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Antioxidant activity of Brahma Rasayana

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Abstract

Free oxygen radical scavenging activity of brahma rasayana (BR) was studied by in vitro and in vivo models. Addition of aqueous extract of BR was found to scavenge the lipid peroxides already present in rat liver homogenate (IC50 700 micrograms/ml) and inhibit the lipid peroxide generated by Fe(2+)-ascorbate (IC50 2600 micrograms/ml) and Fe(3+)-ADP-ascorbate system (IC50 1200 micrograms/ml). BR was found to scavenge the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton reaction (IC50 7400 micrograms/ml) and superoxide generated by photoreduction of riboflavin (IC50 180 micrograms/ml). BR was also found to inhibit the nitric oxide radical generated in vitro from sodium nitroprusside (IC50 5.5 micrograms/ml). Oral administration of BR (50 mg/dose/animal) was found to inhibit the PMA induced superoxide generation in mice peritoneal macrophages. Oral administration of BR; 10 and 50 mg/dose/animal was also found to inhibit the nitrite production in peritoneal macrophages and percentage inhibition was 25.2% and 37.8% respectively. These results indicate significant antioxidant activity of BR in vitro and in vivo.

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... Antioxidants are widely available in nature which are different in chemical composition, chemical and biological properties and their mechanism of action [26] . The antioxidant activity is determined on different plant materials and extracts by various popular and established in vitro models, such as DPPH method [27] , nitric oxide method [28] , DMPD method [29] , ABTS methods [30] , etc. Antioxidants are widely used in diet and have been investigated for the prevention of various curable and incurable diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and even altitude of sickness [27][28][29][30] . The antioxidant activity of any pure substance or chemical constituents which is present in low concentrations in the samples (substance or extracts) can significantly delay or prevent antioxidant activity of cell content like protein, lipids, etc [28][29][30] . ...
... Antioxidants are widely available in nature which are different in chemical composition, chemical and biological properties and their mechanism of action [26] . The antioxidant activity is determined on different plant materials and extracts by various popular and established in vitro models, such as DPPH method [27] , nitric oxide method [28] , DMPD method [29] , ABTS methods [30] , etc. Antioxidants are widely used in diet and have been investigated for the prevention of various curable and incurable diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and even altitude of sickness [27][28][29][30] . The antioxidant activity of any pure substance or chemical constituents which is present in low concentrations in the samples (substance or extracts) can significantly delay or prevent antioxidant activity of cell content like protein, lipids, etc [28][29][30] . ...
... The antioxidant activity is determined on different plant materials and extracts by various popular and established in vitro models, such as DPPH method [27] , nitric oxide method [28] , DMPD method [29] , ABTS methods [30] , etc. Antioxidants are widely used in diet and have been investigated for the prevention of various curable and incurable diseases, such as cancer, heart disease and even altitude of sickness [27][28][29][30] . The antioxidant activity of any pure substance or chemical constituents which is present in low concentrations in the samples (substance or extracts) can significantly delay or prevent antioxidant activity of cell content like protein, lipids, etc [28][29][30] . The role of antioxidant is a molecule that inhibits the oxidation reaction of other molecules. ...
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Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol. Results: The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform. Conclusions: In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.
... [16,17] These formulations have shown promise in alleviating various free radicals induced physiological conditions. [18,19] Also these are reported to confer tissue regeneration capability [20] and antitumour activity.212223 These findings have encouraged us to further investigate its potential during cancer therapy. ...
... itigating CDDP induced nephrotoxicity have produced interesting results, since 2 over the counter formulations are able to mitigate the adverse effects of a potent anticancer drug. These formulations have been reported to have antioxidant activity under in vitro conditions and also under in vivo conditions in various tissues, following consumption. [19] Administration of BRM or CHM prevented the CDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring the total antioxidant content. BRM and CHM are formulations used in 'rasayana therapy' in Ayurveda, which is a dedicated treatment modality for immune promotive, antidegenerative and rejuvenative health care. [45] The capacity to repair and regenerate da ...
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Aim of study: To explore the ability of two Ayurvedic formulations, Brahma Rasayana (BRM) and Chyavanaprash (CHM) in alleviating Cisplatin (Cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum [II] CDDP) induced acute nephrotoxicity. Materials and methods: Swiss albino mice were administered with CDDP (12 mg/kg, i.p) and two doses of BRM or CHM (1 and 2 g/kg). Various antioxidant parameters in the kidney as well as release of marker enzymes in the serum were assayed. Histology of the kidney was also performed to check for CDDP induced damages. Results: Administration of either BRM or CHM (1 and 2 g/kg) maintained the antioxidant status in the kidney thereby preventing tissue damage as well as the release of marker enzymes. CDDP induced variation of renal architecture was also prevented by BRM and CHM administration. Conclusion: BRM and CHM administration could prevent CDDP induced acute renal toxicity.
... The sulfydryl compounds were found to be good radioprotectors but unfortunately their inherent toxic effects at their optimal protective doses were a major deterrent to their clinical use. 3,4 Herbal drugs offer an alternative to synthetic compounds and are considered either nontoxic or less toxic 3 and experimental studies have shown that the Ayurvedic drugs Amritaprasham, [5][6][7] Ashwaganda Rasayana, [5][6][7] Brahma Rasayana, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Chyavanaprasha, 14 Narasimha Rasayana, [5][6][7] and Triphala [15][16][17][18] possess radioprotective effects. In the current review, for the first time an attempt is made to summarize these observations with emphasis on the plausible reasons responsible for the radioprotective effects. ...
... [19][20][21] Exposure to ionizing radiation alters the balance and leads to the irreversible changes in the tridoshas that are visible as radiation sickness and when severe causes mortality. 15 The classical Ayurvedic drugs Amritaprasham, [5][6][7] Ashwaganda rasayana, [5][6][7] Brahma Rasayana, [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Chyavanaprasha, 14 Narasimha Rasayana, [5][6][7] and Triphala, [15][16][17][18] which belong to Rasayana group of drugs in Ayurveda (drug that imparts rejuvenating effects to the cell and tissues) are reported to possess radioprotective effects and are addressed in this review. ...
Article
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The use of ionizing radiation, which is the cornerstone of cancer treatment, is compromised by the radiosensitivity of normal tissues. A chemical that can give selective benefit to the normal cells against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation has been a long-sought goal. However, most of the compounds studied have shown inadequate clinical application owing to their inherent toxicity, undesirable side effects, and high cost. Studies carried out in the past 2 decades have shown that some of the classical Indian Ayurvedic drugs (Amritaprasham, Ashwagandha Rasayana, Brahma Rasayana, Chyavanprasha, Narasimha Rasayana, and Triphala Churna) possess radioprotective effects. In the current review, an attempt is made to summarize the radioprotective observations of these Ayurvedic drugs and the mechanisms responsible for the radioprotective effects.
