Article

Fear, Anger, and Risk

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Drawing on an appraisal-tendency framework (J. S. Lerner & D. Keltner, 2000), the authors predicted and found that fear and anger have opposite effects on risk perception. Whereas fearful people expressed pessimistic risk estimates and risk-averse choices, angry people expressed optimistic risk estimates and risk-seeking choices. These opposing patterns emerged for naturally occurring and experimentally induced fear and anger. Moreover, estimates of angry people more closely resembled those of happy people than those of fearful people. Consistent with predictions, appraisal tendencies accounted for these effects: Appraisals of certainty and control moderated and (in the case of control) mediated the emotion effects. As a complement to studies that link affective valence to judgment outcomes, the present studies highlight multiple benefits of studying specific emotions.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... We therefore argue that approachavoidance distinctions can provide a theoretical framework for distinguishing the effects of different workplace aggression constructs by highlighting differences in the extent to which particular workplace aggression constructs engender either approach or avoidance tendencies in the victim. We focus on emotional and behavioral reactions to workplace aggression, in accordance with both theoretical perspectives highlighting emotional and behavioral reactions to workplace aggression (e.g., Lian, Ferris, Morrison, & Brown, 2014;Mayer, Thau, Workman, van Dijke, & de Cremer, 2012) and with extensive research highlighting approach and avoidance as key distinctions in emotional and behavioral reactions (e.g., Davidson, 1992;Lazarus, 1991;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). In particular, we suggest that different workplace aggression constructs will differentially (a) engender specific approach (anger) or avoidance (anxiety) emotions, and, consequently, (b) engender specific approach or avoidance behavioral action tendencies. ...
... While these changes are tailored to facilitate responses to the eliciting stimuli, the changes triggered "often persist beyond the eliciting situation. . .even in response to objects or events that are unrelated to the original cause of the emotion" (Lerner & Keltner, 2001: 146; see also Raghunathan & Pham, 1999;Weiner, 1986). In this manner, elicited emotions can have a broad impact on how an individual interacts with his or her environment because they influence thoughts, attitudes, and behavior long after the eliciting stimuli has departed. ...
... Consequently, experiencing anger results in individuals experiencing approachoriented action tendencies that facilitate assertion of the self (Youngstrom & Izard, 2008). These approach tendencies are manifested in anger's relation to direct forms of aggression, as well as in other approachoriented cognitions and behaviors, from being optimistic (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Lerner & Tiedens, 2006) to arm movements (Wilkowski & Meier, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
The number of constructs developed to assess workplace aggression has flourished in recent years, leading to confusion over what meaningful differences exist (if any) be�tween the constructs. We argue that one way to frame the field of workplace aggression is via approach–avoidance principles, with various workplace aggression constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining, and workplace ostracism) differentially predicting specific approach or avoidance emotions and behaviors. Using two multi-wave field samples of employees, we demonstrate the utility of approach– avoidance principles in conceptualizing workplace aggression constructs, as well as the processes and boundary conditions through which they uniquely influence outcomes. Implications for the workplace aggression literature are discussed.
... To close this gap, this study adopted two theoretical approachesappraisal tendency framework (Lerner and Keltner, 2001) and associative network memory theory (Anderson, 1983). The appraisal tendency framework explains the moral reasoning process where emotions aroused by situations against a moral standard play a critical role in enhancing moral judgments (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). ...
... To close this gap, this study adopted two theoretical approachesappraisal tendency framework (Lerner and Keltner, 2001) and associative network memory theory (Anderson, 1983). The appraisal tendency framework explains the moral reasoning process where emotions aroused by situations against a moral standard play a critical role in enhancing moral judgments (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). In this framework, moral emotions refer to an instinctive emotion (i.e. ...
... shared resources). Lerner and Keltner (2001) similarly found that when people experience anger about an unjust event (i.e. a risk to other people's lives), it leads to a cognitive appraisal of the situation (e.g. perceived concern), even if the violation is not directly related to them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: As one of the largest industries in the global economy, the fashion industry has emphasized the symbolic and aspirational features of its products while maximizing the efficiency of its manufacturing processes. However, the labor-intensive and competitive nature of the industry has meant that brand moral transgressions often occur. This study aims to understand the role of moral emotions and concerns (i.e. perceived spillover) caused by different moral transgressions and explain consumer anti-brand behaviors (i.e. negative word of mouth [WOM] and patronage cessation). Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine group differences (ethical vs social transgressions) in Study 1 (n = 584). Also, the moderation effect of moral disengagement was examined in Study 2 (n = 324). Findings: The results indicate that, for ethical transgressions, both moral emotions and perceived spillovers explain negative behaviors while moral emotions alone explain negative WOM on social media for social transgressions. Additionally, for social transgressions, the results of Study 2 indicate a negative interaction effect of moral emotions and moral disengagement on anti-brand behavior of patronage cessation. Originality/value: Based on the literature's theoretical approach to moral crises, this paper examines the emotional and cognitive reactions of consumers to the fashion industry's moral transgressions.
... We therefore argue that approachavoidance distinctions can provide a theoretical framework for distinguishing the effects of different workplace aggression constructs by highlighting differences in the extent to which particular workplace aggression constructs engender either approach or avoidance tendencies in the victim. We focus on emotional and behavioral reactions to workplace aggression, in accordance with both theoretical perspectives highlighting emotional and behavioral reactions to workplace aggression (e.g., Lian, Ferris, Morrison, & Brown, 2014;Mayer, Thau, Workman, van Dijke, & de Cremer, 2012) and with extensive research highlighting approach and avoidance as key distinctions in emotional and behavioral reactions (e.g., Davidson, 1992;Lazarus, 1991;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). In particular, we suggest that different workplace aggression constructs will differentially (a) engender specific approach (anger) or avoidance (anxiety) emotions, and, consequently, (b) engender specific approach or avoidance behavioral action tendencies. ...
... While these changes are tailored to facilitate responses to the eliciting stimuli, the changes triggered "often persist beyond the eliciting situation. . .even in response to objects or events that are unrelated to the original cause of the emotion" (Lerner & Keltner, 2001: 146; see also Raghunathan & Pham, 1999;Weiner, 1986). In this manner, elicited emotions can have a broad impact on how an individual interacts with his or her environment because they influence thoughts, attitudes, and behavior long after the eliciting stimuli has departed. ...
... Consequently, experiencing anger results in individuals experiencing approachoriented action tendencies that facilitate assertion of the self (Youngstrom & Izard, 2008). These approach tendencies are manifested in anger's relation to direct forms of aggression, as well as in other approachoriented cognitions and behaviors, from being optimistic (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Lerner & Tiedens, 2006) to arm movements (Wilkowski & Meier, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The number of constructs developed to assess workplace aggression has flourished in recent years, leading to confusion over what meaningful differences exist (if any) between the constructs. We argue that one way to frame the field of workplace aggression is via approach–avoidance principles, with various workplace aggression constructs (e.g., abusive supervision, supervisor undermining, and workplace ostracism) differentially predicting specific approach or avoidance emotions and behaviors. Using two multi-wave field samples of employees, we demonstrate the utility of approach– avoidance principles in conceptualizing workplace aggression constructs, as well as the processes and boundary conditions through which they uniquely influence outcomes. Implications for the workplace aggression literature are discussed.
... However, we know that even emotions of the same valence differ from each other. For example, while fear and anger are both negatively valenced emotions, they have very different behavioural effects (e.g., Brader, 2006;Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Weber, 2012). Fear is, among others, equated with risk avoidance and decreased willingness to engage in many forms of political participation, while anger is a powerful motivator of participation in politics and often tied to risky action (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Valentino et al., 2011). ...
... For example, while fear and anger are both negatively valenced emotions, they have very different behavioural effects (e.g., Brader, 2006;Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Weber, 2012). Fear is, among others, equated with risk avoidance and decreased willingness to engage in many forms of political participation, while anger is a powerful motivator of participation in politics and often tied to risky action (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Valentino et al., 2011). Consequently, distinguishing between emotions of the same valence, instead of considering them as a single entity, can provide a more nuanced and accurate understanding of their influence. ...
... This study examines the influence of appeals to fear, anger, pride, and enthusiasm on engagement with Facebook posts. In this section, we provide an overview of the behavioural consequences of the emotions of interest, drawing on AIT (Marcus, 2002;Marcus et al., 2000), appraisal theories (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Smith & Ellsworth, 1985), and empirical research applying these (Brader, 2006;Valentino et al., 2011;Weber, 2012). We then use these to formulate hypotheses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Political campaigns routinely appeal to citizens’ emotions, and there is evidence that such appeals influence political behaviour. Social media, an important arena through which political actors communicate with voters, provide a rich source of data for investigating not only which communication strategies they use but also which of these engage followers. Building on political psychology and political communication literature, the present study investigates the relationship between appeals to specific emotions (fear, anger, enthusiasm, and pride) and the engagement that such posts generate on Facebook. We created an engagement index sensitive to the Facebook page follower count and employed multilevel modelling techniques. We conducted a manual content analysis of posts by British political parties and their leaders ( N = 1,203) during the Brexit referendum debate on Facebook. We found that engagement with a post substantially increases when appeals to anger, enthusiasm, and pride are present. Conversely, there is no relationship between appeals to fear and engagement. Thus, the results indicate with observational data what we know about the effects of emotions from experimental research in political psychology. Emotions of the same valence (e.g., fear and anger) have a different relationship with user engagement and, by extension, political behaviour and participation online. This indicates that to fully understand the role of emotions in generating user engagement on Facebook, we must go beyond the positive and negative dichotomy and look at discrete emotions. Lastly, British political actors used Facebook communication to generate online political participation during the Brexit debate.
... The fundamental postulate of ATF is that same-valenced emotions (such as fear and anger) can lead to very different outcomes in judgment and coping of individuals (Lerner and Keltner, 2000). Based on the tenets of ATF, emotions are a result of event appraisal (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). Individuals appraise events according to the level of certainty and control. ...
... These emotions impact individuals' perception of risks (Lu et al., 2013;She et al., 2017). The seminal study by Lerner & Keltner (2001) showed that individuals experiencing anger were more likely to engage in risky choices, whereas fearful individuals were more pessimistic in their estimates and thus less willing to engage in risky decisions. Although the perceptions of risk determine the digital piracy intentions (Liao et al., 2010), the demand-side studies investigating the impact of emotions on digital piracy are still scarce. ...
... Empirical studies so far reveal that these two are distinct antecedents to criminal propensity (Pickett et al., 2018), and through ATF, they relate in the cause-related path (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). According to ATF, fear would lower the propensity to commit deviant behaviors (Roche et al., 2019). ...
Article
Purpose Today, digital piracy remains a growing challenge for legislators and businesses operating in the entertainment industry. For these reasons, policymakers place significant efforts in reducing piracy activities through copyright enforcement policies. Yet, the effectiveness of these frameworks remains questionable since empirical evidence offers countervailing insights. For these reasons, this study adopts a demand-side approach to investigate how users' emotional reactions to the copyright enforcement policy influence their digital piracy-related judgments and intention. Design/methodology/approach The author used a scenario-based approach to test the hypotheses and surveyed 262 users who actively stream movies and TV shows. Findings By drawing on the appraisal tendency framework, the author finds that among individuals experiencing fear due to the copyright enforcement policy, there is a decreasing intention to continue using illegal streaming services. On the contrary, individuals experiencing indignation are more likely to have increased intention to use illegal streaming services. On top of this, we reveal indirect effects by mediating individuals' vulnerability to sanctions (fear path) and subjective norms (indignation path) as judgments cues. Originality/value The author contributes to digital piracy literature in two ways with the study. First, the author unfolds the affective background that explains the emergence of deterrence or defiance effects when users respond to the copyright enforcement policy. Thus, the author shows that fear is a trigger for decreasing while indignation increases the usage of illegal streaming services. Second, through the appraisal tendency framework, the author enriches the literature by theorizing and providing empirical evidence on how previously established vulnerability to sanctions and subjective norms reinforce affective influences on encouraging or discouraging digital piracy intentions. Overall, the findings also provide policymakers with original insights on designing their copyright enforcement tools to combat digital piracy further.
... Therefore, the effects of trait anxiety and trait anger on individual risky choice may be different or even opposite. Lerner and Keltner's (2001) study found that although anxiety and anger have the same valence, they will produce opposite effects in a risky decision. The uncertainty and lack of control associated with anxiety lead to the gains and losses of individuals with high trait anxiety. ...
