testing failed to reveal signs of neuropathy. The total liver lipids were decreased in the vitamin-B12-deprived animals, but no changes were detected in the lipid concentration or in the phospholipid composition of the nervous system. Some animals were given propionate, and in these, contrary to expectations, pentadecanoic acid and heptadecanoic acid were found in smaller amounts in the liver triglycerides of the vitamin-B12-deprived rats than in the control rats. This could be due to the inhibitory effect of methylmalonyl CoA on fatty-acid synthesis, demonstrated by others in vitro.Copyright © 1978 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article
A fully automated chemiluminescence analyzer for the determination of vitamin B12 in serum has been commercialized and clinically used. To determine the applicability of this apparatus in food analysis, vitamin B12 was assayed in foods by the chemiluminescent method, which was compared with a microbiological method. In shellfishes and spirulina, the values determined by the microbiological method were 6−8-fold greater than the values determined by the chemiluminescence method, although there was good similarity between the values by the two methods in other foods. Except for the shellfishes and spirulina, which contained substantial amounts of vitamin B12-substitutive compounds or inactive vitamin B12 analogues (or both), the observed correlation coefficient between the methods in the foods tested was excellent (r = 0.99, y = 1.2x − 1.1, n = 9). The chemiluminescence method was suitable for the determination of vitamin B12 in foods as well as in serum and was simpler (fully automated) and more rapid (180 samples analyzed per hour), highly selective (use of intrinsic factor, the most specific vitamin B12-binding protein), and reproducible (coefficients of variation of 1.2−6.7%) than the microbiological method. Keywords: Vitamin B12; bioassay; chemiluminescence; intrinsic factor; food
Article
Rats were deprived of vitamin B12 in order to study the effect of this deprivation on the metabolism of lipids in the liver and the nervous system. Serum vitamin B12 concentrations of 102.7 and 78 pg/ml were found at sacrifice after 5 and 6 months, respectively. Neurological testing failed to reveal signs of neuropathy. The total liver lipids were decreased in the vitamin-B12-deprived animals, but no changes were detected in the lipid concentration or in the phospholipid composition of the nervous system. Some animals were given propionate, and in these, contrary to expectations, pentadecanoic acid and heptadecanoic acid were found in smaller amounts in the liver triglycerides of the vitamin B12-deprived rats than in the control rats. This could be due to the inhibitory effect of methylmalonyl CoA on fatty-acid synthesis, demonstrated by others in vitro.
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A case of primary cardiac tumor with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLH) is presented. Sonographic examination at 32 weeks' gestation revealed a large tumor in the left ventricle of the fetal heart. The newborn died of congestive heart failure at 11 days of age. Autopsy demonstrated a large tumor in the left ventricle obliterating most of the left ventricular cavity, aortic atresia, and hypoplastic ascending aorta. Microscopically, the cardiac tumor showed "spider-cells" characteristics of rhabdomyoma.
Article
To elucidate vitamin B12 (cobalamin) metabolism in green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was labeled with radioactive cobalamin for 4 days. The Chlamydomonas cells did not require cobalamin for growth, but nevertheless took up and accumulated exogenous cobalamin. The level of the accumulated cobalamin reached a maximum (about 20 fmol/10(6) cells) at day 1 of the cell growth. The cobalamin accumulated by the 4-day cells was partly converted to the coenzymes (5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin, 20.7% and methylcobalamin, 4.8%). The cells contained NADH- and NADPH-linked aquacobalamin reductases (35.9 and 31.5 nmol/min per mg protein, respectively) involved in the synthesis of the coenzymes. Most of the accumulated cobalamin was associated with two heat-labile macromolecules; the coenzymes synthesized were recovered in the macromolecular fraction with a molecular weight of 230,000, while non-coenzyme forms (cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin) predominated in that with a molecular weight of 40,000. Evidence for de novo biosynthesis of cobalamin was also obtained in the alga, indicating that it has both ability to synthesize cobalamin and take up the exogenous vitamin.
Article
Rat liver contains both NADH- and NADPH-linked aquacobalamin reductases, which are involved in the synthesis of the vitamin B-12 coenzymes and are distributed in both the mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. To clarify the physiological roles of these hepatic enzymes, vitamin B-12-deficient rats were used to study the effect of the deficiency on the enzyme activities. Male rats fed a vitamin B-12-deficient diet for 11 wk developed a severe vitamin B-12 deficiency with a high urinary methylmalonate excretion (214.3 +/- 115.2 mumol/d) and approximately 96% lower hepatic vitamin B-12 content. Tissues of the vitamin B-12-deficient rats were assayed for NADH- and NADPH-linked aquacobalamin reductase activities. The specific activities of both enzymes in homogenates of liver, kidney or upper intestine were shown to be three- to 20-fold greater in the vitamin-deficient rats than in the control rats. In liver, the vitamin deficiency specifically elevated the specific activities of the mitochondrial NADH-linked and microsomal NADPH-linked enzymes. These are likely the isozymes involved in vitamin B-12 coenzyme synthesis.
