Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and lipoprotein levels during treatment of growth hormone-deficient adult humans

Lipids Laboratory, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.
Lipids (Impact Factor: 1.85). 07/2001; 36(6):549-54. DOI: 10.1007/s11745-001-0756-y
Source: PubMed


The incidence of atherosclerosis is increased in growth hormone (GH) deficient-individuals. Nonetheless, the antiatherogenic benefits of GH replacement therapy remain uncertain. In this study the effect of human recombinant growth hormone (hrGH) replacement therapy administered to GH-deficient adults on the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration and activity was analyzed. These findings were related to changes in the concentrations of the plasma lipoproteins. The hrGH was administered for 12 mon to human GH-deficient patients (n = 13; 8 men, 5 women). During the study plasma lipoproteins were separated by ultracentrifugation, and plasma cholesterol esterification rate (CER), endogenous CETP activity, and CETP concentration were measured. GH replacement therapy transiently (at 3 mon) lowered plasma concentration of CETP and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and raised total triglycerides. Furthermore, hrGH permanently increased both the plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration, which is known as atherogenic, and the proportion of cholesteryl ester in the high density lipoprotein2 (HDL2) particles, which is potentially atheroprotective. The simultaneous decrease of the plasma CETP and LDL-C concentrations elicited by hrGH indicated a close relationship between LDL metabolism and the regulation of the CETP gene expression. Endogenous CETP activity and the CER were not modified because these parameters are regulated in opposite ways by plasma levels of triglycerides; that is, CER increased and CETP decreased.

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    • "Little is known about the effect of growth hormone and/or insulin-like growth factor-1 on LDL metabolism. Few studies have shown interactions between growth factors and the LDL receptor (Machado et al. 2003), CETP (Carrilho et al. 2001) or IL-6 (De Benedetti et al. 2002). According to the links existing between growth defects and LDL metabolism, we may hypothesise that obesity induced during sexual maturation was able to induce growth factors (growth hormone and/or insulin-like growth factor-1) modifications , which could in turn induce the increase in LDL-triacylglycerol . "
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of childhood obesity is rising dramatically throughout industrialised countries. To evaluate and study the impact of childhood obesity on lipoprotein metabolism, we developed a new animal model of premature obesity. Yucatan mini-pigs aged 4 months were studied over a 12-month period from childhood to adulthood. Animals were divided into two groups: the first group were overfed a Western misbalanced diet; the second group were normally fed a recommended human-type diet. Cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in VLDL-, LDL- and HDL-lipoproteins were followed from baseline to adulthood by fast protein liquid chromatography. At 10 (the end of sexual maturation) and 16 months old (adulthood), liver, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues were sampled. Real-time RT-PCR was performed in order to compare apo AI, apo B, apo C-III, PPAR-alpha, insulin receptor and lipoprotein lipase gene expression between groups and ages. Differences between groups were observed only after sexual maturity. Adult overfed mini-pigs had a higher LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P < 0.05; 0.55 (SE 0.06) for overfed v. 0.42 (SE 0.04) for normally fed pigs at the tenth month of the study). In both groups, VLDL-triacylglycerol decreased (P < 0.05). VLDL-triacylglycerol evolution in the overfed group was associated with an increase in LDL-triacylglycerol plasma concentrations (P < 0.05) after sexual maturation. LDL-triacylglycerol concentration in overfed mini-pigs went from an average of 0.28 mmol/l before sexual maturation to reach an average concentration of 0.56 mmol/l afterwards. This phenomenon has never been observed in similar studies when obesity is induced in adult mini-pigs and may represent a specific hallmark of an obesity induced during sexual maturity.
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