Article

Alcohol consumption and health-promoting behavior in a U.S. Household sample: Leisure-time physical activity

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Hypothesizing that people who moderate their alcohol intake engage in other health-promoting cardioprotective behavior, this research explored associations between alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity. Data representative of the U.S. population (N = 41,104; 52.5% women) were derived from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, which employed a multistage probability design. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, using lifetime abstainers as the reference group. An inverted J-shaped curve characterized the association between estimates of alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity, in which likelihood of displaying a physically active lifestyle (odds ratios) increased from abstinence (1.00) to moderate drinking (1.84), then declined at heavier consumption (1.61). Stratified analyses yielded similar results with peaks at light or moderate consumption for current smokers, persons aged 55 and over, and those with cardiovascular risk conditions. As activity intensity increased, the inverted J-shaped curve persisted with more pronounced peaks at moderate drinking. Robust findings of an association between cardioprotective leisure-time physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption provide evidence for a health-promoting lifestyle that may play an explanatory role in the alcohol-coronary heart disease relationship.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... 17 Others have found very weak correlations 18 or evidence that seems to suggest that moderate drinkers are more likely to adopt physically active lifestyles. 19 Lack of research consensus on the relationships between alcohol use and exercise could be due to a number of factors, including sample heterogeneity, inconsistent measures for alcohol use, analysis methods used, and differential statistical power. For example, although the majority of the published literature used dichotomous measures for alcohol consumption, there is great inconsistency in the categories used, as well as the cutoff points used to construct these. ...
... Drinking categories include: heavy drinkers, [20][21][22] risky drinkers, 23,24 binge drinkers, 14 and, most frequently, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers. 19,[25][26][27] To provide new and more generalizable information on this important topic, the present study examines the association between drinking and physical activity in a nationally representative sample of the U.S. adult population. It applies both bivariate and multivariate statistical methods that control for several potentially confounding variables. ...
... Third, previous studies suggest that moderate drinkers exercise more than abstainers or other drinking categories. 19 To account for different relationships across the drinking continuum, we used the constructed measure of number of drinks and categorized the alcohol use data into four drinking categories: current abstainers (did not consume alcohol within the 30 days prior to interview date), current light drinkers (consumed 1 to 14 alcoholic drinks if female and 1 to 29 alcoholic drinks if male within the 30 days prior to interview date), current moderate drinkers (consumed 15 to 45 alcoholic drinks if female and 30 to 75 alcoholic drinks if male within the 30 days prior to interview date), and current heavy drinkers (consumed more than 46 alcoholic drinks if female and more than 76 alcoholic drinks if male within the 30 days prior to interview date). Several published studies that analyzed the clustering of different health risk behaviors 19,26,27 used similarly constructed drinking categories. ...
Article
Full-text available
Investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity because understanding whether there are common determinants of health behaviors is critical in designing programs to change risky activities. Cross-sectional analysis. United States. A sample of adults representative of the U.S. population (N = 230,856) from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Several measures of drinking and exercise were analyzed. Specifications included numerous health, health behavior, socioeconomic, and demographic control variables. For women, current drinkers exercise 7.2 more minutes per week than abstainers. Ten extra drinks per month are associated with 2.2 extra minutes per week of physical activity. When compared with current abstainers, light, moderate, and heavy drinkers exercise 5.7, 10.1, and 19.9 more minutes per week. Drinking is associated with a 10.1 percentage point increase in the probability of exercising vigorously. Ten extra drinks per month are associated with a 2.0 percentage point increase in the probability of engaging in vigorous physical activity. Light, moderate, and heavy drinking are associated with 9.0, 14.3, and 13.7 percentage point increases in the probability of exercising vigorously. The estimation results for men are similar to those for women. Our results strongly suggest that alcohol consumption and physical activity are positively correlated. The association persists at heavy drinking levels.
... Nevertheless, extreme forms of alcohol abuse may be so overwhelming that physical activity becomes impossible. One study that was very heterogeneous in terms of demographics and alcohol use disorders (6) found an inverted U-shaped relation for drinking, peaking physical activity levels were associated with moderate drinking, and declined with heavy drinkers. ...
... French et al. (2) found that alcohol consumption was positively related to physical activity; though the possibility of a non-linear relationship between the two characteristics was not explored. Another study (6) found an inverted U-shaped curve, peaking for physical activity levels at moderate drinking, and declining with heavy drinkers. ...
... Although there seems to be a relation between physical activity and alcohol use behavior in population-based samples (2,6), it is unclear whether this relation extends to alcohol use pathology. This is an important gap in the literature, given that alcohol use disorders are associated with morbidity and mortality and may result in impairment that could interfere with ability to exercise (8). ...
... Voor vrouwen waren deze cijfers respectievelijk 22% en 17% lager. Ook bleek dat lichte en matige gebruikers (4 tot 8,5 glazen per week voor vrouwen en tot 16,8 glazen voor mannen) meer sportten in hun vrijetijd dan niet-drinkers en zware drinkers [49]. Hieruit kan gedestilleerd worden dat normaal, dat wil zeggen matig alcoholgebruik, onafhankelijk van andere factoren, leidt tot een lagere consumptie van gezondheidszorg. ...