... It is reported to retard brain ageing and help in regeneration of neural tissues with anti stress, adaptogenic and memory enhancing effects [2]. BR has often shown to be a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger in mice [4], heat stressed chicken [5] and cold stressed chicken [6]. BR has also been investigated as an anti-cancer agent, reducing the mass and incidence of palpable tumours in adult malignant rat prostrate tumor cell (MAT-LyLu) inoculated Copenhagen rats [7] and repressing the production of pro-angiogenic factors like vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) [8]. ...
... Singh et al. [35] evaluated the plant Tinospora cordifolia against oxidative stress on Swiss albino mice and found that SOD, catalase and GST levels were significantly increased in the lung whilst in the kidney, only catalase and SOD were increased at both dose levels of treatment given. However, Rekha et al [4,36] have shown that BR treatment resulted in increased levels of SOD and catalase in irradiated mice. Rekha et al [37] also examined free oxygen radical scavenging activity of BR in both in vivo and in vitro test systems and found that the lipid peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxides, nitric oxide and nitrite production were reduced by BR indicating antioxidant effect of BR. ...
Article
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Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Rasayana is one of the eight branches of Ayurveda which refers to rejuvenant therapy. It has been reported that rasayanas have immuno-modulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions, however, the genotoxic potential and modulation of DNA repair of many rasayanas have not been evaluated. The present study assessed the role of Brahmarasayana (BR) on Ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-and Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS)-induced genotoxicity and DNA repair in in vivo mouse test system. The mice were orally fed with BR (5 g or 8 mg / day) for two months and 24 h later EMS or MMS was given intraperitoneally. The genotoxicity was analyzed by chromosomal aberrations, sperm count, and sperm abnormalities. The results have revealed that BR did not induce significant chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of the control animals (p >0.05). On the other hand, the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg / kg body weight) or MMS (125 mg / kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) to that of the control group. The treatment of BR for 60 days and single dose of EMS or MMS on day 61, resulted in significant (p <0.05) reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in comparison to EMS or MMS treatment alone, indicating a protective effect of BR. Constitutive base excision repair capacity was also increased in BR treated animals. The effect of BR, as it relates to antioxidant activity was not evident in liver tissue however rasayana treatment was observed to increase constitutive DNA base excision repair and reduce clastogenicity. Whilst, the molecular mechanisms of such repair need further exploration, this is the first report to demonstrate these effects and provides further evidence for the role of brahmarasayana in the possible improvement of quality of life.
... They are widely used in prophylaxis against cardiovascular disease, relief from the discomfort associated with minor injuries and headaches and alleviation of the severe pain caused by a variety of inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases (Dubois et al., 1998) and chemoprevention of cancer (Hong and Sporn, 1997). It has been demonstrated that Rasayanas are potent inhibitors of inflammation as shown by reduction in paw edema induced by carrageenan (Rekha et al., 1997) and various experimentally induced inflammatory reactions (Jain et al., 1994). Moreover, it has been described that Rasayanas are potent drugs in alleviating rheumatoid arthritis (Chopra, 2000). ...
... So it was suggested that supplementation of antioxidants or free radical scavengers may ameliorate the initiation and progression of these diseases (Logani and Davies, 1980). It has been shown that Rasayanas are good scavengers of superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals and inhibitors of lipid peroxide formation in vitro (Rekha et al., 1997;Jose and Kuttan, 1995). Moreover, Rasayanas inhibited both serum and tissue lipid peroxide formation in animals treated with radiation (Praveen Kumar et al., 1996) or cyclophosphamide (unpublished) and serum lipid peroxides in healthy volunteers as well as patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy (Joseph et al., 1999). ...
Article
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Rasayanas are non-toxic Ayurvedic complex herbal preparations or individual herbs used to rejuvenate or attain the complete potential of an individual in order to prevent diseases and degenerative changes that leads to disease. The present paper reviews various activities of rasayanas to support the above concept, its role as a prophylactic medication and significance in the prevention of diseases in both healthy as well as diseased individuals. The emerging data suggest that the possible mechanisms may be by immunostimulation, quenching free radicals, enhancing cellular detoxification mechanisms, repair damaged non-proliferating cells, inducing cell proliferation and self-renewal of damaged proliferating tissues, and replenishing them by eliminating damaged or mutated cells with fresh cells.
... Brahma rasayana is a polyherbal formulation with action on cardio-vascular system, the central nervous system, and is proven antioxidant. [8,9] Patola katu rohinyadi kashaya is mainly indicated in liver diseases, psoriasis, allergic dermatitis, pemphigus vulgaris, It is helpful in preventing bacterial, fungal, or environmental allergens to breach the skin barrier. [10] Pancha valkala kwatha and Triphala kwatha also cleans and soothe the skin and prevent harmful biofilm, if applied locally. ...
Article
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Lichenoid dermatitis is a type of chronic eczema. Eczema can be correlated with Vicharchika (~wet eczema) described in Ayurveda. In acute conditions, this disease responds well to treatment, but in chronic presentations, it is difficult to manage due to its recurrent nature. Panchakarma (~five biopurification therapies) is well-known measure to improve the quality of life and prevention of recurrence in chronic diseases. In this case report, a 27-year-old male patient presented with chronic lichenoid dermatitis having symptoms of Kandu (~itching), Daha (~burning sensation), Ruja (~pain), Pidaka (~papules/eruptions), Srava (~discharge), Vaivarnya (~discoloration), and Rukshata (~dryness) treated with Ayurvedic interventions. Virechana (~therapeutic purgation) along with Ayurvedic oral medicines and wholesome dietary regimen were given for 12 weeks. Encouraging relief in various symptoms was observed after treatment. Rasayana (~rejuvenation) was also given to patient for prevention of recurrence. The patient has shown well tolerance and satisfactory adherence to treatment. No adverse event was reported during the course of therapy. After three months of treatment, disease progression was fully stopped and lesions resolved completely.
... These drugs helps to confers immunity against diseases and promotes longevity. [15,16] [18] In vitro and in vivo Caprinealphaherpes virus 1 (CpHV-1) ...
... These drugs helps to confers immunity against diseases and promotes longevity. [15,16] [18] In vitro and in vivo Caprinealphaherpes virus 1 (CpHV-1) ...
Article
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BACKGROUND: Viral pandemics/epidemics are emerging as one of the biggest challenge for medical fraternity and health-care policy makers. This is high time to explore traditional medicine systems such as Ayurveda, wherein measures such as Dincharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Sadvritta (good conduct/behavior), and Rasayana (rejuvenation measures) which are said to influence the homoeostatic mechanism of the host defense system along with interventions that may have a promising role in managing such diseases.
