Kennedy BL, Schwab JJ, Morris RL, Beldia G. Assessment of state and trait anxiety in subjects with anxiety and depressive disorders

ArticleinPsychiatric Quarterly 72(3):263-76 · February 2001with11 Reads
Impact Factor: 1.26 · DOI: 10.1023/A:1010305200087 · Source: PubMed
Abstract

The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is one of the most widely used scales for the evaluation of anxiety in medical and, to a lesser extent, psychiatric patients. Although there is a relatively large amount of STAI data about anxiety for individuals with a variety of psychiatric disorders, the results of many anxiety studies include only state or trait and many studies have been influenced by comorbidity and by variations in diagnostic criteria used. We studied state and trait anxiety and compared the revised form of the STAI (Form Y) with the original (Form X) to evaluate the anticipated improvement in the measure. In addition, we compared the STAI results with those of another self-report measure (the Symptom Checklist-90 anxiety and depression scales) and also with interviewer-rated measures of anxiety (Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety) and depression (Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression). Results indicate that the STAI does not clearly differentiate anxiety disorders from depressive disorders and support the use of multiple tests and of both self-report and interviewer ratings in the evaluation of anxiety and depression in psychiatric patients.

    • "However, most of these models confront the animals with an anxiety provoking situation, either through anxiogenic chemicals (β-carbolines, yohimbine, caffeine), conflict tests (Geller and Seifter box, light/dark chamber, elevated plus-maze) or exposure to aversive stimuli (defensive burying; Garner et al., 2009; Martin, 1998; McGonigle, 2014; Treit et al., 2010), thus modelling state anxiety, which is the anxiety a subject experiences at a particular moment in time, in response to a threatening situation. However, in the study of anxiety there is another important concept: trait anxiety, which describes individual differences, related to a tendency to present state anxiety; it is relatively stable overtime (Spielberger et al., 1970; Treit et al., 2010) and elevated in anxiety disorder patients (Bieling et al., 1998; Kennedy et al., 2001). The underlying biological mechanisms of state and trait anxiety may not be the same (Treit et al., 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The free-exploratory paradigm (FEP) has been proposed as a model of trait anxiety for both mice and rats. However, its pharmacological validation has only been carried out for mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to pharmacologically validate FEP for Wistar rats, by testing the effects of clinically established anxiolytic and anxiogenic drugs, in four different experiments. In all experiments, male Wistar rats were first tested in FEP to be categorized according to their levels of trait anxiety (high, medium and low). Then, only medium trait anxiety rats were selected to be tested again in FEP, two weeks later, after being pharmacologically treated, according to each experiment as follows: Experiment I: 0.5 mg/kg of diazepam (DZP) or vehicle; Experiment II: 20 mg/kg of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) or vehicle; Experiment III: 5 mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX5) or vehicle: and Experiment IV: 0.5 mg/kg of fluoxetine (FLX0.5) or vehicle. As a group, the results showed that PTZ and FLX5 increased levels of trait anxiety and reduced locomotor activity, whereas DZP and FLX0.5 decreased levels of trait anxiety, without impairing locomotor activity. These results demonstrate that FEP for rats is able to predict clinical anxiolytic and anxiogenic activities of different drugs, including fluoxetine, which is believed to present a dual effect on anxiety. Therefore, this paradigm can be proposed as an effective method for testing potential trait anxiety-reducing drugs, in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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    • "Consequently, examination of the psychometric properties in currently available measures of anxiety when used with older adults (in lieu of revising these instruments for age-specific use) is helpful for many of the aforementioned reasons. The STICSA (Ree et al., 2008) was recently developed to overcome several limitations issues associated with Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983; Kennedy et al., 2001; Therrien and Hunsley, 2012). To date, the STICSA has been shown to have excellent psychometric properties in both nonclinical and clinical samples of adults (Gros et al., 2007; Ree et al., 2008; Gros et al., 2010; Van Dam et al., 2013) and to differentiate anxiety from depression better than other commonly used anxiety measures (e.g. the STAI; Gros et al., 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Despite its increasing personal and societal impact, assessment of late-life anxiety has received relatively little attention in psychiatric research. Differential symptom presentation and physical comorbidities among the elderly, relative to younger cohorts creates a need for anxiety measures that are psychometrically validated in the elderly. Methods: The present study examined the factor structure and discriminant validity of the state-trait inventory for cognitive and somatic anxiety (STICSA) in a sample of Italian middle-aged and older adults. Participants were 396 community-dwelling middle-aged (50-64 years) and older (≥65 years) adults. In addition to the STICSA, participants completed two depression measures and a general well-being survey with physical and mental health subscales. Results: Factor analysis supported the validity of both state-trait and cognitive-somatic distinctions underlying the STICSA, all dimensions exhibited excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficients ≥ 0.86), and correlations with depression measures provided limited evidence for differentiation of anxious and depressive symptoms. The STICSA also showed evidence of discriminating anxious symptoms from physical health symptoms, a particularly relevant feature of a valid anxiety measure in elderly samples. Conclusions: The STICSA appears to be a valid measure of cognitive and somatic anxiety in the elderly.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · International Psychogeriatrics
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    • "Second, there is also some evidence that postpartum depression has prominent anxious features (Hendrick, Altshuler, Strouse, & Grosser, 2000). Third, several authors suggest that STAI is also sensitive to depressive disorders (Kennedy et al., 2001; Kvaal et al., 2005). Fourth, Clark, and Watson (1991) proposed that anxiety and depression have a common dimension called general distress or negative affect. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S) are widely used self-report measures that still need to be further validated for the perinatal period. The aim of this study was to examine the screening performance of the EPDS and the STAI-S in detecting depressive and anxiety disorders at pregnancy and postpartum. Women screening positive on EPDS (EPDS ≥ 9) or STAI-S (STAI-S ≥ 45) during pregnancy (n = 90), as well as matched controls (n = 58) were selected from a larger study. At 3 months postpartum, 99 of these women were reassessed. At a second stage, women were administered a clinical interview to establish a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) analysis yielded areas under the curve higher than .80 and .70 for EPDS and STAI-S, respectively. EPDS and STAI-S optimal cut-offs were found to be lower at postpartum (EDPS = 7; STAI-S = 34) than during pregnancy (EPDS = 9; STAI-S = 40). EPDS and STAI-S are reasonably valid screening tools during pregnancy and the postpartum.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2014 · The Spanish Journal of Psychology
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