Article
1. Administration of propionate caused a twofold increase in the concentrations of lactate and pyruvate in the blood of vitamin B(12)-deficient rats, whereas there was a slight decrease in lactate and a 50% increase in pyruvate in normal rats. 2. Concentrations of total ketone bodies in the blood of normal rats were not significantly altered by propionate administration but the [3-hydroxybutyrate]/[acetoacetate] ratio decreased from 3.0 to 2.0. In the vitamin B(12)-deficient rats there was a 40% decrease in total ketone bodies and a change in the ratio from 3.4 to 1.2. 3. The changes in the concentration of ketone bodies in freeze-clamped liver preparations were similar in pattern to those observed in blood. 4. Propionate administration caused a decrease in the concentration of acetyl-CoA in the livers of both groups of animals, but the absolute decrease was greater in the vitamin B(12)-deficient group. The decrease in the concentration of CoA was similar in both groups. 5. As in blood, there were threefold increases in the concentrations of lactate and pyruvate in the livers of the vitamin B(12)-deficient rats after propionate administration, whereas there was no significant change in the concentrations of these metabolites in the normal rats. 6. There was a 50% inhibition of glucose synthesis in perfused livers from vitamin B(12)-deficient rats when lactate and propionate were substrates as compared with lactate alone. 7. It is concluded that the conversion of lactate into glucose is inhibited in vitamin B(12)-deficient rats after propionate administration, and that this effect is due to inhibition of the pyruvate carboxylase step resulting from a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration and a postulated increase in methylmalonyl-CoA concentration.
Article
1. Kidney-cortex slices and the perfused livers of vitamin B(12)-deficient rats removed propionate from the incubation and perfusion media at 33 and 17% respectively of the rates found with tissues from rats receiving either a normal or a vitamin B(12)-supplemented diet. There was a corresponding fall in the rates of glucose synthesis from propionate in both tissues. 2. The addition of hydroxocobalamin or dimethylbenzimidazolylcobamide coenzyme to kidney-cortex slices from vitamin B(12)-deficient rats in vitro failed to restore the normal capacity for propionate metabolism. 3. Although the vitamin B(12)-deficient rat excretes measurable amounts of methylmalonate, no methylmalonate production could be detected (probably because of the low sensitivity of the method) when kidney-cortex slices or livers from deficient rats were incubated or perfused with propionate. 4. The addition of methylmalonate (5mm) to kidney-cortex slices from rats fed on a normal diet inhibited gluconeogenesis from propionate by 25%. 5. Methylmalonate formation is normally only a small fraction of the flux through methylmalonyl-CoA. This fraction increases in vitamin B(12)-deficient tissues (as shown by the urinary excretion of methylmalonate) presumably because the concentration of methylmalonyl-CoA rises as a result of low activity of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (EC 5.4.99.2). Slow removal of methylmalonyl-CoA might depress propionate uptake owing to the reversibility of the steps leading to methylmalonyl-CoA formation.
Article
This chapter discusses the measurement of tissue vitamin B12 by radioisotopic competitive inhibition assay and quantitation of tissue cobalamin fractions. In this method, the measurement of tissue vitamin B12 by the competitive inhibition approach requires an initial complete separation of all endogenous B12 from the tissue binders and the removal or inactivation of these binders. Because B12 in tissue exists as a group of coenzyme forms with differing affinities for tissue binding proteins and subcellular moieties, extraction of the tissue B12 from these binders is accomplished by vigorous boiling of the homogenate of tissue in an acetate–cyanide buffer. This also results in the conversion of all the B12 forms into that of cyanocobalamin. Prior to this extraction, addition of radiolabeled vitamin B12 ([57Co]B12) permits the determination of the recoverable B12 originally present. Analysis is accomplished by the subsequent incubation of these extracts with a predetermined amount of material with unsaturated B12 binding sites. The percentage of [57Co]B12 that is protein bound is inversely proportional to the total B12 concentration. The bound B12 can be removed by batch adsorption onto diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose and subsequent centrifugation or by adsorption onto coated charcoal. The percentage binding of any unknown can then be determined from previously prepared standard curves.