... After understanding the concepts of Ayurveda, in building immunity so that body can fight against any drug resistance pathogens, drugs and formulations which can do this task should be studied. The antioxidant potential of Bramha Rasayana 10 ...
... After understanding the concepts of Ayurveda, in building immunity so that body can fight against any drug resistance pathogens, drugs and formulations which can do this task should be studied. The antioxidant potential of Bramha Rasayana 10 ...
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Background – Antibiotic resistance is rising to dangerously high levels worldwide. WHO’s new Global Antimi- crobial Surveillance System (GLASS) reveals widespread occurrence of Antibiotic resistance among 500000 people with suspected bacterial infections across 22 countries. India is no different from it, facing the problem of rising cases of multidrug-resistant TB which adds to the burden of infectious disease in India. Aim – In this literary review problem, current scenario, causes and solution on Antibiotic Resistance from an Ayurvedic perspective will be assessed. Methodology - Articles on Antibiotic Resistance from research papers, journals, and various sites and basic principles from Samhitas and various Ayurvedic Journals, Articles and Research papers on this perspective will be reviewed. Conclusion – Conclusion will be drawn after a thorough literature review on the above subject. Keywords- Antibiotic Resistance, Panchkarma, Rasayana
... According to the Indian traditional system of medicines like Ayurveda, some rasayanas (group of nontoxic poly herbal drug preparations) and various plants with well-de ned antioxidant properties of which many of them are also immunostimulatory and can prevent the cause of disease and promote health and longevity (Scartezzini and Speroni 2000;Rekha, Kuttan and Kuttan 2001). ...
Preprint
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Arsenic toxicity is a worldwide geogenic problem for large number of populations. The major problem of arsenicosis is generation of free radicals and related genotoxicity, In the present study three plants species Ocimum gratissimum L., Ocimum sanctum , Ocimum basilicum , were examined by both in vivo and in vitro methods in Oryctolagus cuniculus L to know the free radical scavenging property in Sodium Arsenite induced oxidative stress and related genotoxicity. Oxidative stress was evaluated considering MDA, GSH, SOD, CAT & GPx, and genotoxicity was examined by comet assay and RAPD test. In the present study, Na 3 AsO 3 was found to generate free radicals in lymphocytes of O. cuniculus and best recovery was reported (MDA-4.78 ± 0.05; GSH-2.87 ± 0.50;SOD-1.78 ± 0.03;CAT-2.72 ± 0.02;GPx-7.43 ± 0.01) under exposure of ethanolic leaf extract of O. gratissimum . Na 3 AsO 3 was also found to cause polymorphic bands and increased comet tail in lymphocytes which was found significantly recovered by exposure of ethanolic leaf extract of O. gratissimum.
... The key ingredients include a film-forming material (polymer) and plasticizer. are not yet exposed and asymptomatic group can use Ayurvedic 'Swarna Prashana' and 'Rasayana' as potential immunity boosting agents [70][71][72][73]. This in combination with social distancing helps in preventing the spread of disease [74]. ...
Article
COVID-19 has spread out its wings across the globe and is taking away many lives. Millions of people are (self) quarantined to prevent the spread of this viral disease. World Health Organization (WHO) has affirmed that there is not any medicine for COVID-19. Besides, there is also no single drug that is approved by any regulatory agency for usage against this dangerous disease. Researchers across the globe are working tirelessly to fix an end to this virus and to save precious lives. While the research is in full swing, one is not sure whether they would come up with a chemical/herbal drug or a vaccine. Irrespective of the type of active ingredient for COVID-19, one needs to have a proper system to deliver the identified active ingredient to subjects/patients across the globe. Orodispersible films (ODFs) are excellent and attractive drug delivery carriers that have the potential to deliver drugs, herbal extracts, and vaccines. They are apt for patients who have a problem consuming traditional drug products such as tablets or capsules. The beauty of this dosage form is that it does not need water to consume by the subjects and can be readily administered to the tongue. The present review highlights the true potential of ODFs to act as a carrier for the delivery of various antiviral drugs/herbs/vaccines.
... [57] Rasayana act as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-stress, anti-microbial, and vaccine adjuvant, and provides immunity against diseases. [58][59][60][61] Antioxidants and immunomodulators could help to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases like swine flu; antioxidant supplement may be used in the management of swine flu and it may be taken as a preventive medicine throughout any infection phase. [62] This theory can be adopted in the management of all types of endemic/ pandemic diseases. ...
... Rejuvenation (Rasayana) drugs may enhance or influence memory, intelligence, arrests aging, stress and influences the metabolic process and thus can be used for both preventive and curative purpose. [35][36][37][38] The most commonly used Rasayana drugs are Amalaki, (Emblica officinalis), pippali (Piper longum), Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Triphala, Shilajit (Bitumen) Formulations like chyavanprash, Ashwagandha Lehya, Dhatri Rasayana, Brahma Rasayana etc. [39][40][41][42] ...
Article
Globalization has created a better market for Ayurveda formally and informally influencing consumer behavior. To get succeed in the international market, research in Ayurveda must be conducted in areas like health care, education and Industry. This can be accomplished by the dynamic participation of the Governing bodies with PPP (Public Private Partnership) and III (Industry Institution Interaction). As we are in the area of globalization, issues like Innovation and quality plays a vital role. There are certain key areas we must focus on like literary research, meta-physical theories of Ayurveda for data collection. The areas under limelight like drug discovery, standardization of herb- mineral preparations, diet and lifestyle, probiotics, nutraceuticals and also awareness require herb-drug interaction. Findings indicate that policy makers focus on long term issues needed and to solve the challenge before them by creating the network for research and development. PPP,FDI model should be utilized in the proper way to encourage innovation and road map to have to be introduced for teamwork between the government bodies, academia, industries.
... Modern researchers have proved that medicinal plants listed as Rasayana possess adaptogenic properties, non-specifically activate the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and other components of the immune system as well [53,54] . Rasayana act as antioxidant, anti-stress, antiinflammatory, anti-microbial, vaccine adjuvant and confer immunity against diseases [55] . In the selection of rasayana, it is to be kept in mind that the drugs preferably should have anti kapha-vata, shwasa-kasahara property so that effective in respiratory problems in the patient of COVID-19. ...
