Oncostatic activity of pineal neuroendocrine treatment with the pineal indoles melatonin and 5-methoxytryptamine in untreatable metastatic cancer patients progressing on melatonin alone
Azienda Ospedaliera San Gerardo, Monza, Lombardy, ItalyNeuro endocrinology letters (Impact Factor: 0.8). 02/2000; 21(4):319-323.
OBJECTIVE: The recent advances in psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology have demonstrated the existence of several endogenous neuroendocrine substances, capable of affecting both tumor growth and host anticancer immune defenses. The pineal gland would represent one of the most important organs releasing antiproliferative and immunostimulating substances, the most known of them is melatonin (MLT). However, MLT would not be the only pineal indole provided by antitumor activity. Other pineal indoles, namely 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MTT), would play antitumor effects, by either inhibiting cancer cell proliferation or stimulating the anticancer immunity. Preliminary data have shown that MLT may deserve antitumor activity in the treatment of human neoplasms, whereas at present there are no clear data about 5-MTT. In an attempt to obtain some preliminary data about the anticancer properties of 5-MTT in humans, we have evaluated the efficacy of MLT plus 5-MTT in untreatable advanced cancer patients progressing on MLT alone. METHODS: The study included 73 untreatable advanced solid tumor patients, who had progressed after two months of MLT therapy alone. According to tumor histotype, patients were randomized to receive MLT alone (20 mg/day orally in the evening) or MLT plus 5-MTT (1 mg at noon orally), every day for at least two months. The clinical response was evaluated according to WHO criteria. RESULTS: A partial response (PR) occurred in two patients treated with MLT + 5-MTT and in none of the patients receiving MLT alone. A stable disease (SD) was achieved in only 2/37 patients on MLT therapy alone, and in 8/36 patients receiving MLT plus 5-MTT. Therefore, the percent of non-progressing patients (SD + PR) obtained with MLT plus 5-MTT was significantly higher than that obtained with MLT alone. Moreover, the relief of asthenia and depressant symptoms was significantly higher in patients concomitantly treated with 5-MTT. DISCUSSION: This preliminary study would suggest that the concomitant administration of the less known pineal indole 5-MTT, also provided by antiproliferative and immunomodulating effects, may further amplify the oncostatic activity of the pineal hormone MLT in the palliative and curative therapy of advanced untreatable human solid neoplasms.
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- "Thus, this compound regulates the biological rhythms and the reproductive behavior of several animal species, including humans. In addition, 5-MTX is a matter of high clinical relevance since it has been described as pro-or antigonadotropic hormone according to species[Balemans et al., 1977;Sackman et al., 1977], as a potent supplement in the treatment of cancer[Lissoni et al., 1997;Lissoni et al., 2000], as antioxidant[García et al., 2000;Rodriguez-Naranjo et al., 2012]and as immunomodulatory agent[Lissoni et al., 1996]. However, there is no data to date regarding its role in bone metabolism. "
ABSTRACT: The present study investigates the direct action of 5-methoxytryptophol (5-MTX) in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells and compares it with melatonin (MEL), another 5-methoxyindol known to play a significant role on bone metabolism. We first screened increasing doses of both 5-MTX and MEL to determine their effect on metabolic activity and viability of preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The optimal dose was used to determine its effect on differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells and preosteoclastic RAW264.7 cells. Finally, we investigated the mechanism of action by adding the melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ) and detecting the immunostaining of phospho-ERK.In MC3T3-E1 cells, most of the 5-MTX doses reduced slightly the metabolic activity of osteoblasts compared with the control, while MEL only decreased it for the highest dose (2.5 mM). As regards to cytotoxicity, low doses (0.001–0.1 mM) of both indoles showed a protective effect on osteoblasts, while the highest dose of MEL showed a higher cytotoxicity than the 5-MTX one. After 14 days of cell culture, Rankl mRNA levels were decreased, especially for 5-MTX. 5-MTX also induced a higher osteocalcin secretion and mineralization capacity than MEL. In RAW264.7 cells, 5-MTX decreased the number of osteoclast formed and its activity whereas MEL did not affect significantly the number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells formed and showed a lower activity. Finally, MEL and 5-MTX promoted activation of the ERK1/2 pathway through the phosphorylation of ERK, while LUZ addition suppressed this effect.In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a new role of 5-MTX inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and promoting osteoblast differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: With the advances in the knowledge of neuroimmunomodulation, a new era of investigations about the chemical basis of the state of mind has been initiated. Both emotions and states of spiritual consciousness may influence immune functions and cancer growth. Stress, anxiety and depressive states are associated with immunosuppression and enhanced frequency of tumors. On the other hand, the states of sexual pleasure and spiritual joy enhance the immune efficacy, by counteracting tumor onset and dissemination. The biochemistry of pleasure and immunostimulation is mainly mediated by pineal indoles and cannabinergic substances, whereas that of stress, anxiety and depression is associated with enhanced production of adrenal steroids, opioids and catecholamines. The sexual repression would allow a progressive immunosuppression through a profound damage in the biochemistry of pleasure. Therefore, a better definition of psychospiritual status-associated neuroimmunochemistry could allow us to improve the immune dysfunction by acting on the same neuroendocrine secretions which are involved in mediating the psychic influence on the immunity, including that against cancer.
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of the presently available data shows that the principal pineal hormone melatonin is capable of influencing, both directly and indirectly, the state of the immune system. The immunotropic activity of this hormone can account for the stress-protective, antitumor, and antiviral effects of melatonin.
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