... The uncertainty and lack of control associated with anxiety lead to the gains and losses of individuals with high trait anxiety. Risk aversion choices are made in the framework; the certainty and sense of control associated with anger will cause high-quality angry individuals to make riskseeking choices in the framework of gains and losses, and this influence remains stable under different framework conditions (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). However, most of the existing studies are carried out in western countries, and there are few studies on the effect of specific emotions on the framing effect in risky choice in China. ...
... Following previous research (Lerner and Keltner, 2001), we chose the medium effect size (0.15) as the standard. With an alpha of 0.05 and Power = 0.95, the projected sample size needed to obtain the effect was N = 107. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the time of the COVID-19 pandemic, people are often faced with uncertain risky choice. Risky choice will be affected by different descriptions of the event’s gain or loss framework, this phenomenon is known as the framing effect. With the continuous expansion and in-depth study of frame effects in the field of risky choice, researchers have found that the are quite different in different situations. People have different interpretations of the same event at different psychological distances, and will also be affected by their own emotions. Therefore, the current study examines the common influence of task frame, spatial distance, and trait emotion on risky choice through two studies. Study 1 used a 2 (framework: gain vs. loss) × 2 (trait sentiment: high vs. low) inter-subject design, and the dependent variable is the choice of the rescue plan for the classic “Asian disease” problem. The results revealed that trait anger did not predict individuals’ risky choice preferences, and high trait anxiety led individuals to be more risk-averse. The framing effect exists in risky choice, and individuals prefer risk seeking in the loss frame. Study 2 used a 2 (spatial distance: distant vs. proximal) × 2 (framework: gain vs. loss) × 2 (trait sentiment: high vs. low) three-factor inter-subject design in which the dependent variable is the choice of rescue plan. The results indicate that the framing effect also exists in risky choice, and individuals prefer risk seeking in a loss frame. High trait anxiety lead individuals to be more risk-averse, while trait anger has no significant predictive effect on risk preference. Distant spatial distance lead individuals to increase their preference for risk-seeking under the gain frame, which leads to the disappearance of the framing effect. In conclusion, trait anxiety and spatial distance have a certain degree of influence on risky choice under the framework of gain and loss.
... The anticipation of disasters evokes intense fear because people judge "risk as feeling" (Loewenstein et al., 2001). Fear serves as an affective determinant of perceived risk (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). Fear is aroused when people are uncertain about managing events or when events seem uncontrollable (Frijda, 1987). ...
... Fear is contagious when people within a group share their feelings through relevant stories, facts, or memories of antecedents that aroused fear. By referring to such things in their communication, individuals cause their fearful emotions to influence other people, and all these people then find symbolic cultural meanings that they attach to their shared emotions within a sociocultural context (Jasper, 2014;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). In turn, this socially constructed and shared fear influences others who come to share the same thoughts, feelings, and actions even though they did not have direct experience of the same events. ...
... Collectively shared fear is relatively predictable, not a mere accidental eruption of the irrational (Jasper, 2014). Public discussion of the possibilities for disaster may arouse people's ability to imagine a future disaster (Bartholomew & Victor, 2004;Gross et al., 2009), which causes people to overestimate the impact of possible disasters on their well-being (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). While the Sewol Ferry was sinking into the water, Korean citizens witnessed and heard the scenes of helplessness in real time via the media. ...
Article
Full-text available
The policy decision-making process in the aftermath of a crisis is a dynamic and iterative process involving circumstances that are emotionally convoluted rather than stable and rationally predictable. This research addresses the following question: To what extent do citizens’ fears and their perceptions of governmental responsiveness affect citizens’ confidence in the government’s disaster management capacity? By building a structural equation model, we also analyze the dual mediating effects of collective action by citizens. We find that citizens’ collective action mediates the effects of both these factors—citizen fear levels and governmental responsiveness—on citizens’ confidence in the government’s disaster management capacity. We test our hypotheses, using the 2014 Sewol Ferry accident case in South Korea, a striking disaster caused by human error resulting in the loss of 304 lives. This analysis offers practical lessons for governments on how best to engage citizens’ voices in the policy-making process. When citizens feel listened to and empathized with by their government, they become more supportive of the government’s recovery efforts. Collective action by citizens plays a critical role in channeling citizens’ feelings and communicating their feelings and opinions to the government while decreasing their fear level, which, in turn, increases citizens’ confidence in the government’s disaster management capacity.
... Emotions may predominantly influence cognitive processes (Schwarz, 2000). Based on Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF), emotions can trigger cognitive appraisals, which can generate biased judgmental outcomes (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). Consequently, in addition to anger, the sunk cost effect, which is also attached to emotional components, is a cognitive bias that is assumed to be a major influence on retention and termination decisions (Harvey and Victoravich, 2009;Garland and Newport, 1991). ...
... emotions as satisfaction and disappointment), and other economic factors that may influence retention and termination decisions in the workplace context. These theories are (1) Discrepancy, (2) Threshold (Khelil, 2016) and (3) Affective Events (AET) (Weiss and Cropanzano, 1999) theories, in addition to the (4) Affective Tendency Framework (ATF) (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). ...
... In opposition to both the information and valence approaches, the ATF finds that emotions of the same valence may impact information processing differently. For example, it appears that fear and hope promote systematic processing whereas anger and happiness encourage heuristic processing (Tiedens & Linton, 2001;Coget, Haag, and Gibson, 2011;Bachkirov, 2015;Lerner and Keltner, 2001). As this research is interested in these differences, it intends to adopt the ATF approach. ...
... Emotions may predominantly influence cognitive processes (Schwarz, 2000). Based on Appraisal-Tendency Framework (ATF), emotions can trigger cognitive appraisals, which can generate biased judgmental outcomes (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). Consequently, in addition to anger, the sunk cost effect, which is also attached to emotional components, is a cognitive bias that is assumed to be a major influence on retention and termination decisions (Harvey and Victoravich, 2009;Garland and Newport, 1991). ...
... emotions as satisfaction and disappointment), and other economic factors that may influence retention and termination decisions in the workplace context. These theories are (1) Discrepancy, (2) Threshold (Khelil, 2016) and (3) Affective Events (AET) (Weiss and Cropanzano, 1999) theories, in addition to the (4) Affective Tendency Framework (ATF) (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). ...
... In opposition to both the information and valence approaches, the ATF finds that emotions of the same valence may impact information processing differently. For example, it appears that fear and hope promote systematic processing whereas anger and happiness encourage heuristic processing (Tiedens & Linton, 2001;Coget, Haag, and Gibson, 2011;Bachkirov, 2015;Lerner and Keltner, 2001). As this research is interested in these differences, it intends to adopt the ATF approach. ...
Thesis
This research focuses on anger and sunk cost effects as sources of cognitive bias and also portfolio interactions in relation to the retention/termination decisions on projects. Departing from a traditionally narrow and quantitative perspective of traditional project appraisal, this study investigates a wider psychological view of investment project decisions within four project management groups. The thesis emphasises that the role of the specific emotion of anger is influenced by the past sunk cost of projects and the effects of a portfolio of projects across the whole firm. In the sense that project retention is perceived to be a positive outcome of anger, it has arguably been neglected in empirical entrepreneurship and strategic decision-making research, but this study claims that the retention and termination of projects may be analysed using psychological theories of emotions. A case study based on a Palestinian holding company, therefore, investigates the influence of anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations on project retention and termination. The holding company under study operates in an uncertain political context likely to be a rich laboratory eliciting high levels of anger, thus highlighting their role. This study conducts fifteen emotion assessment surveys using a STAXI-2 inventory and content and thematic analyses of fifteen interviews, adopting multi-levels of analysis, and claims to make contributions to the entrepreneurship, strategic decision-making and psychology literatures. The analysis reports that anger has an important emotional influence on decisions. It demonstrates three main findings, i.e. mostly positive associations between anger, the sunk cost effect and portfolio considerations and project retention. It also presents four subsidiary findings. Hope emerged as the second most important emotion and is claimed to be associated with project retention. Other emotions also co-exist with anger and may have influenced retention decisions, and findings reveal an association between corporate identity (i.e. a factor emerged from data) and project retention. Finally, in an atypical case, anger is found to encourage project termination.
... Depending on the perceived information, individuals determine whether the threat is serious (high). As much as we see emotions evoked in low-threat environments within the domain of politics, in regard to high-threat situations, emotional responses elicit strong behavioral outcomes (Albertson and Gadarian 2015;Erisen, Vasilopoulou, and Kentmen-Cin 2020;Huddy, Feldman, and Cassese 2007;Lerner and Keltner 2001). Hence, a common application of affect-driven theories relates to a perceived high-threat stimulus, often in regard to terrorism (Huddy et al. 2005;Vasilopoulos et al. 2019), economic crises (Rico, Guinjoan, and Anduiza 2017), and immigration (Brader, Valentino, and Suhay 2008). ...
... Anger is an approach emotion combined with risk-taking aggressive behavior with the aim of protecting existing beliefs, convictions, and identifications. The primary consequence of anger is to take action, underestimating its potential risks (Lerner and Keltner 2001). Anger initiates revenge-seeking vis-à-vis its object. ...
... Depending on the perceived information, individuals determine whether the threat is serious (high). As much as we see emotions evoked in low-threat environments within the domain of politics, in regard to high-threat situations, emotional responses elicit strong behavioral outcomes (Albertson and Gadarian 2015;Erisen, Vasilopoulou, and Kentmen-Cin 2020;Huddy, Feldman, and Cassese 2007;Lerner and Keltner 2001). Hence, a common application of affect-driven theories relates to a perceived high-threat stimulus, often in regard to terrorism (Huddy et al. 2005;Vasilopoulos et al. 2019), economic crises (Rico, Guinjoan, and Anduiza 2017), and immigration (Brader, Valentino, and Suhay 2008). ...
... Anger is an approach emotion combined with risk-taking aggressive behavior with the aim of protecting existing beliefs, convictions, and identifications. The primary consequence of anger is to take action, underestimating its potential risks (Lerner and Keltner 2001). Anger initiates revenge-seeking vis-à-vis its object. ...
Article
This study demonstrates that voting for the far right has a central affective dimension within the domain of immigration, the effect of which relies on the level of trust one has toward political institutions and equally colors one's estimation of threat. We use representative data from two studies across three countries (Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) at two time points (2015 and 2019). We first show that anger, rather than fear, constitutes the emotional mechanism underpinning the relationship between anti‐immigration attitudes and support for the far right. Second, anger is associated more strongly with far‐right voting among those with lower levels of political trust. Third, anger affects how individuals seek out and process information about immigration, resulting in the overestimation of the perceived threat. These findings shed light on a key puzzle of electoral behavior: Why do some citizens with anti‐immigrant attitudes opt for radical politics, whereas others do not.
... In this thesis, I study attitude change in different contexts that are characterized by a high level of threat. In such times, citizens' perceptions of risk increase and they respond with intense fear, anger, and disgust (Lerner and Keltner 2001;Clifford and Jerit 2018). More precisely, I focus on three types of threat that are relatively exogenous: terrorism, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change and natural disasters. ...
... However, information is rarely served "cold," especially so during the weeks that preceded the peak of the pandemic in New York. Emotions are pivotal to how people update their perceptions of reality and respond to political stimuli, because they regulate their existential and epistemic motivations Huddy, Feldman, and Cassese 2007;Lerner and Keltner 2001). Indeed, political elites appeal to citizens' emotions strategically to manipulate political participation (Valentino et al. 2011) and increase support or opposition for particular policies or candidates (Jerit, Kuklinski, and Quirk 2009;Lupia and Menning 2009). ...
Thesis
This dissertation proposes a theoretical framework of attitude change under threatening conditions based on parallel updating. More specifically, I focus on public preferences for policies to address terrorist attacks, pandemics, climate change and natural disasters in periods when these threats are elevated. I test my argument with four original survey experiments, which include eleven interventions and draw on a nationally diverse sample of a total of 9,110 American citizens. These interventions identify the effects of factual information, partisan cues, incidental emotions, ideological and non-ideological framing, and memory priming.Evidence from these experiments provides consistent support that public opinion updating exhibits five characteristics. First, citizens change their views by a small amount. Second, citizens’ opinions move in the direction of information. Third, attitude change occurs regardless of political predispositions and individual attributes. Fourth, exposure to information about a specific policy area does not impact preferences for policies unrelated to this area. The only exception to this rule is when the treatment is emotionally strong. Finally, attitude- and identity-based cross pressures may introduce only minimal bias in the manner citizens update their opinions.
