Italian PD Genetics Study Group French PD Genetics Study Group; European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in PD The parkin gene and its phenotype.Italian PD Genetics Study Group French PD Genetics Study Group and the European Consortium on Genetic Susceptibility in Parkinson's Disease.
Department of Neurological Sciences, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. Neurological Sciences
(Impact Factor: 1.45).
Mutations of the parkin gene on chromosome 6 cause autosomal recessive, early onset parkinsonism. This is the most frequent form of monogenic parkinsonism so far identified. The associated phenotypical spectrum encompasses early onset, levodopa-responsive parkinsonism (average onset in the early 30s in Europe), and it overlaps with dopa-responsive dystonia in cases with the earliest onset, and with clinically typical Parkinson's disease in cases with later onset. Despite clinical features, Lewy bodies are not found at autopsy in brains of patients with parkin mutations. The parkin protein possesses ubiquitin ligase activity, which is abolished by the pathogenic mutations.
Available from: Genko Oyama
- "Tremor, writer's cramp, and cerebellar signs with saccadic eye alterations can also occur in DYT-5 dystonia cases.9 Due to the variety of clinical presentations, the disease can be misdiagnosed, and cerebral palsy or parkinsonism are the most common misdiagnoses.10,11 "
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ABSTRACT: DYT-5 dystonia usually presents as a dopa-responsive dystonia (DRD) with early or late parkinsonian manifestations and/or dystonic features. Genetically, these patients have been described as having a wide array of independent mutations in the guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase 1 gene (GCH1), and these patients may also have a wide array of clinical manifestations.
A Colombian family with six affected female members was characterized.
Three members, including the index case, revealed mild parkinsonism, whereas three granddaughters of the index case showed severe generalized dystonia. No men were affected. There was anticipation, and a female predominance was uncovered. Treatment with levodopa was generally effective except in a case with severe skeletal deformities and contractions. Detailed genetic analysis in the index case revealed a new mutation in exon 1 of GCH1 (c.159delG).
This study revealed a new mutation of GCH1 that resulted in heterogeneous clinical presentations of DRD within a large family.
Available from: Cord Naujokat
- "Ubiquitin ELISA, cerebrospinal fluid, serum [42 – 45] Parkinson's disease Ubiquitin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen [57 – 59,62] Parkin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen  Parkin (+) PCR, peripheral blood leukocytes    Dementia with Lewy bodies Ubiquitin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen     Pick's disease Ubiquitin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen     Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Ubiquitin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen   Huntington's disease Ubiquitin (+) Immunocytochemistry, brain specimen   Creutzfeld – Jakob disease Ubiquitin (z) RIA, cerebrospinal fluid  Cancer Renal cancer Proteasome subunits C2 and C9 (z) PCR, immunocytochemistry, tumor biopsy   20S Proteasome (z) ELISA, serum    Gastric cancer 20S Proteasome (z) ELISA, serum    Myeloid leukemia 20S Proteasome (z) ELISA, serum    Lymphoma 20S Proteasome (z) ELISA, serum   Thyroid carcinoma PA28-g (z) Western blot, immunocytochemistry, tumor biopsy  Breast, gastric, lung, brain, ovary, prostate, bladder, esophageal cancer p27 (#) Western blot, immunocytochemistry, tumor biopsy [86 – 91] Autoimmune diseases "
Available from: Hiba Abuzayyad
- "Clinically, patients with parkin mutations are observed as levodopa-responsive parkinsonism [41,42] with a relatively long duration and slow progression [40,41]. As a generalization, the common symptoms of PINK1 mutation carriers are clinically described as comparative to symptoms of sporadic PD except for earlier onset and slower disease progression [28,30,34], however, sometimes without dystonia and sleep benefit, which is common for carriers of parkin mutations [7,10]. "
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, where most cases are sporadic with a late onset. In rare incidences familial forms of early-onset parkinsonism occur, and when recessively inherited, cases are often explained by mutations in either the parkin (PARK2) or PINK1 (PARK6) gene or on exceptional occasions the DJ-1 (PARK7) or ATP13A2 (PARK9) gene. Recessively inherited deletions/duplications and point mutations in the parkin gene are the most common cause of early-onset parkinsonism known so far, but in an increasing number of studies, genetic variations in the serine/threonine kinase domain of the PINK1 gene are found to explain early-onset parkinsonism.
In this study all families were from a population with a high incidence of consanguinity. We investigated 11 consanguineous families comprising 17 affected with recessively inherited young-onset parkinsonism for mutations both in the parkin and PINK1 gene. Exons and flanking regions were sequenced, and segregation patterns of genetic variation were assessed in members of the respective families. An exon dosage analysis was performed for all exons in both genes.
In the parkin gene, a three generation family was identified with an exon 4 deletion segregating with disease. Both affected were homozygous for the deletion that segregated on a haplotype that spanned the gene in a haplotype segregation analysis that was performed using additional markers. Exon dosage analysis confirmed the recessive pattern of inheritance with heterozygous deletions segregating in healthy family members. In the PINK1 gene we identified two novel putative pathogenic substitutions, P416R and S419P, located in a conserved motif of the serine/threonine kinase domain. Both substitutions segregated with disease in agreement with a recessive pattern of inheritance within respective families and both were present as homozygous in two affected each. We also discuss common polymorphisms in the two genes found to be co-segregating within families.
Our results further extend on the involvement of PINK1 mutations in recessive early-onset parkinsonism with clinical features similar to carriers of parkin mutations.
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