Article
The present study examined the vitamin B-12 status in long-term adherents of a strict uncooked vegan diet called the "living food diet." The study was comprised of two parts. In the cross-sectional part, the data on serum vitamin B-12 concentrations and dietary intakes in 21 (1 male, 20 females) long-term adherents (mean 5.2 y, range 0.7-14) of the "living food diet" were compared with those of 21 omnivorous controls matched for sex, age, social status and residence. In the longitudinal part of the study, food consumption data were collected and blood samples were taken from nine "living food eaters" (1 male, 8 females) on two occasions 2 y apart. The cross-sectional study revealed significantly (P < 0.001, paired t test) lower serum vitamin B-12 concentrations in the vegans (mean 193 pmol/L, range 35-408) compared with their matched omnivorous controls (311, 131-482). In the vegan group, total vitamin B-12 intake correlated significantly (r = 0.63, P < 0.01) with serum vitamin B-12 concentration. The vegans consuming Nori and/or Chlorella seaweeds (n = 16) had serum vitamin B-12 concentrations twice as high as those not using these seaweeds (n = 5) (mean 221 pmol/L, range 75-408, vs. 105, 35-252, P = 0.025). In the longitudinal study, six of nine vegans showed slow, but consistent deterioration of vitamin B-12 status over a 2-y observation period. On the basis of these results we conclude that some seaweeds consumed in large amounts can supply adequate amounts of bioavailable vitamin B-12.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The vitamin B12 (B12) content in seven species of seaweed that are consumed frequently in Hokkaido, Japan, was microbiologically measured using Escherichia coli 215. Asakusanori (Porphyra tenera), maruba-amanori (Porphyra suborbiculata) and akaba-gin-nansou (rhodo-glossum pulcherum) showed higher B12 content than the other species, although the content varied greatly among samples in the same species. A bioautography on a thin-layer plate holding a mixture of silica gel and cellulose, differentiation of B12 and its analogues using a binding specificity of intrinsic factor and haptocorrin, and comparison of the B12 concentration determined by the radioisotope dilution assay method using the intrinsic factor as the B12-binding protein with that by the bioassay method, predominantly showed B12 in maruba-amanori and B12 analogues in wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) and akaba-gin-nansou. The B12 uptake of akaba-gin-nansou from artificial seawater was similar to that of asakusanori that contained only B12.
Article
The vitamin B(12) concentration of an algal health food, spirulina (Spirulina sp.) tablets, was determined by both Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 microbiological and intrinsic factor chemiluminescence methods. The values determined with the microbiological method were approximately 6-9-fold greater in the spirulina tablets than the values determined with the chemiluminescence method. Although most of the vitamin B(12) determined with the microbiological method was derived from various vitamin B(12) substitutive compounds and/or inactive vitamin B(12) analogues, the spirulina contained a small amount of vitamin B(12) active in the binding of the intrinsic factor. Two intrinsic factor active vitamin B(12) analogues (major and minor) were purified from the spirulina tablets and partially characterized. The major (83%) and minor (17%) analogues were identified as pseudovitamin B(12) and vitamin B(12), respectively, as judged from data of TLC, reversed-phase HPLC, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and biological activity using L. leichmannii as a test organism and the binding of vitamin B(12) to the intrinsic factor.
Article
We have already reported that raw nori (Porphyra tenera) contains cobalamin (Cbl) but not Cbl analogues (J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 42, 497, 1996). It seems, therefore, that it is an excellent natural vegetable source of Cbl. On the other hand, it has been reported that the Cbl nutritional status of vegetarian children deteriorated as estimated by the hematological index, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), after they had dried nori as a source of Cbl. Such a discrepancy between raw and dried nori as a source of Cbl led us to investigate whether Cbl in dried nori had different properties from that in raw nori. We found that contents of Cbl homologues determined by a bioassay method in both raw and dried nori were similar. The urinary methylmalonic acid excretion increased when human female volunteers were given 40 g of dried nori daily during the test period. On the other hand, the urinary methylmalonic acid excretion did not change when volunteers were daily given 320 g of raw nori, which was equivalent to 40 g of the dried one on the basis of dehydrated weight, during the test period. By paper chromatography, 65% of the Cbl homologues were found to be comprised of Cbl analogues in dried nori, while 73% of the Cbl homologues in the raw nori were genuine Cbl. These results were confirmed by the finding that the bioassay method gave higher values for Cbl homologues than those obtained by a competitive binding assay method using an intrinsic factor as a Cbl-binding protein. Our present data demonstrated that Cbl in raw nori can be changed into harmful Cbl analogues by the drying process.
Article
Vitamin B(12) concentrations of dried green (Enteromorpha sp.) and purple (Porphyra sp.) lavers (nori) were determined by both Lactobacillus leichmannii ATCC 7830 microbiological and intrinsic factor chemiluminescence methods. The values determined by using the microbiological method (63.58 +/- 2.90 and 32.26 +/- 1.61 microg/100 g of dry weight) were identical to those found by using the chemiluminescence method (69.20 +/- 2.21 and 25.07 +/- 0.54 microg/100 g of dry weight) in both dried green and purple lavers, respectively. A silica gel 60 thin-layer chromatography of both laver extracts shows that non-coenzyme forms (hydroxo and cyano forms) of vitamin B(12) predominate in both dried lavers. The dried lavers contained lesser amounts of dietary iodine ( approximately 4-6 mg/100 g of dry weight) relative to other seaweeds, suggesting that excessive intake of the dried lavers is unlikely to result in harmful intake of dietary iodine. These results indicate that the dried lavers (nori) are the most excellent source of vitamin B(12) among edible seaweeds, especially for strict vegetarians.
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Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan±Vitamins K, B 6 and B 12 , pp. 16±56. Tokyo: Resources Council
Resources Council, Science and Technology Agency (1995) Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan±Vitamins K, B 6 and B 12, pp. 16±56. Tokyo: Resources Council, Science and Technology Agency.