Multiple Promoters Exist in the Human GR Gene, One of Which Is Activated by Glucocorticoids

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and the Stanley S. Scott Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.
Molecular Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.02). 09/2001; 15(8):1381-95. DOI: 10.1210/mend.15.8.0696
Source: PubMed


A new human GR gene sequence (hGR 1Ap/e), which is distinct from the previously identified human GR promoter and coding sequences, has been isolated and characterized. The hGR 1Ap/e sequence is approximately 31 kbp upstream of the human GR coding sequence. This sequence (2,056 bp) contains a novel promoter (the hGR 1A promoter; 1,075 bp) and untranslated exon sequence (hGR exon 1A sequence; 981 bp). Alternative splicing produces three different hGR 1A-containing transcripts, 1A1, 1A2, and 1A3. GR transcripts containing exon 1A1, 1A2, 1B, and 1C are expressed at various levels in many cancer cell lines, while the exon 1A3-containing GR transcript is expressed most abundantly in blood cell cancer cell lines. Glucocorticoid hormone treatment causes an up-regulation of exon 1A3-containing GR transcripts in CEM-C7 T-lymphoblast cells and a down-regulation of exon 1A3-containing transcripts in IM-9 B-lymphoma cells. Deoxyribonuclease I footprinting using CEM-C7 cell nuclear extract reveals four footprints in the promoter region and two intraexonic footprints. Much of the basal promoter-activating function is found in the +41/+269 sequence, which contains two deoxyribonuclease I footprints (FP5 and FP6). When this sequence is cloned into the pXP-1 luciferase reporter gene, hormone treatment causes a significant increase in luciferase activity in Jurkat T cells that are cotransfected with a GR expression vector. FP5 is an interferon regulatory factor-binding element, and it contributes significantly to basal transcription rate, but it is not activated by steroid. FP6 resembles a glucocorticoid response element and can bind GRbeta. This novel hGR 1Ap/e sequence may have future applications for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of T-cell leukemia and lymphoma.