Article
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The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic health emergency, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most people infected with the COVID-19 virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Older people and those with underlying some medical problems are more likely to develop serious illness. Considering different classical and contemporary viewpoints, the newly identified COVID-19 can be categorized under agantuja vyadhi (exogenous disease) by inception, caused by bhoota (organisms), and transforming to nija (endogenous) leading to disequilibrium of kapha, vata, and pitta doshas and manifestation of clinical features of mainly pranavaha (cardio-pulmonary system), rasavaha (cardio-vascular system) and raktavaha (vascular and RES) srotas dushti (vitiation of channels). In Ayurveda, for a new disease, the treatment principle is designed on the basis of the nature of the disorder, etiology and location. Hence rasayana drugs for epidemic disease, disinfectants for microorganism, dosha (mainly kapha and vata) pacifying drugs and disease-location specific treatment i.e deepana (stomachic), pachana (digestive), shwasahara (anti-dyspnea) and kasahara (anti-cough) are being discussed in this paper. Apart from this, potential of mukhavaishadyakara (mouth cleansing agent), patimarsha-nasya (nasal smearing), krimighna (anti-viral), vishaghna (anti-toxic) and kshara (alkali) dravya (medicinal plants) are being highlighted as these groups of drugs are effective in subsiding kapha, vata, killing microorganism and protecting ojas (immunity) by virtue of their broad spectrum pharmacodynamic properties.
... The rationale for choice of rasayana drugs can be traced back to Samhita classics of Ayurveda as well as in contemporary research [14]. Rasayana act as antioxidant, anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, vaccine adjuvant, and confer immunity against diseases [31,32]. Further, according to Ayurveda classics, rasayana therapy [33], along with physical and social distancing from infected persons [34], constitute a core strategy to overcome epidemic and infectious diseases. ...
Article
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World community is facing an unprecedented pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2). The disease has spread globally with more than 1.43 million confirmed cases and 82,100 deaths as of April 8, 2020. Despite worldwide efforts to contain it, the pandemic is continuing to spread for want of a clinically-proven prophylaxis and therapeutic strategy. The dimensions of pandemic require an urgent harnessing of all knowledge systems available globally. Utilization of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Wuhan to treat COVID-19 cases sets the example demonstrating that traditional health care can contribute to treatment of these patients successfully. Drawing on the Ayurveda classics, contemporary scientific studies, and experiential knowledge on similar clinical settings, here we propose a pragmatic plan for intervention in India. We provide a plan for graded response, depending on the stage of infection among individuals, in a population. Notwithstanding the fact that no system of medicine has any evidence-based treatment for COVID-19 as yet, clinical interventions are required to be put in place. Therefore, pragmatic strategy proposed here for Ayurveda system of medicine requires immediate implementation. It will facilitate learning, generate evidence and shall be a way forward.
... Previous studies have also proven the efficacy of Brahma Rasayana for its antioxidant and tissue-regeneration capacity. 10 Oral administration of Brahma Rasayana (50 mg/dose/animal) is found to have free oxygen radical-scavenging activity in in vitro and in vivo models. 11 Another clinical study mentions an unexpected finding that the administration of Brahma Rasayana did not produce any significant increase in the total leukocyte or absolute counts of various WBCs or other hematological parameters, but there was a significant functional enhancement of lymphocytes in healthy volunteers. There was also a marginal increase in the serum granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in volunteers after ten days of Brahma Rasayana treatment when compared to the day prior to the start of Brahma Rasayana treatment. ...
... Previous studies have also proven the efficacy of Brahma Rasayana for its antioxidant and tissue-regeneration capacity. 10 Oral administration of Brahma Rasayana (50 mg/dose/animal) is found to have free oxygen radical-scavenging activity in in vitro and in vivo models. 11 Another clinical study mentions an unexpected finding that the administration of Brahma Rasayana did not produce any significant increase in the total leukocyte or absolute counts of various WBCs or other hematological parameters, but there was a significant functional enhancement of lymphocytes in healthy volunteers. There was also a marginal increase in the serum granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in volunteers after ten days of Brahma Rasayana treatment when compared to the day prior to the start of Brahma Rasayana treatment. ...
... The state of oxidative stress is overcome by the intake of antioxidants from the natural sources, such as plants. This fact correlates to the use of plants in the olden times as the major component of the traditional and 'Ayurvedic ' medicinal system (Scartezzinic et al., 2000;Rekha et al.,2001). ...
Research
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Excessive production of free radicals during metabolic processes, disrupt the antioxidant defense mechanisms of the body. This leads to oxidative stress, which is associated with the molecular damage of DNA, and increased lipid peroxidation of bio-membranes. The so-caused oxidative damage give rise to the acute conditions of pathogenecity. Such harmful conditions are prevented by the neutralizing agents, the antioxidants, that constitute the antioxidant defense system. The naturally occurring antioxidants occur in many of the medicinal plants. They are capable of scavenging free radicals, thereby inhibiting lipid peroxidation and reducing oxidative stress. One of such antioxidant rich plants known is Sphagneticola trilobata. The present study deals with the characterization of antioxidant property of the root extract of Sphagneticola trilobata, prepared in Methanol and Chloroform separately, in recovery of H 2 O 2 induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes of Oryctolagus cuniculus L. The oxidative stress increase lipid peroxidation in terms of MDA (Malondialdehyde), and alter adversely the activity of glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes, viz., GSH (Reduced Glutathione), GPx (Glutathione peroxidase), SOD (Superoxide dismutase) and CAT (Catalase) as well. The present work indicated that the antioxidant effectivity is restored with the pretreatment of Methanol root extract (MDA-1.97 ± 0.03; GSH-4.83 ± 0.04; SOD-2.64 ± 0.09 ; CAT-4.07 ± 0.04 ; GPx-8.19 ± 0.05), and Chloroform root extract (MDA-0.98 ± 0.04 ; GSH-4.99 ± 0.06 ; SOD-2.99 ± 0.03 ; CAT-4.79 ± 0.07 ; GPx-8.45 ± 0.15). However, the Chloroformic root extract was found more effective with antioxidant property than the Methanolic root extract.
... 13 Studies have proven that use of Chyavanaprasha reduces free radical genera- Brahmarasayana is reported to have antioxidant, myeloprotecting, immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, radioprotective and antitumour properties. [15][16][17][18][19][20] The formulation counteracts Vata due to its Guru and Snigdha Guna; Madhura Rasa and Vipaka; and Dhatu Pushtikara karma. Due to its Rochana, Dipana and Pachana Karma, it kindles the Agni, which in turn influences Dhatvagni, preventing the formation of Amadosha, which is the root cause of all the disease. ...
... In Ayurveda some rasayanas with well defined antioxidant properties have been prepared [4]. Rasayanas are a group of non-toxic poly-herbal drug preparations, many of them are immunostimulatory and prevent the causation of disease and promote health and longevity [5]. ...