... Fear is aroused by the perception of threats to one's self and elicits a response of withdrawal from the source of fear (Gibaldi and Cusack, 2019). Although fear and anger are both negative emotions, fear stems from threatening stimuli in uncertain environments when an individual lacks effective means to counter a threat (Lerner and Keltner, 2001), while anger stems from the perception that one's goals are being intentionally obstructed (Carver and Harmon-Jones, 2009). The specific characteristics of each emotion drive different behaviors: fear results in withdrawal, but anger can lead to aggression or retaliation (Roseman, 2011). ...
... Anger is aroused when a negative outcome occurs due to the actions of others rather than a situation (Ybarra, 2002); therefore, its purpose is to correct the perceived wrongdoings by others (Tsai and Young, 2010). Anger can lead a person to underestimate the risks involved (Lerner and Keltner, 2001) and thus drive impulsive aggressive reactions toward the target of blame (Motro et al., 2018). Anger is associated with approach motivation, driving individuals to take approachbased actions. ...
Article
With the emergence of a variety of communication channels on social media, employees have more opportunities to engage with external stakeholders for or against their organizational brand. In such a context, focusing on negative word-of-mouth (NWOM) as an employees’ negative discretionary brand-oriented behavior, the current study aimed to identify negative emotions which can serve as drivers for NWOM more strongly than for counterproductive workplace behavior (CWB), relying on the discrete emotion perspective. The study also aimed to examine whether employees’ perceived brand knowledge can directly diminish employees’ NWOM and CWB and attenuate the influence of negative emotions. A questionnaire was used to gather relevant data, which was analyzed by structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings showed that anger was more strongly associated with employees’ NWOM than withdrawal and that envy was more strongly associated with CWB toward individuals than employees’ NWOM. Employees’ perceived brand knowledge was negatively associated with both NWOM and CWB directly and mitigated the association of negative emotions such as anger and envy with CWB, but not with NWOM. Based on the discrete emotion perspective, the current study explored the relative magnitude of emotional antecedents for employees’ NWOM and conventional CWB. Also, it expanded the previous findings on the positive effects of perceived brand knowledge on the positive outcomes of employees’ actions and its mitigating effects on NWOM and CWB.
... While we chose this focus based on the established two-dimensional structure of affect (Clore and Schnall, 2005;Russell et al., 2003;Yik et al., 2011), further work is needed to integrate this affect-based approach with work on specific discrete emotions. For instance, both anger and fear involve negative valence and high arousal but differ in their motivational and behavioral effects (Lerner and Keltner, 2001;Russell, 2009). Our focus on the valence and arousal of vocal expressions naturally lent to examination of valence-arousal congruence. ...
... Future research might also look to the broader literature on affect and emotion to further extend or enrich our model. Promising streams include mood maintenance theory and the appraisal tendency framework (Tiedens and Linton, 2001;Lerner and Keltner, 2001;Foo, 2011;Isen and Baron, 1991). Such work should continue to refine the field's knowledge of vocal affective expressions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The voice is often the only continuous channel of expression in pitch videos. We isolate the influence of entrepreneurs' vocal expressions on funding by examining how valence (positivity/negativity) and arousal (activation) shape funders' perceptions of passion and preparedness. We show that an entrepreneur's high-arousal vocal expressions, whether positive or negative, increase perceptions of their passion. Entrepreneurs are perceived as more prepared when the valence and arousal of their vocal expressions are congruent. We test our hypotheses in the context of rewards-based crowdfunding, using both an experiment and a speech affect analysis of real-world crowdfunding pitches.
... Emotion suppression is a reasonable strategy when excessive emotion can lead to negative results. For example, individuals with high EI may suppress their emotions when they find that self-perceived emotions are too optimistic and may lead to wrong decisions (Lerner and Keltner, 2001;Côté et al., 2010). There are two steps to reappraise the source of emotion. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotion is a kind of micro foundation that can affect human behaviors even in the digital era. Emotional intelligence (EI) is an important psychological factor that affects the growth and development of organizations from the view of emotion. Based on current bodies of literature, a comprehensive review of EI can contribute to its theory development in organization research and facilitate EI research burgeoning. We visualize the landscape of EI by analyzing 1,996 articles with CiteSpace their concepts, dimensions, and measurement. We propose two specific mechanisms, which clarify how individuals with high EI use emotional information to influence themselves and others. Following this, we develop a theoretical framework of EI at levels of individual, team, and organization. Finally, future directions and research agenda are addressed. This research contributes to the literature of EI and provides practical insight for practitioners.
... Instead, angry members may take covert actions that indirectly siphon resources from the leader to boost their own benefits (Fitness, 2000). Taking certain risks at work may impose potential costs on the leader but enhance members' task performance or personal benefits (Adam, 1965;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). Thus, when underbenefited, angry members may make risky attempts at work to maximize their own benefits in resource exchanges. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite research suggesting that emotional interactions pervade daily resource exchanges between leaders and members, the leader‐member exchange (LMX) literature has predominantly focused on the interplay between general affective experiences and the overall relationship quality. Drawing upon the affect theory of social exchange, we examine why and how discrete exchange imbalance engenders distinct emotions and shapes downstream work behaviors of the members. Results from a preregistered experimental study with 247 participants and an experience sampling study with time‐lagged reports from 79 leaders and 145 members show that a positively imbalanced exchange increases members’ subsequent leader‐directed helping via gratitude (but not via shame) and that a negatively imbalanced exchange increases members’ subsequent risk taking via pride (but not via anger). Moreover, the intensity of such effects hinges upon the average level of resource contributions of leader‐member dyads. Our research casts light on the role of transient emotions in dynamic resource exchanges between leaders and members and enriches our knowledge of within‐dyad fluctuations of social exchanges. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Reliance on affect during decision-making can also make people less sensitive to magnitude changes (Hsee & Rottenstreich, 2004). Different emotions will evoke different cognitive or behavioral tendencies (Han et al., 2007;Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Lerner et al., 2004), and thus color the decision-making process. Fight or flight responses (Cannon, 1929) belong to the set of Affect Modes, as does impulsive shopping (Hausman, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
With concerns regarding climate change rising, companies and policy makers seek to understand the precursors to environmentally-friendly consumer choice. Decision modes are the qualitatively different psychological processes employed to arrive at decisions. Across six studies, the present project establishes (a) which decision modes are employed by consumers to decide between electricity plans that differ in environmental impact, and (b) how employed decision modes affect those choices. We demonstrate that consumers are most likely to use Calculation Modes when facing such choices. Importantly, we find that Affect or Role Modes promote more environmentally-friendly choices, while Calculation Modes decrease environmentally-friendly choices. Experimentally promoting use of a Role Mode over a Calculation Mode increases selection of environmentally-friendly alternatives, and the relative degree of employing the Role Mode mediates this effect. Our findings provide insight into how decision mode usage can alter environmental decisions, and suggest mechanisms and tools for marketers and policy makers to influence consumer choice.
... Uncertainly is more likely to trigger fear and anxiety, as individuals feel that the current environment is outside their control. When, however, individuals see themselves in control of the situation, they are likely to feel anger (Lerner and Keltner 2001;Valentino et al. 2009). Evidence suggests that threat and anxiety can spur information processing and increase political learning, but not campaign involvement (Marcus and Mackuen 1993;Nadeau et al. 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how exposure to favorable messages about one's preferred party can affect emotional reactions and subsequent behavioral intentions. Integrating the motivated reasoning and discrete emotions’ frameworks, we offer a theoretical framework of motivated mobilization for explaining political engagement in response to poll exposure. Specifically, we examine the mediating role of emotions in the relationship between motivated assessments of polls and political mobilization. To test this model, we offer empirical evidence from an online survey-experiment (N = 540) conducted during the 2019 Indian general election. We find that exposure to favorable poll results increases enthusiasm and decreases anger, while both enthusiasm and anger activate behavioral intention for political participation. While our study supports the existing findings which show that partisanship is an important predictor of mobilization for a party and candidate, we uncover the affective routes through which partisanship operates to shape poll reactions. The results underscore the importance of capturing individual variability in preexisting affiliations and their shaping of poll reactions through affect-driven motivated reactions. We discuss these results with regard to the dynamics of political mobilization during election campaigns, the role of emotions in political cognition at large, and in understanding and mitigating biases in poll perceptions.
... The reduced negative and increased positive emotions may work as heuristics for more positive attitudes and behavioral intention (H4). In addition to the mediating effects of the valence, discrete emotions' unique appraisal themes and action tendencies may also lead to variation in vaccine-related attitudes and behaviors [36,39]. A research question is thus proposed. ...
Article
Objectives This study aims to investigate how trust in healthcare providers, public health agencies, politicians, and pharmaceutical companies shaped people’s attitudes and behavioral intention associated with COVID-19 vaccination, directly and indirectly via the mediation of vaccine evaluation and emotions. Methods A two-wave longitudinal survey (N = 534) was employed in late 2020 and early 2021 to assess the direct and indirect relationships between trust on people’s attitude toward the COVID-19 vaccine, vaccination intention, and actual vaccine uptake. Results Results show that trust was positively associated with attitude toward the COVID-19 vaccines and vaccination intention, both directly and indirectly via the mediation of vaccine evaluation, hope, and anger. Vaccination intention also mediated trust’s influence on vaccine uptake. Conclusion Trust in health providers, vaccine manufacturers, and public health agencies are vital to public acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Practice implications Healthcare providers and vaccine manufacturers may serve as the most effective source to communicate COVID-19 vaccine-related information. Trusted health communicators need to highlight the effectiveness and safety of the vaccine while maintaining a positive tone.
... • Emotions shape one's judgements or choices involving risk. Flam, 1990;Damasio, 1994;Lerner and Keltner, 2000;Lerner and Keltner, 2001;Loewenstein et al., 2001;Smith et al., 2002 Entrepreneurship ...
Article
Full-text available
The road to internationalisation is paved with risk, uncertainty, the possibility of failure, and the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) phenomenon. However, the process of internationalisation (IP) theory treats an individual decision-maker as a “black box.” Emotions are largely ignored by international business (IB) researchers. This study offers conceptual thoughts on the role of fear of failure in the process of internationalisation. It argues that managers experience this emotion in making internationalisation decisions for a firm, which is an area of study that requires further understanding. Following the content analysis method in the literature review and a theory-based adaptation approach to complete the conceptualisation, this manuscript joins the scholarly conversations on “connecting the IP model to people” and “emotion and internationalisation.” Focussing on fear of failure as a new perspective, this manuscript contributes to IB literature by suggesting new avenues in understanding decision-making about international activities by embracing psychological insights. It also contributes to IB practitioners by offering implications for understanding one’s emotional state and its effect on decision-making about internationalising ventures.
... Protective Actions: In the context of the type of actions following particular negative feelings [38], we notice some slight differences in protective behaviour, albeit without clear distinctions, between annoyance and anxiety ( Figure 6). However, we note the significant prediction of actively taking protective actions, by annoyance, anxiety or feeling invaded, compared to feeling discomfort, distrust or unfairness. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Online tracking is a primary concern for Internet users, yet previous research has not found a clear link between the cognitive understanding of tracking and protective actions. We postulate that protective behaviour follows affective evaluation of tracking. We conducted an online study, with N=614 participants, across the UK, Germany and France, to investigate how users feel about third-party tracking and what protective actions they take. We found that most participants' feelings about tracking were negative, described as deeply intrusive - beyond the informational sphere, including feelings of annoyance and anxiety, that predict protective actions. We also observed indications of a `privacy gender gap', where women feel more negatively about tracking, yet are less likely to take protective actions, compared to men. And less UK individuals report negative feelings and protective actions, compared to those from Germany and France. This paper contributes insights into the affective evaluation of privacy threats and how it predicts protective behaviour. It also provides a discussion on the implications of these findings for various stakeholders, make recommendations and outline avenues for future work.
