[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Suicide research can be enhanced by an ability to safely manipulate putative causal variables. The present studies developed an experimental task to modify risk factors identified by the interpersonal theory of suicide (perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness) and examine their hypothesized suppressive effect on persistence in adversity in undergraduate university students. Variables that may moderate the impact of these risk factors on persistence (zest for life and mindful awareness) were incorporated as potential resilience factors. Study 1 (N = 92) found elevated burdensomeness and diminished belongingness significantly impaired persistence. Additionally, these predicted effects were moderated by individual differences in zest for life. In Study 2 (N = 52), individuals trained in mindfulness prior to the experimental task displayed greater persistence relative to controls. Findings provide experimental support for the role of perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness in the manner predicted by the interpersonal theory, and demonstrate a way to experimentally test the effects of resilience factors that reduce the impact of these interpersonal factors. (PsycINFO Database Record
- "Burdensomeness and Thwarted Belongingness: Implications for Theories of Suicide Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide (World Health Organization, 2014). Factors that increase the risk of suicidal behavior include previous suicide attempts, social isolation, psychiatric illness, hopelessness, unemployment, and family conflict (Chu et al., 2015; Verona et al., 2001 ), and demographic factors such as being male, belonging to a lower socioeconomic group, and being unmarried or divorced (Nock et al., 2008). The interpersonal theory of suicide (Joiner, 2005; Van Orden et al., 2010) provides a causal framework whereby many of these risk factors are thought to influence three key interpersonal constructs underlying proximal risk for suicidal behavior. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although many theories of psychopathy include reference to some form of emotional deficit, surprisingly little research has examined the relationships between psychopathic traits and important self-conscious moral emotions such as shame and guilt. The present study sought to examine these relationships in a sub-clinical sample, taking into account the important theoretical differences between the two emotions. Participants (N = 739) completed a measure of psychopathic traits and a measure of self-conscious affect style. Both primary and secondary psychopathic traits were found to be inversely related to guilt-proneness; however, the effect size was greater for primary psychopathic traits. Primary psychopathic traits were unrelated to shame-proneness, while secondary psychopathic traits were positively related to shame-proneness. Both primary and secondary traits were positively related to externalisation; however the effect size was greater for primary over secondary traits. The findings provide support for affective differences between psychopathy variants.
- "primary and secondary psychopathy) and the variables of interest, it is helpful to control for the influence of one variant of psychopathy on the other (McHoskey, Worzel, & Szyarto, 1998; Miller, Gaughan, & Pryor, 2008). This approach is also methodologically consistent with literature using the Hare (1991) PCl-r (Verona, Patrick, & Joiner, 2001). The correlation between lSrPS I and lSrPS II in the current study, r (739) = .49, "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite their reputation for taking advantage of other people, previous research shows that psychopathic individuals are attractive for short-term relationships. Furthermore, individuals with psychopathic traits have been found to be attracted to other psychopathic persons in both short and long-term relationships. The current study (N = 258), is the first to extend the investigation further by examining whether these findings pertain to the affective (i.e., primary) or behavioural (i.e., secondary) aspects of psychopathy, and if this varies according to sex. Using a series of personality profiles, we found that men and women evaluated individuals higher in primary or secondary psychopathic traits unattractive for both short and long-term relationships. However, those individuals higher in primary and secondary psychopathic traits found similar partners attractive in short and long-term relationships, and this was strongest in women higher in primary psychopathic traits for long-term relationships, and in women higher in secondary psychopathic traits for short and long-term relationships. Results are discussed from an evolutionary theoretical perspective.
- "In the context of mating psychology, " good genes " is perhaps the answer. Women perceive socially dominant behaviour (Kruger, Fisher, & Jobling, 2003 ), conspicuous consumption (Griskevicius et al., 2007), sexual attractiveness, and charisma (Durante, Griskevicius, Simpson, Cantú, & Li, 2012 ) as indicators of genetic quality, which are all associated with psychopathy (Babiak, Neumann, & Hare, 2010; Lee et al., 2013; Verona, Patrick, & Joiner, 2001). Men's preference for psychopathic traits in women is less well understood, perhaps because psychopathy is hypothesised to have provided fitness only to males and not to females (Jonason, Li, Webster, & Schmitt, 2009). "