Axis formation during Drosophila oogenesis

ArticleinCurrent Opinion in Genetics & Development 11(4):374-83 · September 2001with14 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S0959-437X(00)00207-0 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Recent advances shed light on the cellular processes that cooperate during oogenesis to produce a fully patterned egg, containing all the maternal information required for embryonic development. Progress has been made in defining the early steps in oocyte specification and it has been shown that progression of oogenesis is controlled by a meiotic checkpoint and requires active maintenance of the oocyte cell fate. The function of Gurken signalling in patterning the dorsal-ventral axis later in oogenesis is better understood. Anterior-posterior patterning of the embryo requires activities of bicoid and oskar mRNAs, localised within the oocyte. A microtubule motor, Kinesin, is directly implicated in localisation of oskar mRNA to the posterior pole of the oocyte.
    • "Therefore, these membrane proteins are likely to be involved in the regulation of membrane potentials and/or intracellular pH [19]. An ovarian follicle of Drosophila consists of 16 germline cells surrounded by a layer of somatic follicle cells [23, 24] . The oocyte and its 15 nurse cells form a cytoplasmic continuum via intercellular bridges as well as via gap junctions, and the same holds true for the follicle cells. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions. We, therefore, investigated the stage-specific distribution patterns of V-ATPase components in relation to gap-junction proteins. Results We analysed the localization of the V-ATPase components ductin (subunit c) and subunit a, and the gap-junction components innexins 2 and 3, especially in polar cells, border cells, stalk cells and centripetally migrating cells. These types of follicle cells had previously been shown to exhibit characteristic patterns of membrane channels as well as membrane potential and intracellular pH. Stage-specifically, ductin and subunit a were found either colocalized or separately enriched in different regions of soma and germ-line cells. While ductin was often more prominent in plasma membranes, subunit a was more prominent in cytoplasmic and nuclear vesicles. Particularly, ductin was enriched in polar cells, stalk cells, and nurse-cell membranes, whereas subunit a was enriched in the cytoplasm of border cells, columnar follicle cells and germ-line cells. Comparably, ductin and both innexins 2 and 3 were either colocalized or separately enriched in different cellular regions. While ductin often showed a continuous membrane distribution, the distribution of both innexins was mostly punctate. Particularly, ductin was enriched in polar cells and stalk cells, whereas innexin 2 was enriched in the oolemma, and innexin 3 in centripetally migrating follicle cells. In lateral follicle-cell membranes, the three proteins were found colocalized as well as separately concentrated in presumed gap-junction plaques. Conclusions Our results support the notion of a large variety of gap junctions existing in the Drosophila ovary. Moreover, since ductin is the channel-forming part of a proton pump and, like the innexins, is able to form junctional as well as non-junctional membrane channels, a plethora of cellular functions could be realized by using these proteins. The distribution and activity patterns of such membrane channels are expected to contribute to developmentally important bioelectric signals.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016
    • "Early in development, the oocyte is small and only the overlying posterior follicle cells are exposed to Grk, and Grk/ EGFR signaling in these cells induces a posterior fate. Later, the oocyte grows and the nucleus and associated Grk shift to the dorsal anterior cortex, where the same Grk/EGFR signal now induces dorsal anterior fates [16][17][18] . This difference reflects spatial rather than temporal differences, since ectopic EGFR pathway activation in posterior cells during later stages is incapable of inducing dorsal anterior fates [19, 20]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A relatively small number of signaling pathways drive a wide range of developmental decisions, but how this versatility in signaling outcome is generated is not clear. In the Drosophila follicular epithelium, localized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation induces distinct cell fates depending on its location. Posterior follicle cells respond to EGFR activity by expressing the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, while anterior cells respond by expressing the homeodomain transcription factor Mirror. We show that the choice between these alternative outputs of EGFR signaling is regulated by antiparallel gradients of JAK/STAT and BMP pathway activity and that mutual repression between Midline/H15 and Mirror generates a bistable switch that toggles between alternative EGFR signaling outcomes. JAK/STAT and BMP pathway input is integrated through their joint and opposing regulation of both sides of this switch. By converting this positional information into a binary decision between EGFR signaling outcomes, this regulatory network ultimately allows the same ligand-receptor pair to establish both the anterior-posterior (AP) and dorsal-ventral (DV) axes of the issue.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2016
    • "Gastrulation in Drosophila begins around 3 hours after fertilization and is completed through multiple morphogenetic movements which are driven by region-specific cell activities [13]. These regions are established as a result of a cascading pattern formation caused by symmetry breaking events which occur during the creation of the egg (oogenesis) [14][15][16][17]. The region of cells that undergoes the apical constriction of interest is known as the mesoderm primordium and is actually internalized by ventral furrow formation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical stress plays an intricate role in gene expression in individual cells and sculpting of developing tissues. However, systematic methods of studying how mechanical stress and feedback help to harmonize cellular activities within a tissue have yet to be developed. Motivated by our observation of the cellular constriction chains (CCCs) during the initial phase of ventral furrow formation in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo, we propose an active granular fluid (AGF) model that provides valuable insights into cellular coordination in the apical constriction process. In our model, cells are treated as circular particles connected by a predefined force network, and they undergo a random constriction process in which the particle constriction probability P is a function of the stress exerted on the particle by its neighbors. We find that when P favors tensile stress, constricted particles tend to form chain-like structures. In contrast, constricted particles tend to form compact clusters when P favors compression. A remarkable similarity of constricted-particle chains and CCCs observed in vivo provides indirect evidence that tensile-stress feedback coordinates the apical constriction activity. We expect that our particle-based AGF model will be useful in analyzing mechanical feedback effects in a wide variety of morphogenesis and organogenesis phenomena.
    Article · Jan 2016
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