... Returning to the notion of pandemic fear as possibly motivating preventative behavior (Harper et al., 2020), fear most often coincides with a cognitive appraisal of low situational agency (Lerner & Keltner, 2001), encouraging personal action to improve the situation. When perceived pandemic-related control is low, fear and perceived control should mutually support low situational agency and the motivation to change the situation. ...
Article
The Coronavirus (COVID‐19) pandemic reduced real and perceived access to healthcare services, exacerbating pandemic fear, and thus influencing consumers' adoption of preventative health behaviors. Extending the EHBM, results from two studies show that perceived access to health services and pandemic fear impact an individual's general and COVID‐preventative health behaviors. High perceived access reduces pandemic fear through its buffering effects on perceived health vulnerability and pandemic‐related health system concern, especially with telehealth usage during the pandemic. While pandemic fear motivates COVID‐19 vaccination, pandemic fear reduces personal preventative health behavior (e.g., healthy eating, exercising) and has little effect on personal COVID‐preventative behaviors (e.g., wearing a mask, social distancing) when individuals perceive high pandemic‐related control. Moreover, the fear‐behavior link does not hold for preventative health visits; instead, perceived access directly promotes preventative visits and screening. This research informs public health stakeholders' communication, education, and resource allocation during health crises like the COVID‐19 pandemic.
... We know that anxiety influences how people attend to, interpret and respond to potential threats (Wagner and Morisi 2019). Anxiety leads to more thorough searches for information (Clifford and Jerit 2018, Alberston and Gadarian 2015, Merolla and Zechmeister 2018, Valentino, Banks, et al. 2009), increases consideration of choices and alternatives Valentino 2012, MacKuen, et al. 2010), and heightens risk aversion (Druckman andMcDermott 2008, Lerner andKeltner 2001). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Anxiety influences how people attend to, interpret, and respond to information and potential threats. How does anxiety influence attempts to persuade? We hypothesize that the relationship depends on the interaction between an individual's level of anxiety and the trustworthiness of a source that provides information. Individuals with lower levels of anxiety can be persuaded by a trustworthy source. But persistent and high levels of anxiety lead to hypervigiliance and mistrust in others. This means that even trustworthy sources of information cannot persuade anxious individuals. We test our hypotheses with a factoral survey experiment, drawing participants from residents of internally displaced person (IDP) camps in northeastern Nigeria. We find that information from a more trustworthy source leads to increased return intentions. However, the more participants exhibit psychological distress the less of an effect source trustworthiness has on their return intentions. We conclude by discussing the implications for return of displaced persons and political and personal decision-making more generally.
... Empirical studies by Paul Slovic and others have shown that emotions are the main determinant of risk perception, and this pathway is considered to be the "emotional heuristic" or "risk-asfeeling" cognitive model that distinguishes it from rational risk assessment and analysis (Slovic, 1999;Finucane et al., 2000;Slovic et al., 2002;Böhm, 2003). At the same time, Lerner and Keltner (2001) argue that specific emotions can play different roles in risk perception. Also, specific emotions can have different degrees of influence on behavior (Nerb and Spada, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Whether risk events can be effectively controlled and mitigated is largely influenced by people’s perceptions of risk events and their behavioral cooperation. Therefore, this study used a web-based questionnaire ( N = 306) to investigate the specific factors influencing people’s risk perceptions and behaviors, and included a test for the difference in the effect of positive and negative emotions of the audiences. The results show that the overall model has good explanatory power ( R ² = 61%) for the behavioral variables, and (1) how people’s use of different media (especially TV and online media) significantly influenced their positive and negative emotions; (2) how people’s frequency of TV use significantly influenced their risk susceptibility and how online media use significantly influenced their risk severity (with some differences in people’s perceptions of efficacy between different media); (3) how people’s sense of efficacy for risky events is the strongest predictor of their risk control behavior; and (4) that there are different mediating effects of different emotions and risk severity and sense of efficacy between the frequency of media use and risk control behavior.
... First, while we observed the presence of affect in financial risk processing, our analysis does not distinguish between positive and negative affects or investigate whether affect constitutes a beneficial or adverse driver of the traders' financial performance. Previous studies revealed that positive affect leads to improved decision making [41] while negative affect such as fear and anger distorts the perception of risk [42] and causes myopic decisions [43]. During individual trader meetings, 12 of the 14 traders pointed out that they typically experienced high levels of activation when their real-time trading performance (measured by PnL) exhibited losses or fluctuations. ...
Article
Full-text available
We study the relationships between the real-time psychophysiological activity of professional traders, their financial transactions, and market fluctuations. We collected multiple physiological signals such as heart rate, blood volume pulse, and electrodermal activity of 55 traders at a leading global financial institution during their normal working hours over a five-day period. Using their physiological measurements, we implemented a novel metric of trader’s “psychophysiological activation” to capture affect such as excitement, stress and irritation. We find statistically significant relations between traders’ psychophysiological activation levels and such as their financial transactions, market fluctuations, the type of financial products they traded, and their trading experience. We conducted post-measurement interviews with traders who participated in this study to obtain additional insights in the key factors driving their psychophysiological activation during financial risk processing. Our work illustrates that psychophysiological activation plays a prominent role in financial risk processing for professional traders.
... More succinctly, fear and anger are distinct properties. They do not share an underlying 'negative' property (Watson & Clark, 1994;MacKuen et al., 2010;Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Lambert et al., 2019). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emotion has become an increasing influential area of research in psychology, political psychology, political science and other social sciences. Normally research is driven by theory. As such it is worth considering how well the current emotion research programs meet the requirements of a full blown theory. Among these, in alphabetical order, are: appraisal theories; emotion regulation; and, valence based accounts. After a brief overview of what elements individually and collective constitute a theory of emotion, I evaluate each as to the plausible claim of being a theory of emotion. I find that the worthy ambition to develop a full theory of emotion awaits fulfillment.
... At the individual level, [24] have investigated the relationship between linguistic styles such as anger and anxiety on social media platforms and political extremism and found evidence for a J-shaped relationship, with both ends of the political spectrum using more anger and fear-related words than moderates. Other research in political psychology has shown that anxious and angry individuals respond to misinformation differently [56,57]. Specifically, anger lowers search and increases close-mindedness [57,58,59]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The spread of misinformation or fake-news is a global concern that undermines progress on issues such as protecting democracy and public health. Past research aiming to combat its spread has largely focused on identifying its semantic content and media outlets publishing such news. In contrast, we aim to identify individuals who are more likely to share fake-news by studying the language of actors in the fake-news ecosystem (such as fake-news sharers, fact-check sharers and random twitter users), and creating a linguistic profile of them. Fake-news sharers and fact-check sharers use significantly more high-arousal negative emotions in their language, but fake-news sharers express more existentially-based needs than other actors. Incorporating psycholinguistic cues as inferred from their tweets into a model of socio-demographic predictors considerably improves classification accuracy of fake-news sharers. The finding that fake-news sharers differ in important ways from other actors in the fake-news ecosystem (such as in their existential needs), but are also similar to them in other ways (such as in their anger levels), highlights the importance of studying the entire fake-news ecosystem to increase accuracy in identification and prediction. Our approach can help mitigate fake-news sharing by enabling platforms to pre-emptively screen potential fake-news sharers' posts.
... Disgust is assumed to be characterized by appraisals of contamination and actiontendencies of pushing away and keeping distance (Keltner & Lerner, 2010). From an appraisal-tendency perspective, disgust sensitivity (including pathogen disgust sensitivity) can be interpreted as a measure of trait disgust, the dispositional tendency of feeling disgust (e.g., Horberg et al., 2009;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). Taking this perspective, the findings can be interpreted as showing that trait disgust moderates both (1) the relation between perceived pathogen cues sensitivity place more weight on potential pathogen threats when deciding whether they want to have physical contact. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emotion disgust motivates the avoidance of pathogens and contaminants. Individuals differ in their tendency to experience disgust and this is referred to as pathogen disgust sensitivity. Yet, it remains unclear which differences in psychological processes are captured by pathogen disgust sensitivity. We tested two hypotheses about how the information processing structure underlying pathogen avoidance might give rise to individual differences in pathogen disgust sensitivity. Participants ( n = 998) rated the perceived health of individuals with or without facial blemishes and indicated how comfortable they would feel about having physical contact with them. For participants with high disgust sensitivity, facial blemishes were more indicative of poor health and perceived health was more strongly related to comfort with physical contact. These findings suggest that pathogen disgust sensitivity reflects individual differences in the tendency to interpret stimuli as an infection risk and the weight given to estimated infection risk when deciding who should be approached or avoided.
... In consumer-behavior research, the form of consumer anxiety that many studies focus on is situational anxiety, which is a short-lived emotional state triggered by threatening situations, specifically manifested in the form of emotions such as fear, depression, stress, worry, and tension (Spielberger, 1966;Brooks and Schweitzer, 2011). The origin of consumer anxiety may be directly caused by an event or triggered by previous stimuli unrelated to the current decision (Raghunathan and Pham, 1999;Lerner and Keltner, 2001). In this paper, we focus on state anxiety, a transient emotion that anyone can experience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Companies often seek to persuade consumers to buy products or services through assertive advertising, but such advertising is often resisted by consumers. In order to identify ways to increase consumers' preference for assertive advertising, this study starts by considering consumers' anxiety and finds, through two between-group experiments, that the emotional state of consumers when viewing advertisements affects their attitudes toward assertive advertisements: anxious consumers have a more positive attitudes toward assertive advertisement, and cognitive fluency plays a mediating role in the relationship between consumer anxiety and consumer attitudes toward assertive advertisement. This study incorporates consumer anxiety into the study of assertive advertising, thus both enriching the theoretical research on assertive advertising and consumer anxiety and providing novel ideas for companies to enhance the effectiveness of their assertive advertising strategies.
... Self-efficacy is a strong belief about an individual on his/her capacity to control discrete emotions. In negative emotion like anger and fear are the pattern of high provocation sentiments that organize the individuals to take action (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). At work place, employees experiencing fear generally seek protection and defensive strategy by retreating and moving back from work (Ashford et al., 1989;Rafferty & Griffin, 2006) or remaining silent (Milliken, Morrison, & Hewlin, 2003;Vogel et al. 2015;Ashkanasy 2017& Lebel 2018). ...
Article
The aim of the study was to develop and test an empirical model which describe when and how discrete negative emotions can spark proactivity and can be molded to produce positive decision making. Nexus to the problem statement, drawing the theory of emotions, and theory of planned behavior (TPB), a quantitate research study was designed based on onion model while data was collected from the 357 faculty members of eleven public sector universities of KP, Pakistan. The data was analyzed via SPSS 27 and SEM-PLS 3.3.3 in two stages of measurement modeling and structuring modeling techniques. The results of the present study provided a new insight that how two discrete negative emotions i.e. anger and fear can be molded to produce constructive decision making. The novelty of this study is the use of molding discrete negative emotions into positive outcomes by using the mechanism of sequential mediation. The study is relatively new as none of the study related to molding discrete negative emotion in positive outcomes is available in the context of Pakistan. The outcomes of the study can be applied in education sector, health sector any public and private sectors where the issue of negative emotions are at their peak. More work is required in this area to study emotion regulation knowledge and pro-social motivation to strengthen the phenomena of molding negative emotion into positive outcomes.
... Nonetheless, framing is often considered to have different effects and combine intermediary paths of belief importance and belief content change (Slothuus, 2008). Furthermore, it has been found that discrete emotions can be moderators of the framing effect, whereby depending on the emotion evoked, they may mobilize citizens to support or dismiss a news frame (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Aarøe, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to analyze the media framing of information from psychology during the COVID-19 pandemic in six countries from America and Europe, identifying the most recurrent topics in the news (n news items = 541) related to psychology and mental health. In all six countries the media address the psychological needs of the population, which vary depending on the imposed restrictions. The news content is influenced by the scientific sources used by the media. The study findings provide insight into how psychological knowledge contributes to the understanding and mitigation of COVID-19 consequences in different countries and identified fields where psychologists were consulted to respond to a health emergency. They also show a preference to consult other experts when searching for contextual or more macro- social explanations of critical situation.
... The various undesirable outcomes of expressing 'voice' against racism may translate into individuals' pessimistic assessment of the risk associated with such action and a heightened sense of being controlled by the situation (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). Subsequently, the actors may avoid speaking out, or withdraw their voice (DeCelles et al., 2020) from the pursuit of racial equality. ...