Article
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Free radicals induce damage due to lipid peroxidation in biomembranes and DNA leading to a number of diseases. Antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevents the body from various disease. The present study evaluates the antioxidant potential of leaf extract of Adiantum capillus veneris Linn against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Incubation of peripheral blood lymphocytes with 100 µM H2O2 for 2 hours significantly increased lipid peroxidation and decreased the levels of glutathione and the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GPx). Pretreatment with plant leaves extract for 18 hours could effectively inhibit lipid peroxidation and enhance the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content significantly. The results indicate that this may be due to its direct action in scavenging free radicals and thereby modulating the antioxidant defence system.
... [29], [30] Rasayanas are a group of non toxic polyherbal drug preparations, which are immunostimulatory and thereby prevent the causation of disease [31] and promote health and longevity. [32] Triphala has been tested as an antioxidant and also as a radioprotector in mice. ...
Article
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Triphala is a popular polyherbal drug, which has been used to treat long list of diseases in the traditional systems from the ancient times. Acharya Charaka mentioned in his text as daily consumption of the Triphala for a period of one year, is act like Rasayana, makes a person live for hundred years. Triphala is a composite mixture of three herbs Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) and Vibhitali (Terminalia belerica) also known as the ‘three myrobalans’. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belongs to Euphorbiaceae, and Terminalia chebula Retz. Terminalia bellerica belongs to Combretaceae family. The generic name ‘Terminalia’ comes from Latin word ‘terminus’ or ‘terminalis’ (ending), and refers to the habit of the leaves being crowded or borne on the tips of the shoots. Throughout the world, there are lot of studies carried out on this, well established the knowledge and documented. Triphala is rich in Vitamin-C, gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, bellericanin, β-sitosterol and Flavonoids etc and a potent laxative, immumo modulator, antioxidant, antimicrobial, traditionally been used in eye diseases, stress, arthritis, colon diseases, etc. Present paper deals with antioxidant effect of individual plants and its combination (Triphala).
... [12,13] These formulations have shown promise in alleviating various free radicals induced physiological conditions. [14,15] Present study envisages to find out the ability of these ayurvedic formulations in reducing DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in mice model. ...
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Aim of Study: The present work aimed to examine the efficacy of two ayurvedic formulations, Brahma Rasayana (BRM) and Chyavanaprash (CHM) to alleviate doxorubicin (DOX) induced acute cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino mice were administered with DOX (25 mg/kg, i.p.) and two doses of BRM or CHM (1 and 2 g/kg). Cardiotoxicity was assessed by measuring the levels of various antioxidant parameters in the heart as well as release of marker enzymes in the serum was assayed. Histology of the heart was also performed to check for DOX-induced damages. Results: Administration of either BRM or CHM (1 and 2 g/kg) maintained the antioxidant status in the heart thereby preventing tissue damage as well as the release of marker enzymes. DOX-induced variation of cardiac architecture was also prevented by BRM and CHM administration. Conclusion: BRM and CHM administration could prevent DOX-induced acute cardiotoxicity.
... It is recommended for management of mental conditions, including anxiety, poor cognition and lack of concentration. In this regard, it has been shown to improve learning and memory in mice [201] , but, in addition, antioxidant [202][203] and immunostimulatory [204][205] activities have also been reported. It is claimed to be a potent immunomodulator in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation therapy. ...
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The roots of the concept of nutraceuticals and functional foods can be traced to the ancient Ayurvedic system of health care. The classical texts of Ayurveda are filled with scattered references of implication of food products in various disease conditions. Ayurvedic system advises a wide range of food preparations that can be consumed daily for improving quality of life by offering protection from external and internal stressors. Such preparations have been referred to as 'Aajasrik Rasayana'. This chapter details the various food preparations which can be consumed by common people as functional food/nutraceutical along with the Ayurvedic view on the concept of nutraceuticals and functional foods.
... β carotene bleaching assay was carried out according to the method developed by [14]. 2.0 mg of β carotene was dissolved in 20 ml of chloroform and its 3 ml was added to 20 μl of linoleic acid and 200 μl tween 40. ...
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Context: Barleria prionitis L. (Family Acanthaceae; commonly known as Vajradanti), is an annual shrub, 1–3 feet high, found throughout tropical Asia and in South Africa. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 50% ethanolic extract of leaf, flower, and stem of B. prionitis by using β carotene bleaching assay, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity). Total phenolic content (TPC) was analysed by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method using gallic acid as standard and expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Results: Total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) in B. prionitis leaves were found to be 67.48 mg/g GAE dry plant material and 79.20%. The B. prionitis leaves exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC 50 values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (336.15 μg/ml) and hydroxyl radical (568.65 μg/ml) methods. Conclusions: The leaf of B. prionitis possesses high phenolic content, potential antioxidant activity, reducing power & radical scavenging activity in comparison to flower and stem.
... The family of GPx enzymes includes the "classic" enzyme GPx-1 along with the isoforms GPx-2, GPx-3 and GPx-4 (Maiorino et al., 1995). When the anti-oxidant defense system cannot sufficiently eradicate excessive ROS, exogenous anti-oxidants can have a protective effect (Rekha et al., 2001). Previous studies have shown that ingesting vitamin C, vitamin E and several other micronutrients through food sources can attenuate ROS-induced oxidative damage in renal tissues (Wardle, 1999;Bucioli et al., 2011;Zhan et al., 2011;Ishitsuka et al., 2013). ...
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Heat stress stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which cause oxidative damage in the kidney. This study clarifies the mechanism by which saikosaponin-d (SSd), which is extracted from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum L, protects heat-stressed pig kidney proximal tubular (LLC-PK1) cells against oxidative damage. SSd alone is not cytotoxic at concentrations of 1 or 3 μg/mL as demonstrated by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. To assess the effects of SSd on heat stress-induced cellular damage, LLC-PK1 cells were pretreated with various concentrations of SSd, heat stressed at 42°C for 1 h, and then returned to 37°C for 9 h. DNA ladder and MTT assays demonstrated that SSd helped to prevent heat stress-induced cellular damage when compared to untreated cells. Additionally, pretreatment with SSd increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in a dose-dependent manner when compared to controls. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that SSd significantly increased the expression of copper and zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), CAT, GPx-1 and heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these results are the first to demonstrate that SSd ameliorates heat stress-induced oxidative damage by modulating the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes and HSP72 in LLC-PK1 cells.
... Da die Behandlung nach dem klassischen Ayurvedakonzept sehr individualisert ist, ist es schwierig klinische Studien mit großer Fallzahl zu generieren. Aus diesem Grund gibt es aktuell leider nur wenige randomisierte, doppelt blinde klinische Studien zu diesem Thema [73, 74]. Es existieren viele " case reports " , die in der westlichen Welt jedoch nicht einfach akzeptiert werden. ...
