Sulfated Polysaccharides, but Not Cellulose, Increase Colonic Mucus in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation
Biological Science Laboratories, Kao Corporation, Haga-gun, Tochigi, Japan. Digestive Diseases and Sciences
(Impact Factor: 2.61).
08/2001; 46(7):1482-9. DOI: 10.1023/A:1010644021888
Colonic mucus is decreased in a rat model of spastic constipation, and some types of water-insoluble dietary fiber increase colonic mucus when consumed by rats for several weeks. However, little is known about the effect of water-soluble dietary fiber on the colonic mucus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of various types of water-soluble dietary fiber on colonic mucus in a rat model of spastic constipation. Oral administration of 1.5 mg/day of carrageenan and chondroitin sulfate increased the fecal excretion, epithelial mucin production, thickness of the mucous layer, and amount of luminal mucus in loperamide-administered rats. Sodium alginate, 5 mg/day, thickened the mucus layer at the fecal surface. Cellulose, 5 mg/day, increased the fecal excretion but not the colonic mucus. Carrageenan, chondroitin sulfate, and sodium alginate, but not cellulose, increased colonic mucus in the rat model of spastic constipation.
Available from: Iain Brownlee
- "Similar effects were noted in more recent studies where long-term administration of high butyrate concentrations (100 mM) directly into the mouse colon over a 7-day period resulted in an upregulation of Muc2 gene expression, but a reduction in the histologically assessed adherent mucus layer was noted . Mechanistic studies have suggested that mucin output  and upregulation of MUC2 gene expression  are dependent on cholinergic pathways and myofibroblast-derived prostaglandins, respectively. "
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ABSTRACT: The colonic mucus barrier is the first line of defence that the underlying mucosa has against the wide range of potentially damaging agents of microbial, endogenous, and dietary origin that occur within the colonic lumen. The functional component of mucus is the secreted, polymeric glycoprotein mucin. The mucus barrier can either act as an energy source or a support medium for growth to the intestinal microflora. The mucus barrier appears to effectively partition the vast number of microbial cells from the underlying epithelium. The normal functionality and biochemistry of this mucus barrier appears to be lost in diseases of the colorectal mucosa. Germ-free animal studies have highlighted the necessity of the presence of the colonic microflora to drive the maturation of the colonic mucosa and normal mucus production. A number of by-products of the microflora have been suggested to be key luminal drivers of colonic mucus secretion.
Available from: Asif Ahmad
- "volume to feaces. Other benefits of IDF include reduction Sample material and chemicals: Oat grains of cultivar in bowel transit time (Shimotoyodome et al., 2001), Avon was obtained from Fodder Research Institute, prevention of constipation and lessening the risk o f Sargodha. Grains were milled in a high-speed pin mill colorectal cancer (Bingham, 1990; Hill, 1997). "
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ABSTRACT: ß-glucan was extracted and purified from oat, at various temperature and pH levels. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the temperature and pH for extraction of ß-glucan gum pellets. Higher temperatures and neutral pH appeared to increase the yield of gum pellet and recovery of ß-glucan in extracted gum pellets. An extraction temperature of 50°C with a pH 7 was proved effective in removal of more of the impurities from the gum pellet. All the treatments extracted higher amounts of SDF (74.11-76.85%) and TDF (86.71-91.03%) in the extracted gum pellets. However, soluble dietary fiber and total dietary fiber content of gum pellets declined with increase in pH of extrcation medium. Serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol of albino rats decline with administration of increased doses of gum pellet extracted at temperature of 50°C with a pH 7. Incorporation of this gum pellet at 5% level in feed of rats increase the HDL by 37.74% over control group of rats. The reduction in lipoprotein fraction was directly associated with presence of SDF and TDF in the gum pellets.
Available from: Mette Skou Hedemann
- "This is in contrast to other studies where high-DF diets compared with 321 low-DF diets increased the number of mucin secreting goblets cells in rats (Enss et al., 1994; 322 Sakata, 1997) resulting in a possible increase in protection of the gut (Brownlee et al., 2003). A 323 study by Shimotoyodome et al. (2001) "
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of feeding different types and amounts of dietary fiber (DF) on luminal environment and morphology in the small and large intestine of sows was studied. Three diets, a low-fiber diet (LF) and 2 high-fiber diets (high fiber 1, HF1, and high fiber 2, HF2) were used. Diet LF (DF, 17%; soluble DF 4.6%) was based on wheat and barley, whereas the 2 high-fiber diets (HF1: DF, 43%; soluble DF, 11.0%; and HF2: DF, 45%; soluble DF, 7.6%) were based on wheat and barley supplemented with different coproducts from the vegetable food and agroindustry (HF1 and HF2: sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, and pectin residue; HF2: brewers spent grain, seed residue, and pea hull). The diets were fed for a 4-wk period to 12 sows (4 receiving each diet). Thereafter, the sows were killed 4 h postfeeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestine. The carbohydrates in the LF diet were well digested in the small intestine, resulting in less digesta in all segments of the intestinal tract. The fermentation of nonstarch polysaccharides in the large intestine was affected by the chemical composition and physicochemical properties. The digesta from pigs fed the LF diet provided low levels of fermentable carbohydrates that were depleted in proximal colon, whereas for pigs fed the 2 high-DF diets, the digesta was depleted of fermentable carbohydrates at more distal locations of the colon. The consequence was an increased retention time, greater DM percentage, decreased amount of material, and a decreased tissue weight after feeding the LF diet compared with the HF diets. The concentration of short-chain fatty acids was consistent with the fermentability of carbohydrates in the large intestine, but there was no effect of the dietary composition on the molar short-chain fatty acid proportions. It was further shown that feeding the diet providing the greatest amount of fermentable carbohydrates (diet HF1, which was high in soluble DF) resulted in significant morphological changes in the colon compared with the LF diet.
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