Article
Full-text available
We adopt and extend the concept of ‘noncooperative space’ to analyze how (aspirant) black women intellectual activists attempt to sustain their efforts within settings that publicly endorse racial equality, while, in practice, the contexts remain deeply racist. Noncooperative spaces reflect institutional, organizational, and social environments portrayed by powerful white agents as conducive to anti-racism work and promoting racial equality but, indeed, constrain individuals who challenge racism. Our work, which is grounded in intersectionality, draws on an autoethnographic account of racially motivated domestic violence suffered by our lead author. Our analysis suggests that (aspirant) black women intellectual activists must develop courage to sustain their ‘voice’ within noncooperative spaces. However, the three interlinked dimensions of noncooperative spaces—namely, deceiving design, hegemonic actors’ indifference to racism, and (some assimilated gatekeepers’) false equivalence—may gradually erode a black female scholar’s courage. This forces her ‘voice’ to vanish temporarily, or even permanently. Courage is thus fragile and depletable. Yet, courage can be regenerated, resulting in regaining voice. Consequently, we propose courageous collective action by white allies and black and brown individuals who voluntarily and officially cooperate within and across various spaces to achieve racial equality.
... In addition, while we studied the social-oriented language to help improve evaluations of robots for those consumers who were experiencing stress, future research should examine the effectiveness of language styles in a broader range of contexts (e.g., hedonic vs. utilitarian services). Research should also consider whether all sources and types of stress are the same, as research finds that negative emotions (e.g., anger-sadness and anger-fear) often differ in their effects (Bodenhausen et al., 1994;Lerner and Keltner, 2001). For example, those experiencing uncertainty about finances may have different preferences towards robots and language styles than those experiencing stress about a personal loss, health, or loneliness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Service robots are emerging quickly in the marketplace (e.g., in hotels, restaurants, and healthcare), especially as COVID-19-related health concerns and social distancing guidelines have affected people's desire and ability to interact with other humans. However, while robots can increase efficiency and enable service offerings with reduced human contact, prior research shows a systematic consumer aversion toward service robots relative to human service providers. This potential dilemma raises the managerial question of how firms can overcome consumer aversion and better employ service robots. Drawing on prior research that supports the use of language for building interpersonal relationships, this research examines whether the type of language (social-oriented vs. task-oriented language) a service robot uses can improve consumer responses to and evaluations of the focal service robot, particularly in light of consumers' COVID-19-related stress. The results show that consumers respond more favorably to a service robot that uses a social-oriented (vs. task-oriented) language style, particularly when these consumers experience relatively higher levels of COVID-19-related stress. These findings contribute to initial empirical evidence in marketing for the efficacy of leveraging robots' language style to improve customer evaluations of service robots, especially under stressful circumstances. Overall, the results from two experimental studies not only point to actionable managerial implications but also to a new avenue of research on service robots that examines customer-robot interactions through the lens of language and in contexts that can be stressful for consumers (e.g., healthcare or some financial service settings). Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11002-022-09630-x.
... The emotive-eliciting program was developed by Strack et al. (1985), which was accomplished by direct writing. That method has been extensively validated in research (Kehner et al., 1993;Lerner and Keltner, 2001;Dunn and Schweitzer, 2005). The task asked participants to describe two or three things that made them feel really happy, at a level that would make someone else feel happy, to elicit positive emotions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the effect of verbal and written apologies on trust repair based on competence and integrity after a trust violation. Through three experiments, the empirical results showed that the written apology was more effective than verbal ones a restoring trust for integrity-based trust violations. However, the verbal apology was more effective against competency-based trust violations than a written one. Moreover, the results also showed that perceived trustworthiness played a mediating role between trust violation and trust repair, while positive emotions played a moderating role. Finally, this study provided a general discussion, implications, and suggestions for future research.
... An overarching favorable attitude is based on positive affect regarding autonomous vehicle technology in general and it may override objective capacities and limitations of the technology, compensating perceived risks. Thereby, we postulate that people who have favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicle technology are likely to develop an overly optimistic view on the technology's performance and effectiveness, which can increase the likelihood of the intention of risk-taking behavior (Lerner & Keltner, 2001;Han et al., 2007). ...
Article
This study examines how favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicle technology and automation-induced complacency relate to unsafe driving behaviors using semi-autonomous vehicles as an exemplar. The sample consisted of 441 college students and a repeated measures design was used to examine the relationships between psychological attitudes and susceptibility to risky driving behaviors across three scenarios. Linear regression analyses were conducted for hypothesis testing. Study 1 showed that favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicle technologies were not significantly associated with susceptibility to risky driving behaviors. Study 2 replicated this finding, however, automation-induced complacency was significantly associated with susceptibility to risky driving behaviors. Additionally, evidence was found for the incremental validity of automation-induced complacency over favorable attitudes towards autonomous features. In distinguishing favorable attitudes toward autonomous features from automation-induced complacency, future research and policy-making can separately address these constructs for the promotion of traffic safety and policy-making.Practitioner Summary: We aimed to assess inclinations towards risky driving behaviors in semi-autonomous vehicles. Using vignettes, we found that favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicles are not associated with risky behaviors, but automation-induced complacency was. Our findings suggest policies like educational programs can be implemented to prevent misuse of semi-autonomous vehicles.
... We believe the development of the BERRI presents a valuable advance given the growing needs and opportunities for assessments of factors that influence highstakes risky decision making and risk communications. Going forward, however, we want to reiterate that the BERRI is designed to be a measure of general anticipatory negative and positive affective reactions, and as such it may be less useful when the influence of discrete anticipatory emotions such as anger or disgust are of primary interest (Angie et al., 2011;Ferrer et al., 2016;Lerner & Keltner, 2001). That is, the BERRI does not capture all types of affective reactions such as anticipated regret or pleasure, which are also known to influence risky choice (Mellers & McGraw, 2001;Richard et al., 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a brief instrument specifically validated for measuring positive and negative feelings about risks—the Berlin Emotional Responses to Risk Instrument (BERRI). Based on seven studies involving diverse adults from three countries (n = 2120), the BERRI was found to robustly estimate anticipatory affective reactions derived from subjective evaluations of positive (i.e., assured, hopeful, and relieved) and negative emotions (i.e., anxious, afraid, and worried). The brief BERRI outperformed a 14‐item assessment, uniquely tracking costs/benefits associated with cancer screening among men and women (Studies 1 and 2). Predictive validity was further documented in paradigmatic risky choice studies wherein options varied over probabilities and severities across six contexts (health, social, financial, technological, ethical, and environmental; Study 3). Studies 4–6, conducted during the Ebola epidemic and COVID‐19 pandemic, indicated BERRI responses were sensitive to subtle effects caused by emotion‐related framing manipulations presented in different cultures and languages (the United States, Spain, and Poland). Study 7 indicated BERRI responses remained stable for 2 weeks. Although the BERRI can provide an estimate of overall affect, choices were generally better explained by the unique influences of positive and negative affect. Overall, results suggest the novel, brief instrument can be an efficient tool for high‐stakes research on decision making and risk communication.
... These emotions, in turn, motivate different actions (Frijda, 1988); anger is an approach emotion motivating aggression, whereas fear is an avoidance emotion motivating withdrawal. Finally, once these emotions are active, they shift attention to relevant dimensions for subsequent events; for example, fear leads one to perceive subsequent events as relatively uncontrollable compared to anger (Lerner & Keltner, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
Conviction Narrative Theory (CNT) is a theory of choice under radical uncertainty —situations where outcomes cannot be enumerated and probabilities cannot be assigned. Whereas most theories of choice assume that people rely on (potentially biased) probabilistic judgments, such theories cannot account for adaptive decision-making when probabilities cannot be assigned. CNT proposes that people use narratives —structured representations of causal, temporal, analogical, and valence relationships—rather than probabilities, as the currency of thought that unifies our sense-making and decision-making faculties. According to CNT, narratives arise from the interplay between individual cognition and the social environment, with reasoners adopting a narrative that feels ‘right’ to explain the available data; using that narrative to imagine plausible futures; and affectively evaluating those imagined futures to make a choice. Evidence from many areas of the cognitive, behavioral, and social sciences supports this basic model, including lab experiments, interview studies, and econometric analyses. We propose 12 principles to explain how the mental representations (narratives) interact with four inter-related processes (explanation, simulation, affective evaluation, communication), examining the theoretical and empirical basis for each. We conclude by discussing how CNT can provide a common vocabulary for researchers studying everyday choices across areas of the decision sciences.
... When someone feel happy or remember feeling happy, they assess their situation as their own actions. Interestingly, individuals feeling irate or frightful evaluate their circumstance as not under their control (Lerner and Keltner, 2001). This is supported by Zampetakis et al. (2016) that anticipated emotions will affect the action to be taken today and also about the future. ...
Article
Background: Effective interventions aimed at correcting COVID-19 vaccine misinformation, known as fact-checking messages, are needed to combat the mounting anti-vaccine infodemic and alleviate vaccine hesitancy. Objective: This works investigates (a) the changes of the public's attitude toward COVID-19 vaccines over time, (b) the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking information on social media engagement and attitude change, and (c) the emotion and linguistic features of COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking information ecosystem. Methods: We collected a dataset of 12,553 COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking Facebook posts and their associated comments (N=122,362) from January 2020 - March 2022 and conducted a series of natural language processing and statistical analyses to investigate trends in public attitude toward the vaccine in COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking posts and comments, and emotional and linguistic features of the COVID-19 fact-checking information ecosystem. Results: The percentage of fact-checking posts relative to all COVID-19 vaccine posts peaked in May of 2020 and then steadily decreased as the pandemic progressed (r = -.92, df = 21, t = -10.94, 95% CI = [-.97, -.82], P < .001). The salience of COVID-19 vaccine entities was significantly lower in comments (M = 0.03, t = 39.28, P < .001) than in posts (M = 0.09). Third-party fact checkers have been taking a more important role with more fact-checking over time (r = .63, df = 25, t = 4.06, 95% CI = [.33, .82], P < .001). COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking posts continued to be more analytical (r = .81, df = 25, t = 6.88, 95% CI = [.62, .91], P < .001) and more confident (r = .59, df = 25, t = 3.68, 95% CI = [.27, .79], P = .001) over time. While comments did not exhibit a significant increase in confidence over time, tentativeness in comments decreased significantly (r = -.62, df = 25, t = -3.94, 95% CI = [-.81, -.31], P = .001). While hospitals receive less engagement than other information sources, the comments expressed more positive attitudinal valence in comments compared to other information sources (b = 0.06, 95% CI = [0.00, 0.12], t = 2.03, P = .043). Conclusions: The percentage of fact-checking posts relative to all posts about the vaccine steadily decreased after May of 2020. As the pandemic progressed, third-party fact checkers played a larger role in posting fact-checking COVID-19 vaccine posts. COVID-19 vaccine fact-checking posts continued to be more analytical and more confident over time, reflecting increased confidence in posts. Similarly, tentativeness in comments decreased; this likewise suggests that public uncertainty diminished over time. COVID-19 fact-checking vaccine posts from hospitals yielded more positive attitudes toward vaccination than other information sources. At the same time, hospitals received less engagement than other information sources. This suggests that hospitals should invest more in generating engaging public health campaigns on social media. Clinicaltrial:
Preprint
Full-text available
Rust has a curious dictionary meaning, “become rusty, corrode, oxidize, decay.” In a sense, the movie “Rust” seems to have rusted risk perception of some people since the fatal shooting that occurred on October 21 , 2021. In this teaching note, we aim to shed light to remove this rust on risk perception. If we can understand the events, behaviors and decisions clearly using a probability lens, which have led to this tragic accident, then we may be able to learn the right lessons and avoid potential troubles in the future.