Article
Ayurveda is from a global viewpoint the oldest and the most employed traditional form of medicine in India. The difference to western medicine is that this form of medicine is based on experience, empirical evidence and intuition accumulated over thousands of years and passed down through generations orally as well as by sketches. Ayurveda is not only concerned with the physical but also with the spiritual aspects of the body and according to this doctrine most diseases result from psychological and pathological alterations in the body. Ultimately, the definition of health according to Ayurveda is an equilibrium between the physical, mental and spiritual components. Ayurvedic medicine is used within the framework of the treatment of urolithiasis for diuresis, for litholysis, as an analgetic for spasms and with an antimicrobial function.
... β carotene bleaching assay was carried out according to the method developed by [18] ...
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Cleome viscosa L. (Capparidaceae), commonly known as “wild mustard”, is an annual, sticky herb found as common weed all over the plains of India and throughout the tropics of the world. In traditional systems of medicine the plant is reported to possess beneficial effects as an anthelmintic, antiseptic, carminative, antiscorbutic, febrifuge, and cardiac stimulant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of 70% methnolic extract of leaf and stem part of Cleome viscosa (CV) by using different in vitro model such as β carotene bleaching assay, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity). Total phenolic content were estimated by the Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method using gallic acid as standard and expressed as mg/g gallic acid equivalent (GAE) and total flavonoid content was estimated by aluminium chloride colourimetric method. The total phenolic, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of Cleome viscosa leaves were found to be 66.38±0.82mg/g, 0.54±0.04mg/g and 77.30% respectively. Cleome viscosa leaves showed high free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC50 values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (373.18 μg/ml) and hydroxyl radical (573.55 μg/ml) methods. Cleome viscosa leaves possess high phenolic, flavonoid content and potential antioxidant activity, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity in comparison to stem.
... It is recommended for management of mental conditions, including anxiety, poor cognition and lack of concentration. In this regard, it has been shown to improve learning and memory in mice [4] , but, in addition, antioxidant [12,13] and immunostimulatory [14,15] activity have been reported. Furthermore, it has been found to decrease palpable tumor incidence, and to reduce the tumor weight in MAT-LyLu cell inoculated Copenhagen rats. ...
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Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.
... Besides, this deficiency in smokers may be enhanced by their generally lower intake of both supplementary and dietary antioxidants (8). When the normal level of antioxidant defense system is inadequate for the eradication of excessive free radicals, supplementation of exogenous antioxidants has a protective role to play (9). Numerous micronutrients and antioxidants of natural origin have been experimentally showed as efficient protective agents against cigarette smoking induced oxidative stress (10)(11)(12)(13). ...
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Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases. However, it may be possible to relieve the smoke-induced damage by increasing the defensive system. In this study, we planned to evaluate the protective mechanism of Sesbania grandiflora (S. grandiflora) leaves against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney of rats. Adult male Wistar-Kyoto rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 90 days and consecutively treated with S. grandiflora aqueous suspension (SGAS, 1000 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage) for a period of 3 weeks. Hepatic marker enzymes like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), as well as renal markers such as urea and creatinine were analysed in serum. Lipid peroxidation marker mainly thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and antioxidant enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels were studied. In addition, micronutrients mainly copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) levels were analyzed in liver and kidney of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. The results indicated that SGAS significantly decreased the elevated hepatic, renal and lipid peroxidation markers and ameliorated the diminished antioxidant levels while restored the hepatic and renal architecture in cigarette smoke-exposed rats. This study concludes that S. grandiflora leaves restrain cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage in liver and kidney of rats.
... Molecular oxygen, besides being a terminal oxidant indispensable for the production of metabolic energy can also yield (5% of total oxygen) reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS and free radicals which are formed in the body as a consequence of normal metabolic reactions, by exposure to ionizing radiation and by the influence of many xenobiotics are indicated in the causation of several diseases [1]. ROS include superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl free radical, all of which have one or more unpaired electrons that potentially cause damage to the respiring cells. ...
Article
Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80μg/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy.
... Therefore, it was concluded that BR was nontoxic. However, for all experiments the dose used was 2.0 g/kg b.w, which was at par with the dose administered to mice, that is, for 50 mg of mouse 25 g .wt. [8] Cold stress regime ...
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To evaluate the antioxidant status of chicken during cold stress and to investigate if there are any beneficial effects of Brahma Rasayana supplementation in cold stressed chicken. Activities of enzymatic and levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants in blood / serum and liver tissue were evaluated in chicken exposed to cold (4 +/- 10C and relative humidity of 40 +/- 5%, for six consecutive hours daily, for 5 or 10 days). The antioxidant properties of Brahma Rasayana (BR) supplementation (2 g/kg daily, orally) during cold stress was also studied. There was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in antioxidant enzyme in the blood, such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), and serum reduced glutathione (GSH) in cold stressed chicken. Serum and liver lipid peroxidation levels were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in cold stressed untreated chickens when compared to the treated and unstressed groups. There was also a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the antioxidant enzymes in the blood, such as, catalase (CAT) and SOD, in the liver CAT and SOD, and in GPX and GR in BR-treated cold stressed chicken, when compared to the untreated controls. Results of the present study conclude that in chicken, BR supplementation during cold stress brings about enhanced actions of the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, which nullify the undesired side effects of free radicals generated during cold stress.
... Further, this deficiency in smokers may be enhanced by their generally lower intake of both supplementary and dietary antioxidants ( Zondervan et al., 1996). When the normal level of antioxidant defense system is insufficient for the eradication of excessive free radicals, administration or supplementation of exogenous antioxidants has a protective role to play (Rekha et al., 2001). Several micronutrients and antioxidants of natural origin have been experimentally proved as effective protective agents against smoking induced oxidative stress ( Sohn et al., 1993;Dilsiz et al., 1999;Helen et al., 1999;Koul et al., 2001). ...
Article
Free radicals mediated oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases and antioxidant nutrients are reported to prevent the oxidative damage induced by smoking. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant role of bacoside A (triterpenoid saponin isolated from Bacopa monniera) against chronic cigarette smoking induced oxidative damage in rat brain. Adult male albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke for a period of 12 weeks and simultaneously administered with bacoside A (10 mg/kg b.w./day, p.o.). Antioxidant status of the brain was assessed from the levels of reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin A and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The levels of copper, iron, zinc and selenium in brain and serum ceruloplasmin activity were also measured. Oxidative stress was evident from the diminished levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Alterations in the levels of trace elements with accumulation of copper and iron, and depletion of zinc and selenium were also observed. Bacoside A administration improved the antioxidant status and maintained the levels of trace elements. These results suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure enhances oxidative stress, thereby disturbing the tissue defense system and bacoside A protects the brain from the oxidative damage through its antioxidant potential.