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Available from: Chuandong Geng, Apr 25, 2014
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    • "Inversely, two haplotypes TthIIII + 9β and TthIIII + 9β + ER22/23EK have been associated with GC re- sistance[13]. Importantly, there are a total of 12 known genetic variants throughout the 8 confirmed promoter regions controlling the expression of the 11 alternative first exons in the variable 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the GR[9,14]. This 5′UTR is responsible for controlling tissue-specific alternative first exon expression, overall GR levels and isoforms[6,7,15,16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Gender, genetic makeup, and prior experience interact to determine physiological responses to an external perceived stressor. Here, we investigated the contribution of both genetic variants and promoter methylation of the NR3C1 (glucocorticoid receptor) gene to the cardiovascular and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (seCPT). Two hundred thirty-two healthy participants were recruited and underwent the experiment. They were randomly assigned to either the seCPT group (cold water) or a control group (warm water). The seCPT group had a clear stress reaction; salivary cortisol levels and peak systolic and diastolic blood pressure all increased significantly compared to the control group. GR genotype (TthIIII, NR3C1-I, 1H, E22E, R23K, BclI and 9beta) and methylation data were obtained from 218 participants. Haplotypes were built from the GR genotypes, and haplotype 2 (minor allele of BclI) carriers had a higher cortisol response to the seCPT in comparison to non-carriers (20.77 ± 13.22; 14.99 ± 8.42; p = 0.034), as well as independently of the experimental manipulation, higher baseline heart rate (72.44 ± 10.99; 68.74 ± 9.79; p = 0.022) and blood pressure (115.81 ± 10.47; 111.61 ± 10.74; p = 0.048). Average methylation levels throughout promoter 1F and 1H were low (2.76 and 1.69 %, respectively), but there was a strong correlation between individual CpGs and the distance separating them (Pearson’s correlation r = 0.725, p = 3.03 × 10 −26 ). Higher promoter-wide methylation levels were associated with decreased baseline blood pressure, and when incorporated into a linear mixed effect model significantly predicted lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure evolution over time in response to the experimental manipulation. The underlying genotype significantly predicted methylation levels; particularly, the homozygous BclI minor allele was associated with higher methylation in promoter 1H (p = 0.042). This is one of the first studies linking epigenetic modifications of the GR promoter, receptor genotype and physiological measures of the stress response. At baseline, there were clear genetic and epigenetic effects on blood pressure. The seCPT induced a strong cardiovascular and HPA axis response, and both systems were affected by the functional genetic variants, although methylation also predicted blood pressure reactivity. The return to baseline was predominantly influenced by the genomic sequence. Overall, the physiological response to the seCPT is controlled by an exquisite mix of genetic and epigenetic factors.
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    • "Currently, two different nomenclature systems are used to name the porcine GR first exons. We adopted the rat system [22] to name the GR first exons by numbers according to the location of the exon on the genomic sequence of GR gene [20], whereas Reyer et al. [21] followed the human system [9] [12] [23] to use letters based on the time of discovery for each alternative human GR exon 1. Both systems are acceptable, yet it is recommended to use a consensus nomenclature in future studies to avoid possible confusions. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is transcribed in a tissue- and cell-specific manner with multiple exon 1 mRNA variants driven by selective promoters. We recently cloned and characterized the 5.3 kb proximal promoter sequence of porcine GR gene containing 7 untranslated alternative first exons each processed by a distinct promoter. In this study, we showed tissue-specific expression of total GR and its exon 1 mRNA variants in hippocampus, muscle and liver of pigs. Total GR mRNA was most abundant in liver, followed by muscle and hippocampus in descending order. Among all the GR exon 1 mRNA variants detected, GR exon 1-9/10 and 1-4 were the most predominant variants in all the three tissues. The abundance of GR exon 1-4 mRNA was similar to that of 1-10 in muscle, but was significantly lower than 1-10 in liver and hippocampus. The activities of truncated short (S) and long (L) promoters of respective GR exon 1 mRNA variants were analyzed by luciferase reporter assay in 3 representative cell lines, SY5Y, C2C12 and HepG2. S1-10 and S1-4 demonstrated significantly higher activities than other short promoters in all the cell lines examined. Nevertheless, the strongest activity and cell specificity were detected for L1-10 promoter, which was consistent with the predominant exon 1-9/10 expression in porcine tissues. Moreover, with 3 potential nGRE binding sites, L1-10 promoter was more sensitive to dexamethasone (DEX) in HepG2. Our data provide basic knowledge of the transcriptional mechanism underlying the tissue- and cell-specific expression of porcine GR under basal or ligand-stimulated conditions.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
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    • "There are no predicted methylation sites within the region containing rs73748206 (annotated at GR is a transcription factor known to modulate FKBP5 gene expression [12], [13] as well as its own expression [25], [26], [27], [28]. Conversely, FKB51 protein negatively regulates GR sensitivity to glucocorticoids [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: FKBP51, (FKBP5), is a negative regulator of Akt. Variability in FKBP5 expression level is a major factor contributing to variation in response to chemotherapeutic agents including gemcitabine, a first line treatment for pancreatic cancer. Genetic variation in FKBP5 could influence its function and, ultimately, treatment response of pancreatic cancer. We set out to comprehensively study the role of genetic variation in FKBP5 identified by Next Generation DNA resequencing on response to gemcitabine treatment of pancreatic cancer by utilizing both tumor and germline DNA samples from 43 pancreatic cancer patients, including 19 paired normal-tumor samples. Next, genotype-phenotype association studies were performed with overall survival as well as with FKBP5 gene expression in tumor using the same samples in which resequencing had been performed, followed by functional genomics studies. In-depth resequencing identified 404 FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in normal and tumor DNA. SNPs with the strongest associations with survival or FKBP5 expression were subjected to functional genomic study. Electromobility shift assay showed that the rs73748206 "A(T)" SNP altered DNA-protein binding patterns, consistent with significantly increased reporter gene activity, possibly through its increased binding to Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR). The effect of rs73748206 was confirmed on the basis of its association with FKBP5 expression by affecting the binding to GR in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from the same patients for whom DNA was used for resequencing. This comprehensive FKBP5 resequencing study provides insights into the role of genetic variation in variation of gemcitabine response.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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