Article
Using a multimethod, multiinformant longitudinal design, we examined associations between specific forms of positive and negative emotional reactivity at age 5, children’s effortful control (EC), emotion regulation, and social skills at age 7, and adolescent functioning across psychological, academic, and physical health domains at ages 15/16 ( N = 383). We examined how distinct components of childhood emotional reactivity directly and indirectly predict domain-specific forms of adolescent adjustment, thereby identifying developmental pathways between specific types of emotional reactivity and adjustment above and beyond the propensity to express other forms of emotional reactivity. Age 5 high-intensity positivity was associated with lower age 7 EC and more adolescent risk-taking; age 5 low-intensity positivity was associated with better age 7 EC and adolescent cardiovascular health, providing evidence for the heterogeneity of positive emotional reactivity. Indirect effects indicated that children’s age 7 social skills partially explain several associations between age 5 fear and anger reactivity and adolescent adjustment. Moreover, age 5 anger reactivity, low-, and high-intensity positivity were associated with adolescent adjustment via age 7 EC. The findings from this interdisciplinary, long-term longitudinal study have significant implications for prevention and intervention work aiming to understand the role of emotional reactivity in the etiology of adjustment and psychopathology.
Book
Full-text available
Ekonomik kriz ortamlarında tüketiciler boyutunda toplumun bütün kesimleri, finansal güvenlik, işsizlik oranları, tüketici fiyatları, kredi kullanma olanakları ve döviz kurları ile ilgili olarak ani değişikliklerle karşı karşıya kalmaktadırlar. Bu değişimler, tüketim ve satın alma sürecinde yer alan ana aktörler olan tüketicileri ve söz konusu tüketicilerin sergileyecekleri davranışları doğrudan etkilemektedir. Ekonomik kriz nedeniyle kendilerini güvende hissetmeyen tüketiciler ekonomik kriz öncesi döneme kıyasla, harcama ve tasarruf boyutunda daha temkinli ve hassas davranma eğilimi sergilemektedirler. Harcama boyutunda tüketiciler, kriz kaynaklı fiyat artışları vb. gelişmelerden dolayı tüketim noktasında tasarruf eğilimi sergileyeceklerdir. Mal veya hizmet sunan işletmelerin doğrudan iş hacmini etkileyecek bu durum, aynı zamanda ülke ekonomisinde daralmaya yol açacak ve buna paralel olarak da ekonomik krizden çıkış süreci uzayacaktır. Anahtar kelimeler: Ekonomik Kriz, Yatırım Aracı, Yatırım Aracı Satın Alma Davranışı, Finansal Tüketici, Tüketici Davranışı, Tüketim Harcaması, Menfaat, Risk.
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic, a period of uncertainty and risk, has presented a threat to people’s physical and mental health worldwide. Previous research has shown that pandemic-related uncertainty can contribute to individuals’ psychological distress and coping responses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty and risk perception (i.e., individual’s perceived likelihood of becoming infected both for themselves and people in one’s own country and perceived severity of the infection), and the mediating role of fear of COVID-19. This two-wave longitudinal study (T1 = April 2020; T2 = May 2020) involved 486 young adults (age range = 18–29 years; Mage = 23.84 ± 2.94). Participants provided demographic data as well as measures of intolerance of uncertainty, fear of COVID-19, and risk perception. Structural equation modeling showed that intolerance of uncertainty was indirectly related to risk perception through fear of COVID-19. The study confirms the central role of IU in fear management and, consequently, in determining individuals’ risk estimates.
Article
Full-text available
Studies on previous outbreaks of contagious diseases suggest that the impact of the emotions associated with an epidemic can be greater than that of the epidemic in terms of the number of people affected. This study explores the relationships between the three most commonly expressed emotional responses to the COVID-19 pandemic (fear, anger, and depression) and two outcome variables (compliance with the social-distancing policy and the stigmatization of those infected by COVID-19). A large online, public opinion survey was conducted in South Korea (n = 1000) between 4 and 11 June 2020, which was between the first and the second waves of COVID-19. A series of regression analyses suggest that the emotional response was accompanied by differential behavioral and perceptual consequences. Fear was consistently positively related to all indicators of compliance with social-distancing policies (the voluntary practice of social distancing, support for the “routine-life-distancing” policy, and support for stronger social-distancing policies). Anger was positively related to both stigmatization indicators (responsibility attribution and stigmatizing attitude toward people infected with COVID-19). Finally, depression showed negative relationships with support for the “routine-life-distancing” policy and for stronger social-distancing policies but a positive relationship with the voluntary practice of social distancing. By examining whether and how certain types of emotional responses are more or less related to compliance with social distancing and stigmatization, the present study provides practical implications for effective public communication during an epidemic such as COVID-19.
Article
Full-text available
Affective experience has an important role in decision-making with recent theories suggesting a modulatory role of affect in ongoing subjective value computations. However, it is unclear how varying expectations and uncertainty dynamically influence affective experience and how dynamic representation of affect modulates risky choices. Using hierarchical Bayesian modeling on data from a risky choice task (N = 101), we find that the temporal integration of recently encountered choice parameters (expected value, uncertainty, and prediction errors) shapes affective experience and impacts subsequent choice behavior. Specifically, self-reported arousal prior to choice was associated with increased loss aversion, risk aversion, and choice consistency. Taken together, these findings provide clear behavioral evidence for continuous affective modulation of subjective value computations during risky decision-making.
Preprint
Full-text available
Anger can engender action by individuals and groups. It is thus important to understand anger behavioral phenotypes and their underlying neural substrates. Here we introduce a novel neurobehavioral construct that we term agentic anger, a state that motivates action to achieve risky goals, and test predictions of the model in two proof-of-concept studies. In study 1 we used the Incentive Balloon Analogue Risk Task to evaluate subjective states of: a) negative activation (NA) to assess agentic anger in response to frustrative non-reward, and b) positive activation (PA) to assess exuberance to achieved reward in 39 healthy young adult volunteers. Task-induced NA correlated with task-induced PA (r=0.56, p<.001), risk-taking on the task (r=0.27 to 0.36, p≤.05, .01) and trait Social Potency (SP, r=0.34 to 0.35, p<.05), a measure of reward sensitivity on the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief-Form. Study 2 evaluated within-subject functional MRI response to incentives in 10 males receiving 20 mg d-amphetamine or placebo (total 20 scans), providing data on ventral striatal reactivity to stepped incentives during catecholamine activation. Trait SP (r=+.60, p=.03) and task-induced PA (r=+.72, p=.02) strongly predicted amphetamine-facilitated BOLD response in the right nucleus accumbens, a region involved in action selection. Task-induced NA exhibited large effects with trait SP (r=0.51; d=1.2) and induced PA (r=0.68; d=1.9), replicating Study 1. These findings inform the phenomenology and neurobiology of agentic anger, a state that facilitates voluntary approach toward rewards that entail risk. Neural mechanisms of anger, exuberance and risk-taking in healthy individuals are discussed, with implications for action, decision-making, social justice and behavior change.
Article
Background: Digital mental health trainings can be an impactful and efficient way to promote well-being and prevent psychopathology during the sensitive developmental periods of adolescence and young adulthood. However, many online and app-based trainings are often not grounded in science or have low engagement rates due to poor usability. The aim of the current project was to tackle both of these issues in the development of an emotional competence skills training for youth (target age: 16-22). Given that deficits in emotional competence constitute a risk factor for poor mental health, we built a training that aims to increase knowledge and understanding of emotions and the processes that underlie them. Methods: As a theoretical base, we used the Component Process Model to teach youth to understand their emotional experiences as a dynamic process that involves the activation of appraisals, bodily reactions, expressions, action tendencies and subjective feelings. To avoid issues related to low engagement, we included youth across various stages throughout the development of the training program, which allowed us to make changes incrementally at each stage. Feedback from several focus groups, Youth Advisory Board meetings, and a pilot study resulted in the development of a gamified emotional knowledge skills training that teaches young people how to understand, recognize, and reflect on their emotions. Results: Results showed that when it came to digital mental health trainings, youth valued personalization, relatability, fast and colorful graphics, professional audiovisual elements, interactivity, ease-of-use, privacy protection and scientific legitimacy. Conclusions: In this paper, we describe and reflect on the process of developing the training and offer suggestions to help guide future researchers in building mental health trainings that are both supported by science and appealing to young users.
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses contemporary advancements in the affective sciences (described together as skeptical theories) that can inform the music-emotion literature. Key concepts in these theories are outlined, highlighting their points of agreement and disagreement. This summary shows the importance of appraisal within the emotion process, provides a greater emphasis upon goal-directed accounts of (emotion) behavior, and a need to move away from discrete emotion “folk” concepts and toward the study of an emotional episode and its components. Consequently, three contemporary music emotion theories (BRECVEMA, Multifactorial Process Approach, and a Constructionist Account) are examined through a skeptical lens. This critique highlights the over-reliance upon categorization and a lack of acknowledgment of appraisal processes, specifically goal-directed appraisal, in examining how individual experiences of music emerge in different contexts. Based on this critique of current music-emotion models, we present our skeptically informed CODA model - Constructivistly-Organised Dimensional-Appraisal model. This model addresses skeptical limitations of existing theories, reinstates the role of goal-directed appraisal as central to what makes music relevant and meaningful to an individual in different contexts and brings together different theoretical frameworks into a single model. From the development of the CODA model, several hypotheses are proposed and applied to musical contexts. These hypotheses address theoretical issues such as acknowledging individual and contextual differences in emotional intensity and valence, as well as differentiating between induced and perceived emotions, and utilitarian and aesthetic emotions. We conclude with a sections of recommendations for future research. Altogether, this theoretical critique and proposed model points toward a positive future direction for music-emotion science. One where researchers can take forward testable predictions about what makes music relevant and meaningful to an individual.
Article
Most previous studies that examined the effect of anxiety on hostility towards a distinct group have focused on cases in which we hate those we are afraid of. The current study, on the other hand, examines the relationship between anxiety in one domain and hostility towards a distinct group that is not the source of that anxiety. We focus here on symptoms of anxiety during the COVID‐19 pandemic, which have become increasingly frequent, and show that the implications of such mental difficulties are far‐reaching, posing a threat to relationships between ideological groups. In two studies conducted in both Israel and the United States, we found that high levels of anxiety during the COVID‐19 epidemic are associated with higher levels of hatred towards ordinary people from the respective political outgroups, lower levels of willingness to sustain interpersonal relations with these people (i.e., greater social distancing), and greater willingness to socially exclude them. This relationship was mediated by the perception of threat posed by the political outgroup. This study is the first to show that mental difficulty driven by an external threat can be a fundamental factor that explains levels of intergroup hostility.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined the influence of emotional attributions on the relevance of current feelings to judgments of personal satisfaction. In the first three studies, subjects were led to make different attributions for their naturally occurring feelings and then asked to judge their personal satisfaction. Satisfaction was higher after situational and specific attributions than after general and self-referential attributions, but only in domains that were unrelated to the causes to which subjects attributed their feelings. Study 4 tested whether affective states such as emotions with clearly defined causes are less relevant to judgments of life satisfaction than more diffuse states such as moods. Satisfaction was elevated after a laboratory mood induction only when subjects were led to focus on their moods in ways characteristic of emotional states (by articulating specific causes and labels for their feelings). These studies illuminate the role of emotional attribution in judgements of personal satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
Studies of risk perception examine the judgements people make when they are asked to characterize and evaluate hazardous activities and technologies. This research aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by providing a basis for understanding and anticipating public responses to hazards and improving the communication of risk information among lay people, technical experts, and decision-makers. This work assumes that those who promote and regulate health and safety need to understand how people think about and respond to risk. Without such understanding, well-intended policies may be ineffective.
Article
Full-text available
It was suggested that while moods clearly are subject to tremendous variation, there may nonetheless be some utility in considering long-term differences in mood, that is, in treating mood as a personality characteristic. People who are characteristically at different points of a mood dimension may show real differences in behavior that are not totally obscured by short-term mood variation. This approach may also facilitate the investigation of components of mood other than level, which is the focus of most state mood questionnaires. A personality instrument for happy and sad moods, the Mood Survey, was factor-analyzed and found to have two primary subscales: Level and Reactivity. These intercorrelated subscales were shown to have consistent advantages over a state measure of mood both in predicting personality characteristics and in pointing to new hypotheses about the nature of mood.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation examined the influence of emotional attributions on the relevance of current feelings to judgments of personal satisfaction. In the first three studies, subjects were led to make different attributions for their naturally occurring feelings and then asked to judge their personal satisfaction. Satisfaction was higher after situational and specific attributions than after general and self-referential attributions, but only in domains that were unrelated to the causes to which subjects attributed their feelings. Study 4 tested whether affective states such as emotions with clearly defined causes are less relevant to judgments of life satisfaction than more diffuse states such as moods. Satisfaction was elevated after a laboratory mood induction only when subjects were led to focus on their moods in ways characteristic of emotional states (by articulating specific causes and labels for their feelings). These studies illuminate the role of emotional attribution in judgments of personal satisfaction.