... Currently, the research interest is focused on the potential role of traditional medicines (Unani formulation, Khamira Abresham Uood Mastigi Wala) ( Yousuf et al., 2005) and herbal extracts ( Salim et al., 2003;Ahmad et al., 2005), which have the antioxidant properties for the treatment and protection of cerebral ischemia, Parkinson's disease, atherosclerosis, heart failure, aging, cancer, diabetes mellitus and several other diseases ( Ajitha and Rajnarayana, 2001;Rekha et al., 2001). Treatment of cognitive impairments and neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease (AD) with Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala (KAHAW) a common traditional medicine (Unani formulation), has shown a potential role for the treatment and protection. ...
Article
Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala (KAHAW) is an effective and potent cardiac tonic with well-known antioxidant properties. The extensive use of this preparation in Indian system of Unani medicine led us to hypothesize that the pretreatment of this drug to male Wistar rats would prevent cognitive and neurobehavioral impairments. The cognitive impairment was developed by giving single intracerebroventricular injection of 1.5 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ) bilaterally. An increased latency and path length was observed in cognitive, i.e. STZ group as compared to sham group and these were restored significantly in STZ group pretreated with KAHAW (700 mg/kg body weight for 15 days). The activity of antioxidant enzymes, viz. glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase was decreased in STZ group as compared to sham group and pretreatment of STZ group with KAHAW has protected their activities significantly. Moreover, the significantly depleted content of reduced glutathione and significantly elevated level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in STZ group were protected significantly with KAHAW. The study concludes that the therapeutic intervention of KAHAW may be used to prevent or to decrease the deterioration of cognitive function and neurobehavioral activities, often associated with the generation of free radicals.
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We are presenting a case of 51‐year‐old female patient, diagnosed with high‐grade NHL‐DLBCL by PET‐CT scan. Immediately, she was started with Rasayana therapy, a specially designed anti‐cancer treatment regimen by our clinic. We observed significant clinical improvement and regression in tumor size in this patient after treatment. Ayurveda‐based Rasayana therapy may serve as a safe and effective alternative treatment option for lymphoma patients who are not eligible for conventional standard of care.
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Purpose of Review In the last month of 2019, i.e., December, COVID-19 hit Wuhan city in China. Since then, it has infected more than 210 countries and nearly about 33.4 million people with one million deaths globally. It is a viral disease with flu-like symptoms; hence, prevention and management is the best option to be adopted for its cure. Recent Findings Many healthcare systems, scientists, and researchers are fighting for the cure of this pandemic. Ayurvedic and allopathic treatments have been studied extensively and approached for the cure of COVID-19. In addition to ayurvedic treatments, the Ministry of Ayush, India, has also recommended many remedies to boost up immunity. Allopathic studies involved several antiviral drugs which were used in different combinations for the treatment of COVID-19. Summary Comparative analysis of Ayurveda and allopathic treatment strategies were carried out in the present study. Depending upon the patient’s conditions and symptoms, Ayurveda is useful for the treatment of COVID-19. Allopathic treatments inhibit viral infection by targeting majorly endocytosis, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (Ace) receptor signaling. In this article, we summarize different ayurvedic and allopathic medicines and treatment strategies which have been used for the treatment of COVID-19, a global pandemic.
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Despite their historical praise, specialty studies and practices are not generally seen in current Ayurvedic education and practice. Current Ayurvedic education by and large is devoid of training programs focusing upon specialty based health care delivery. This makes many disappointed who look at Ayurveda for a focused and specialized health care. The consequences of this gap in demand and supply are alarmingly obvious. With its unfocused health care approach, the Ayurvedic health care remains generic for large section of its delivery. There are no referral settings in Ayurveda to get a higher level of care better than the one offered at a primary health care setting. This apparent lack of expertise care in Ayurveda shifts it as an alternative health care used only on the instances of failure of other trusted options. Specialty clinical practices in Ayurveda seem highly important in order to build the trust and to enhance its quality of health care delivery. Our preliminary observations from a deemed arthritis clinic at an Ayurveda teaching hospital, visited by a diverse joint disease population carves a path in this direction and proposes the possibilities of using it as a template for the qualitative improvements in Ayurvedic health care delivery in the country in various clinical areas.
Chapter
Nature has been a source of medicinal products for many years, with many useful drugs developed from plant sources. Plant-based systems continue to play an essential role in healthcare, and their use by different cultures has been extensively documented. Several secondary metabolites from plant sources have proved to be an excellent reservoir of new medical compounds. Many anti-cancer agents have been isolated from various plant sources. Attempts to explore new anti-cancer and other medical compounds from natural sources are progressing in various laboratories. This chapter outlines the process of carcinogenesis potential anti-cancer agents, ayurvedic concept of carcinogenesis, the ‘thridoshas’, the correction methods, databases of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents, chemotherapeutic and chemoprotective activities of the compounds and their molecular targets. Curcuminoids, boswellic acid, polyphenols like catechin, procyanidins, camptothecin, cannabinoids, resveratrol, diallyl disulphide, combrestatin, ashwagandha, tanshinones, polygala, and ayurvedic formulations are among the ones discussed.
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Kidneys are the organs that have numerous biological roles. They maintain the homeostatic balance of body fluids by removing waste out of body. Kidney disease not only has a significant morbidity, but a high mortality as well. Chronic Kidney disease (CKD) or Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) refers to an irreversible deterioration in renal function, which develops over a period of years. This initially manifests only as a biochemical abnormality. CKD is considered when Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) falls below 30 ml/min. The conventional approach of management includes dialysis and renal transplantation, which are involving the high costs and complexity so very few patients are able to obtain adequate treatment for kidney disorders because of financial limitation. Therefore, exploration of a safe and alternative therapy is needed, which proves to be helpful in reducing the requirement of dialysis and in postponing the renal transplantation. The use of herbal drugs for the prevention and treatment of various diseases is constantly developing throughout the world. In present study a case was taken of chronic kidney disease with hypertension and chronic nephritis. He was given Niruha basti of Punarnavadi kvatha daily with oral polyherbal medicaments including Goksuradi guggulu, Rasayana churna, Tamalaki rasayan and Varunadi kvatha. This treatment approach has significantly improved condition of patient eliminating dialysis requirement.