Article
Full-text available
A consensus has emerged that neuroticism is associated with negative affect and extraversion is associated with positive affect. However; it is unclear whether these personality traits are associated with magnitude of affective reactions (Affective-Reactivity view), with levels of tonic affect (Affect-Level view), or with both. To assess these views, affective state was manipulated using film clips, measured at multiple time points, andrelated to measures of neuroticism and extraversion (H. J. Esyenck) and dispositional negative affect and positive affect (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen). Results supported both Affective-Reactivity and Affect-Level views, and this support was more robust for neuroticism and extraversion than for dispositional negative affect and positive affect.
Article
Full-text available
The relative importance of emotions versus normative beliefs for life satisfaction judgments was compared among individualist and collectivist nations in 2 large sets of international data (in total, 61 nations, N = 62,446). Among nations, emotions and life satisfaction correlated significantly more strongly in more individualistic nations ( r = .52 in Study 1; r = .48 in Study 2). At the individual level, emotions were far superior predictors of life satisfaction to norms (social approval of life satisfaction) in individualist cultures, whereas norms and emotions were equally strong predictors of life satisfaction in collectivist cultures. The present findings have implications for future studies on cultural notions of well-being, the functional value of emotional experiences, and individual differences in life satisfaction profiles. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Full-text available
reviews research on the impact of affective states on evaluative judgments, presenting evidence that is difficult to reconcile with the assumption that emotional influences on social judgment are mediated by selective recall from memory / rather, the presented research suggests that individuals frequently use their affective state at the time of judgment as a piece of information that may bear on the judgmental task, according to a "how do I feel about it" heuristic extends the informative-functions assumption to research on affective influences on decision making and problem solving, suggesting that affective states may influence the choice of processing strategies / specifically it is argued that negative affective states, which inform the organism that its current situation is problematic, foster the use of effortful, detail oriented, analytical processing strategies, whereas positive affective states foster the use of less effortful heuristic strategies (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Investigated the role of affect in judgments of risk in 4 experiments. 557 Ss were recruited on college campuses and read paragraphs modeled after newspaper reports that described fatal or nonfatal accidents or (Exp III) positive events. Ss were later asked to estimate the chances of specific fatal or nonfatal accidents happening to them and/or to the population in general. Experimental manipulations of affect induced by report of a tragic event produced a pervasive increase in Ss' estimates of the frequency of many risks and other undesirable events. Contrary to expectation, the effect was independent of the similarity between the report and the estimated risk: An account of a fatal stabbing did not increase the frequency estimate of homicide more than the estimates of unrelated risks such as natural hazards. An account of a happy event that created positive affect produced a comparable global decrease in judged frequency of risks. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Investigated, in 2 experiments, whether judgments of happiness and satisfaction with one's life are influenced by mood at the time of judgment. In Exp I, moods were induced by asking 61 undergraduates for vivid descriptions of a recent happy or sad event in their lives. In Exp II, moods were induced by interviewing 84 participants on sunny or rainy days. In both experiments, Ss reported more happiness and satisfaction with their life as a whole when in a good mood than when in a bad mood. However, the negative impact of bad moods was eliminated when Ss were induced to attribute their present feelings to transient external sources irrelevant to the evaluation of their lives; but Ss who were in a good mood were not affected by misattribution manipulations. The data suggest that (a) people use their momentary affective states in making judgments of how happy and satisfied they are with their lives in general and (b) people in unpleasant affective states are more likely to search for and use information to explain their state than are people in pleasant affective states. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Hypothesized that there are links between affects and causal dimensions of emotion. Three dimensions of causality have been identified: locus, stability, and controllability. Evidence is presented that these dimensions are linked with feelings of pity, anger, and guilt. In Exp I, 28 university students recalled situations in which pity, anger, and guilt were experienced. In Exp II, 37 Ss rated pity and anger as a function of the a priori classification of given causes of events. Uncontrollable causes of negative events gave rise to pity, independent of the locus of the cause. For both anger and guilt, the associated cause was perceived as controllable and internal to the target of the emotion. Stable cases influenced the magnitude, rather than the direction, of emotions. It is contended that causal thoughts often precede and determine the experiences of pity, anger, and guilt. (3 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Much of decision aiding uses a divide-and-conquer strategy to help people with risky decisions. Assessing the utility of outcomes and one's degree of belief in their likelihood are assumed to be separable tasks, the results of which can then be combined to determine the preferred alternative. Evidence from different areas of psychology now provides a growing consensus that this assumption is too simplistic. Observed dependencies in the evaluation of uncertain outcomes and the likelihood of the events giving rise to them are frequent and systematic. Dependencies seem to derive from general strategic processes that take into consideration asymmetric costs of over- vs. underestimates of uncertain quantities. This asymmetric-loss-function interpretation provides a psychological explanation for observed judgments and decisions under uncertainty and links them to other judgment tasks. The decision weights estimated when applying dependent-utility models to choices are not simply reflections of perceived subjective probability but a response to several constraints, all of which modify the weight of risky or uncertain outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
This experiment explored the joint impact of accountability, anger, and authoritarianism on attributions of responsibility. Participants were either accountable or anonymous while watching an anger-priming or a neutral-emotion-priming video clip. In an ostensibly separate study, participants also were either accountable or anonymous while determining responsibility and punishment in fictional tort cases. As predicted, priming anger both simplified cognitive processing(i.e., reduced the number of cues used in making judgments) and amplified the carryover of self-reported anger to punitive attributions and actual punishment. By contrast, accountability increased the complexity of the judgment process and attenuated the carryover of anger to attributions and punishment. These results generalized across four replication cases that varied in story content; degree of defendant intentionality; and target, type, and severity of harm.
Article
Full-text available
The overwhelming majority of research on affect and social information processing has focused on the judgments and memories of people in good or bad moods rather than examining more specific kinds of emotional experience within the broad categories of positive and negative affect. Are all varieties of negative affect alike in their impact on social perception? Three experiments were conducted to examine the possibility that different kinds of negative affect (in this case, anger and sadness) can have very different kinds of effects on social information processing. Experiment I showed that angry subjects rendered more stereotypic judgments in a social perception task than did sad subjects, who did not differ from neutral mood subjects. Experiments 2 and 3 similarly revealed a greater reliance upon heuristic cues in a persuasion situation among angry subjects. Specifically, their level of agreement with unpopular positions was guided more by the credibility of the person advocating the position. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides empirical evidence that distinguishes between alternative conceptualizations of the risky decision making process. Two studies investigate whether cross-situational differences in choice behavior should be interpreted in the expected utility framework as differences in risk attitude (as measured by risk-averse vs. risk-seeking utility functions) or as differences in the perception of the relative riskiness of choice alternatives as permitted by risk-return interpretations of utility functions, leaving open the possibility of stable cross-situational risk preference as a personality trait. To this end, we propose a way of assessing a person's inherent risk preference that factors out individual and situational differences in risk perception. We document that a definition of risk aversion and risk seeking as the preference for options perceived to be more risky or less risky, respectively, provides the cross-situational stability to a person's risk preference that has eluded more traditional definitions. In Experiment 1, commuters changed their preferences for trains with risky arrival times when the alternatives involved gains in commuting time rather than losses. However, changes in preference coincided with changes in the perception of the riskiness of the choice alternatives, leaving the perceived risk attitudes of a majority of commuters unchanged. Experiment 2, a stockmarket investment task, investigated changes in risk perception, information acquisition, and stock selection as a function of outcome feedback. Investors' stock selections and their perception of the risk of the same stocks were different in a series of decisions in which they lost money than in a series in which they made money. As in Experiment 1, differences in choice and in risk perception were systematically related, such that the majority of investors had the same preference for perceived risk in both series of decisions. Our results provide empirical support for the usefulness of recent risk-return conceptualizations of risky choice (Bell [Bell, D. E. 1995. Risk, return, and utility. Management Sci. 41 23--30.], Jia and Dyer [Jia, J., J. S. Dyer. 1994. A standard measure of risk and risk-value models. Working paper, University of Texas at Austin.], M. Weber and Sarin 1993).
Article
Full-text available
Recent correlational research suggests that Extraversion is associated witha predisposition to experience positive affect, whereas Neuroticism is associated with a predisposition to experience negative affect. Using Gray's (A Model for Personality, pp. 246–276, 1981) terms, such results may be due to differential sensitivity to signals of reward and punishment on the part of Extraverts and Neurotics, respectively. Assuming that signals of reward generate positive affect and signals of punishment (or frustrative non-reward) generate negative affect, we hypothesized that the efficacy of a negative affect induction would be better predicted from Neuroticism than Extraversion scores, whereas the efficacy of a positive affect induction should be better predicted from Extraversion than Neuroticism scores. In the current study a laboratory mood induction technique (false feedback of success and failure) was used to induce positive and negative affect, and its effectiveness was assessed using standard mood adjective ratings. Results support the hypothesis that Extraverts (compared to Introverts) show heightened emotional reactivity to positive (but not negative) mood induction procedures, whereas Neurotics (compared to Stable individuals) show heightened emotional reactivity to negative (but not positive) mood induction procedures. Results are discussed in terms of an emotion-based approach to personality theory, and directions for future research are suggested.
Article
Full-text available
A person's mood may directly affect a judgment of the uncertainty of a future event. Subjective probabilities were reported by subjects in a happy, neutral, or sad mood for personal and nonpersonal events. Two moods were induced by having the subject focus on particularly happy and sad personal experiences. Large, consistent mood effects are indicated. Relative to control subjects, happy people are “optimistic;” i.e., they report higher probabilities for positive events and lower probabilities for negative events. Conversely, sad people are “pessimistic,” providing lower (higher) probabilities for positive (negative) events. Mood-state-dependent retrieval of information is indicated.
Article
Does temporary mood influence the occurrence of the fundamental attribution error (FAE)? Based on recent affect-cognition theorizing and research on attributions, 3 experiments predicted and found that negative moods decrease and positive moods increase the FAE, because of the information-processing consequences of these affective states. In Experiment 1, happy mood enhanced and sad mood reduced dispositional attributions based on coerced essays advocating unpopular opinions. Experiment 2 replicated this effect using an unobtrusive mood induction in a field study. Experiment 3 further confirmed these results and also showed that changes in the FAE were linked to mood-induced differences in processing style, as indicated by memory data and confirmed by mediational analyses. The results are discussed in terms of the cognitive processing strategies that mediate mood effects on attributions. The implications of the findings for everyday inferences and for contemporary theories of affect and cognition are considered.
Article
Mood congruency refers to a match in affective content between a person's mood and his or her thoughts. The mood-congruent judgment effect states in part that attributes will be judged more characteristic, and events more likely, under conditions of mood congruence. Thus, the happy person will believe good weather is more likely than bad weather (relative to such a judgment in a state of mood incongruence). Three studies showed that the effect generalizes to non-self-relevant judgments with natural mood. Study 1 (N = 202) generalized it across a variety of specific emotions, Study 2 (N = 1,065) generalized it across a variety of tasks, and Study 3 (N = 524) generalized it to a nonlaboratory, statewide sample. The three studies redefine mood-congruent judgment more broadly and thereby inform the debate about its underlying mechanisms. The relation between mood-congruent judgment and personality is discussed.
Article
We discuss the cognitive and the psy- chophysical determinants of choice in risky and risk- less contexts. The psychophysics of value induce risk aversion in the domain of gains and risk seeking in the domain of losses. The psychophysics of chance induce overweighting of sure things and of improbable events, relative to events of moderate probability. De- cision problems can be described or framed in multiple ways that give rise to different preferences, contrary to the invariance criterion of rational choice. The pro- cess of mental accounting, in which people organize the outcomes of transactions, explains some anomalies of consumer behavior. In particular, the acceptability of an option can depend on whether a negative outcome is evaluated as a cost or as an uncompensated loss. The relation between decision values and experience values is discussed. Making decisions is like speaking prose—people do it all the time, knowingly or unknowingly. It is hardly surprising, then, that the topic of decision making is shared by many disciplines, from mathematics and statistics, through economics and political science, to sociology and psychology. The study of decisions ad- dresses both normative and descriptive questions. The normative analysis is concerned with the nature of rationality and the logic of decision making. The de- scriptive analysis, in contrast, is concerned with peo- ple's beliefs and preferences as they are, not as they should be. The tension between normative and de- scriptive considerations characterizes much of the study of judgment and choice. Analyses of decision making commonly distin- guish risky and riskless choices. The paradigmatic example of decision under risk is the acceptability of a gamble that yields monetary outcomes with specified probabilities. A typical riskless decision concerns the acceptability of a transaction in which a good or a service is exchanged for money or labor. In the first part of this article we present an analysis of the cog- nitive and psychophysical factors that determine the value of risky prospects. In the second part we extend this analysis to transactions and trades. Risky Choice Risky choices, such as whether or not to take an umbrella and whether or not to go to war, are made without advance knowledge of their consequences. Because the consequences of such actions depend on uncertain events such as the weather or the opponent's resolve, the choice of an act may be construed as the acceptance of a gamble that can yield various out- comes with different probabilities. It is therefore nat- ural that the study of decision making under risk has focused on choices between simple gambles with monetary outcomes and specified probabilities, in the hope that these simple problems will reveal basic at- titudes toward risk and value. We shall sketch an approach to risky choice that
Chapter
Emotion is central to the structure and processes of personality and the conflicts and crises that accompany personality development. Establishing the links between emotion and personality offers great promise for the studies of personality and emotion—such research points to the social and biological mechanisms underlying the structure and continuity of personality, and presents a framework for thinking about the elaboration, stability, and social consequences of specific emotion tendencies. This chapter reviews the evidence relating facial expressions of emotion to personality. The chapter begins with a presentation of the discrete emotions perspective, which specifies how specific emotion tendencies observed early in life elaborate into personality traits. The chapter then outlines how facial expressions of emotion mediate the interaction between personality and the social environment. It also presents a review of the empirical relations between facial expressions of emotion and personality. Finally, the chapter discusses the role personality-related facial expressions may play in the social lives of people across the life course.
Article
Negative (adverse or threatening) events evoke strong and rapid physiological, cognitive, emotional, and social responses. This mobilization of the organism is followed by physiological, cognitive, and behavioral responses that damp down, minimize, and even erase the impact of that event. This pattern of mobilization-minimization appears to be greater for negative events than for neutral or positive events. Theoretical accounts of this response pattern are reviewed. It is concluded that no single theoretical mechanism can explain the mobilization-minimization pattern, but that a family of integrated process models, encompassing different classes of responses, may account for this pattern of parallel but disparately caused effects.
Article
The mood-congruent judgment effect refers to the fact that when a mood and an idea are similar in pleasantness, the idea will generally seem better in some way. For example, when people are happy, they will judge pleasant concepts as richer in their associations, pleasant attributes as more applicable, and pleasant examples of categories as more typical. This mood-related component of cognition is viewed longitudinally among normal students for the first time here. The authors demonstrate that over time, changes in mood covary with changes in judgment in normal individuals.
Article
This study explores the conditions under which experimentally primed anger influences both attributions of responsibility and the processes by which people make such attributions. Drawing on social functional theory, it was hypothesized that people are best thought of as 'intuitive prosecutors' who lower their thresholds for making attribu- tions of harmful intent and recommending harsh punishment when they both witness a serious transgression of societal norms and believe that the transgressor escaped punishment. The data support the hypotheses. Anger primed by a serious crime 'carried over' to influence judgments of unrelated acts of harm only when the perpetrator of the crime went unpunished, notwithstanding the arousal of equally intense anger in conditions in which the perpetrator was appropriately punished or his fate was unknown. Participants in the perpetrator-unpunished condition also relied on simpler and more punitive attributional heuristics for inferring responsibility for harm. Copyright # 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This chapter discusses the psychology of risk: what risk is (if it is anything at all), how people think about it, what they feel about it, and what they do about it. The chapter describes the way psychologists think about risk: how they study it, what tasks they use, what factors they vary, and what models they build (or borrow) to describe risk-taking behavior. Technically, the word risk refers to situations in which a decision is made whose consequences depend on the outcomes of future events having known probabilities. Psychological studies of risky choice (it is the term used conventionally to refer to all but the most extreme instances of ignorance or ambiguity) fall into two groups. At one extreme are the studies run by mathematically inclined experimental psychologists in which subjects make decisions about gambles described in terms of amounts and probabilities. At the other extreme are studies run by personality psychologists, who are mostly interested in individual differences in risk taking. A theory of risky choice is presented in the chapter that attempts to meld the strengths of both approaches. Empirically and methodologically it is tied to the experimental approach to risky choice. But theoretically it is more strongly tied to motivational approaches.
Article
Researchers interested in emotion have long struggled with the problem of how to elicit emotional responses in the laboratory. In this article, we summarise five years of work to develop a set of films that reliably elicit each of eight emotional states (amusement, anger, contentment, disgust, fear, neutral, sadness, and surprise). After evaluating over 250 films, we showed selected film clips to an ethnically diverse sample of 494 English-speaking subjects. We then chose the two best films for each of the eight target emotions based on the intensity and discreteness of subjects' responses to each film. We found that our set of 16 films successfully elicited amusement, anger, contentment. disgust, sadness, surprise, a relatively neutral state, and, to a lesser extent, fear. We compare this set of films with another set recently described by Philippot (1993), and indicate that detailed instructions for creating our set of film stimuli will be provided on request.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Attribution theory is concerned with the attempts of ordinary people to understand the causes and implications of the events they witness. It deals with the “naive psychology” of the “man in the street” as he interprets his own behaviors and the actions of others. For man—in the perspective of attribution theory—is an intuitive psychologist who seeks to explain behavior and draw inferences about actors and their environments. To better understand the perceptions and actions of this intuitive scientist, his methods must be explored. The sources of oversight, error, or bias in his assumptions and procedures may have serious consequences, both for the lay psychologist himself and for the society that he builds and perpetuates. These shortcomings, explored from the vantage point of contemporary attribution theory, are the focus of the chapter. The logical or rational schemata employed by intuitive psychologists and the sources of bias in their attempts at understanding, predicting, and controlling the events that unfold around them are considered. Attributional biases in the psychology of prediction, perseverance of social inferences and social theories, and the intuitive psychologist's illusions and insights are described.
Article
What are the life-course sequelae of childhood shyness? Using archival data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954), we identified individuals who were shy and reserved in late childhood and traced the continuities and consequences of this behavioral style across the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Shy boys were more likely than their peers to delay entry into marriage, parenthood, and stable careers; to attain less occupational achievement and stability; and—when late in establishing stable careers—to experience marital instability. Shy girls were more likely than their peers to follow a conventional pattern of marriage, childbearing, and homemaking. Results are compared with those from our parallel study of childhood ill-temperedness (Caspi, Elder, & Bem, 1987). Despite differences between shyness ("moving away from the world") and ill-temperedness ("moving against the world"), both persist across the life course through the progressive accumulation of their own consequences (cumulative continuity) and by their tendency to evoke maintaining responses from others during reciprocal social interaction (interactional continuity). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
describe the emotional phenomena of fear and anxiety from a clinical perspective / review . . . psychophysiological findings, and [provide] an analysis of the stimulus contexts that set the stage for the phenomena of fear and anxiety / the issue here is whether there are several forms of anxiety and fear or whether different manifestations originate from a common source [discuss] theoretical structures that are needed to understand the phenomena of anxiety / the theoretical perspective derives from information-processing psychology emphasizing the nonconscious mechanisms . . . pivotal in understanding fear and anxiety / [discuss] some of the implications of this theoretical perspective / [this] perspective . . . views phobias and panic disorders as physiologically driven, and generalized anxiety disorder as a cognitively driven, with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at a somewhat intermediate position between the two groups (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In Study 1, over 200 college students estimated how much their own chance of experiencing 42 events differed from the chances of their classmates. Overall, Ss rated their own chances to be significantly above average for positive events and below average for negative events. Cognitive and motivational considerations led to predictions that degree of desirability, perceived probability, personal experience, perceived controllability, and stereotype salience would influence the amount of optimistic bias evoked by different events. All predictions were supported, although the pattern of effects differed for positive and negative events. Study 2 with 120 female undergraduates from Study 1 tested the idea that people are unrealistically optimistic because they focus on factors that improve their own chances of achieving desirable outcomes and fail to realize that others may have just as many factors in their favor. Ss listed the factors that they thought influenced their own chances of experiencing 8 future events. When such lists were read by a 2nd group of Ss, the amount of unrealistic optimism shown by this 2nd group for the same 8 events decreased significantly, although it was not eliminated. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Argues that emotion is best treated as a psychological construct, consisting of cognitive appraisal, physiological activation, motor expression, motivational tendencies, and subjective feeling states. When viewed as a process, rather than a steady state, emotion can be said to be the interface between an organism and its environment, mediating between constantly changing situations and events and the individual's behavioral responses. A variety of stimulus evaluation checks are necessary for adequately evaluating or appraising emotion producing stimuli, for example, novelty, intrinsic pleasantness, goal/plan relevance, coping potential, and norm/self concept compatibility. Moreover, the role of emotions in social interaction may be central to understanding human behavior and social organization. A joint interdisciplinary approach may yield heuristic results. (29 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Do ill-tempered children become ill-tempered adults? What are the life-course consequences of such an explosive interactional style? What processes can account for the persistence of maladaptive behavior across time and circumstance? To answer these questions, this study used data from the Berkeley Guidance Study (Macfarlane, Allen, & Honzik, 1954) to identify children with a pattern of temper tantrums in late childhood (ages 8–10) and to trace the continuities and consequences of this behavioral style across the subsequent 30 years of their lives. Life-course continuities in this behavioral style were found for both sexes. Men with histories of childhood tantrums experienced downward occupational mobility, erratic work lives, and were likely to divorce. Women with such histories married men with lower occupational status, were likely to divorce, and became ill-tempered mothers. It is proposed that maladaptive behaviors are sustained through the progressive accumulation of their own consequences (cumulative continuity) and by evoking maintaining responses from others during reciprocal social interaction (interactional continuity). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
examine personality and cognition via purposive behavior, focusing on cognitive-motivational units of individual difference as active elements in self-regulation and action control / look at various units of analysis concerned with individuals' attempts to get what they want in their current life contexts review some of the emerging trends in the study of personality, cognition, and purposive behavior review the diverse perspectives that stand as the antecedents and the impetus for the "newer" generation of middle-level units of analysis in the study of personality and cognition concentrate mainly on new units of analysis that emphasize the creative, forward-looking thoughts about self, others, and tasks that individuals have, and on the ways in which those intentions are constructed and negotiated in a broad sociocultural context (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
This completely rewritten classic text features many new examples, insights, and topics including mediational, categorical, and multilevel models. Substantially reorganized, this edition provides a briefer, more streamlined examination of data analysis. Noted for its model comparison approach and unified framework based on the general linear model, the book provides readers with a greater understanding of a variety of statistical procedures. This consistent framework, including consistent vocabulary and notation, is used throughout to develop fewer but more powerful model building techniques. The authors show how all analysis of variance and multiple regression can be accomplished within this framework. The model comparison approach provides several benefits: It strengthens the intuitive understanding of the material, thereby increasing the ability to successfully analyze data in the future; It provides more control in the analysis of data so that readers can apply the techniques to a broader spectrum of questions; It reduces the number of statistical techniques that must be memorized; It teaches readers how to become data analysts instead of statisticians. The book opens with an overview of data analysis. All the necessary concepts for statistical inference used throughout the book are introduced in Chapters 2 through 4. The remainder of the book builds on these models. Chapters 5-7 focus on regression analysis, followed by analysis of variance (ANOVA), mediational analyses, nonindependent or correlated errors, including multilevel modeling, and outliers and error violations. The book is appreciated by all for its detailed treatment of ANOVA, multiple regression, nonindependent observations, interactive and nonlinear models of data, and its guidance for treating outliers and other problematic aspects of data analysis. Intended for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses on data analysis, statistics, and/or quantitative methods taught in psychology, education, or other behavioral and social science departments, this book also appeals to researchers who analyze data. A protected website featuring additional examples and problems with datasets, lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, and class-tested exam questions is available to adopters. This material uses SAS but can easily be adapted to other programs. A working knowledge of basic algebra and any multiple regression program is assumed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)