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The stems of Viburnum punctatum, Viburnum coriaceum and Viburnum erubescens were collected from Nilgiri Hills and Coimbatore, Tamilnadu and taxonomically authenticated. Herbaria of the species were submitted to the museum of the place of research studies. The samples were shade dried for a week. About 500 g of powdered samples were extracted with petroleum ether (60-80 °C), benzene and 75 % (v/v) ethanol successively in a soxhlator one by one and followed by determination of percentage extractives. The extracts were qualitatively tested for different chemical constituents present. The ethanolic extracts were selected for further investigations, such as total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant potential. It was revealed that all the three species exhibited a significant antioxidant potential against the reference compounds subjected and antioxidant potential among three species was ascending in series: V. coriaceum > V. punctatum > V. erubescens.
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Oxygen free radicals induce damage due to peroxidation to biomembranes and also to DNA, which lead to tissue damage, thus cause occurrence of a number of diseases. Antioxidants neutralise the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Antioxidants may be synthetic or natural. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have recently been reported to be dangerous for human health. Thus, the search for effective, non-toxic natural compounds with antioxidative activity has been intensified in recent years. The present review includes a brief account of research reports on plants with antioxidant potential. © 2014, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
Chapter
Aging, a physiological state in which there is a progressive decline in organ functions, delay in regeneration, and development of age-related diseases, is a multifactorial process. Free radicals are proposed to initiate/enhance aging, and antioxidants and phytochemicals have been shown to possess anti-aging properties. These drugs are also believed to be good tonics, rejuvenatives, immune stimulators, and adaptogens. Regular consumption of these drugs is considered to enhance physical strength, increase sex drive, and improve the complexion. They are mostly polyherbal in composition, and are comprised of medicinal plants, minerals, pearls, and coral. This chapter addresses, for the first time, the benefit and scientifically validated properties of commonly used Rasayana drugs such as Amalakayas Rasayana, Triphala, Chyawanprash, Aamalaki Rasayana, Amrita Rasayana, Brahm Rasayana, Ashwagandha Rasayana, Narasimha Rasayana, Brahmi Rasayana Amritaprasham, Anwala churna, and Amalkadi Ghrita with emphasis on the possible mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effects of these drugs.
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Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) are rich in polyphernols and antioxidants and in constant use as food and nutritional supplements in many traditional diets throughout the world. Both plants reportedly possess beneficial effects in jaundice, high fever, measles, diabetes, and cardiac problem. Despite immense potentiality, limited work was done regarding antioxidant potential in different genotypes of these two legumes, useful in phytomedicinal and pharmacological formulations. The objective of the present study was to assess the antioxidant composition and activity of ethanolic extract (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) of seeds (edible grain) of three improved genotypes each in lentil and grass pea. Total phnolics and flavonoids were estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method and aluminium chloride method, respectively. Condensed tannin (pro anthocyanidins) content was determined using leucocyanidin (LE) equivalent. Antioxidant activity was ascertained by different in vitro protocols such as DPPH, β-carotene bleaching assay, reducing power and free radical scavenging activity. Among the genotypes, IPL 406 in lentil and BioL 212 in grass pea showed the best performance with highest phenolic and flavonoid content and superior antioxidant activity as evidenced in potential FRAP, bleaching assay and by the low IC50 values in DPPH, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging assay compared to Wbl 58 and B 256 in lentil and B1 and BioR 231 in grass pea. The six genotypes differed significantly (P< 0.05) in antioxidant content and activity. Both legumes are potential enough as phytomedicinal and functional foods with ample scope for genotype-wise phyto-nutrient profiling.
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Ayurveda ist global gesehen das älteste System und die zumeist angewandte Naturheilkunde in Indien. Der Unterschied zur westlichen Medizin besteht darin, dass diese Heilkunde auf jahrtausendealte Erfahrungswerte, Empirie und Intuition basiert. Diese wurden über Generationen sowohl mündlich als auch über Aufzeichnungen übermittelt. Ayurveda bezieht sich nicht nur auf den Körper, sondern auch auf den Geist. Demnach resultieren die meisten Krankheiten durch die psychophysiologischen und pathologischen Veränderungen im Körper. Letztendlich ist die ausgeglichene Balance zwischen Körper, Geist und Seele die ayurvedische Definition von Gesundheit. Ayurvedische Medizin wird im Rahmen der Behandlung der Urolithiasis zur Diurese, zur Litholyse, spasmoanalgetisch und antimikrobiell eingesetzt.
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Exposure to ionizing radiation reduces the cellular antioxidants and causes damage to genomic DNA. In the mammalian system, this results in various radiation syndromes depending on the radiation dose. Commercially available ayurvedic formulations, Brahma Rasayana (BRM) and Chyavanaprash (CHM) were analysed for their ability to restore the cellular antioxidant status and enhance the repair of radiationinduced DNA damages. The antioxidant status in various tissues of mice was restored when these formulations were orally administered, following wholebody exposure to gamma radiation. Administration of these formulations to 4 Gy whole-body gammairradiated mice resulted in faster cellular DNA repair, as revealed from the increased cellular repair index and decrease in the formation of micronucleus. This work suggests the possibility of using BRM or CHM as a therapeutic radioprotector during unplanned, accidental ionizing radiation exposure scenario.
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Flavonoids are low molecular weight, polyphenolic compounds present in majority of vascular plants, possessing many therapeutic activities vis a vis antioxidant activity. The present review discuss the chemical nature, mechanism of action, current status, pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic studies, industrial significance, nutritive value in health system and analysis of flavonoids with the recent technology.
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Four successive and two crude extracts of Aporosa lindleyana Baill. root were tested for antioxidant activity using standard in vitro and in vivo models. The successive methanol and ethyl acetate and crude 50% methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity with IC50 values 3.51+/-0.27, 6.09+/-1.00 and 7.34+/-0.46 microg/ml, respectively, in DPPH method. In the nitric oxide radical inhibition method, the successive ethyl acetate, petroleum ether and methanol extracts showed antioxidant activity. The successive methanol extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight administered for 5 days prior to CCl4 treatment caused a significant increase in the levels of catalase and SOD and a significant decrease in the level of TBARS in liver, kidney and blood, when compared to CCl4 treated control. These results indicate strong antioxidant nature of Aporosa lindleyana root. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies against normal Vero cell lines indicate non-toxic nature of the root extracts. The study provides a proof for the ethnomedical and reported biological activities.
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In complete freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in male albino rats, a significant increase in serum lipid peroxidase besides increase in paw swelling and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total reduced glutathione levels were observed. Arthritin produced a marked reversal of these enzyme levels, besides a significant reduction in paw swelling. The results suggest that, the polyherbal formulation 'Arthritin' exerts its effects by modulating lipid peroxidation and enhancing anti-oxidant and detoxifying enzyme systems.
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