... Als type drinker onderscheidde men: nietdrinkers (26% van de groep), lichte drinkers (30%, gemiddeld 1,5 glas per week), matige drinkers (20%, gemiddeld 1 glas per dag), onregelmatige drinkers (14%: 3 tot 4 glazen per keer en dat 2 tot 3 maal per week) en zware drinkers (8%; meer dan 5 glazen per keer en vaker dan 4 keer per week). De matige drinkers deden meer aan lichaamsbeweging (zie ook [49]), rookten na de niet-drinkers het minst, hadden een als gezond beschouwde voeding en zagen gezondheid als een zeer belangrijke waarde. Ze beleefden plezier aan het gebruik van alcohol en waren het dan ook niet eens met het idee dat een glaasje op de lange termijn de gezondheid zou kunnen schaden. ...
... Ze beleefden plezier aan het gebruik van alcohol en waren het dan ook niet eens met het idee dat een glaasje op de lange termijn de gezondheid zou kunnen schaden. De conclusie was dan ook dat de matige drinker plezier beleeft aan een glaasje en zorgvuldiger met zijn gezondheid omgaat, wat zich uit in activiteiten die van belang zijn voor zijn gezondheid [49]. Met deze gewetensvolheid verlengt hij onbewust zijn levensduur en verkleint hij de kans voortijdig aan iets te overlijden [12,54] ...
Chapter
Full-text available
... Previous research has shown that abstainers are a diverse group consisting of both healthy individuals and those with health problems limiting their ability to exercise. 29,30 Abstainers in the current study had the lowest self-rated health of all participants. However, with the exception of young females, abstainers were also over-represented in the highest (5 times/week) exercise frequency category (data not shown), illustrating the heterogeneity of this group. ...
... This inconsistency could be attributable to differences in methodology. Previous studies have often used abstainers as their reference category, 29,31 whereas we used non-hazardous drinkers. Considering the health issues reported by abstainers, 30 this may not be the optimal reference group for assessing these relationships. ...
... Non-hazardous drinkers report fewer health problems and are more representative of drinking behavior in the general population. 29,30 Another key difference is that we divided hazardous drinkers into 2 groups (low and high), based on the distribution of AUDIT-C scores. This categorization revealed associations that may not have been detected in studies of "risky" or "heavy" drinkers, where the consumption categories included a wider distribution of drinkers compared to the low/high hazardous categories used here. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To describe physical activity habits, sedentary behavior, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels among alcohol abstainers, hazardous and non-hazardous drinkers. Design Cross-sectional study with data collected between 2017-19. Setting Sweden. Subjects Adults aged 18-65 years (n = 47,559; 59.4% male). Measures During a routine health assessment, participants answered validated single-item questions regarding: habitual physical activity, structured exercise, and the percentage of time spent sedentary during leisure-time (past 30 days), and completed a 6-minute cycle ergometer test (V02max) to determine cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Participants were categorized as alcohol abstainers, non-hazardous drinkers or hazardous drinkers (low/high) based on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) cut-points for men and women. Analysis Logistic regression models stratified by sex and age. Results Compared to non-hazardous drinkers, the heaviest drinkers were less physically active (males: OR = 1.38, CI = 1.13-1.67, p = .001; females: OR = 1.41, CI = 1.01-1.97, p = .040) and more sedentary during leisure time (males: OR = 1.94, CI = 1.62-2.32, p = .000; females: OR = 1.62, CI = 1.21-2.16, p = .001). Apart from young females, the heaviest drinkers also did less structured exercise than non-hazardous drinkers (males: OR = 1.22, CI = 1.15-1.51, p = .000; females: OR = 1.43, CI = 1.15-1.78, p = .001). The strongest associations were seen among adults aged 40-65 years (shown here). High-hazardous drinking was associated with low CRF among older males only (OR = 1.19, CI = 1.00-1.41). Conclusion Middle-aged adults with AUDIT-C scores of ≥6 (women) and ≥7 (men) were less physically active and more sedentary during leisure time and may be appropriate targets for physical activity interventions.
... Moreover, a significant positive association was found between daily grams of alcohol intake and PA. These results are consistent with Smothers and Bertolucci work [35] which showed that PA increased with alcohol intake in a dose-dependent manner from abstinence to moderate drinking, before declining at heavier drinking. In our study, MOD, independently of the drinking pattern, practiced more outdoor activities like walking for pleasure, climbing stairs, playing with kids and swimming compared with ABS. ...
... In our study, MOD, independently of the drinking pattern, practiced more outdoor activities like walking for pleasure, climbing stairs, playing with kids and swimming compared with ABS. A number of population-based studies have previously reported the association between leisure-time PA and moderate alcohol consumption, and it has been considered as an evidence for a health-promoting lifestyle [35][36][37][38][39]. The associations have been found between alcohol and amount of PA practice or METs [39,40], intensity [35,41] or minutes per week PA practice [38]. ...
... A number of population-based studies have previously reported the association between leisure-time PA and moderate alcohol consumption, and it has been considered as an evidence for a health-promoting lifestyle [35][36][37][38][39]. The associations have been found between alcohol and amount of PA practice or METs [39,40], intensity [35,41] or minutes per week PA practice [38]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This work was aimed to study the relationships of moderate alcohol intake and the type of beverages consumed with health behaviors and quality of life in elderly people. Methods In this observational study, 231 subjects (55–85 years) voluntarily answering to advertisements were enrolled and divided in three study groups: abstainers and occasional consumers (ABS; n = 98), moderate drinkers of beer (BEER; n = 63) and moderate drinkers of all sorts of alcoholic beverages (MIXED; n = 70). Variables assessed included physical activity, activities of daily living, Mediterranean diet-adherence score, tobacco consumption, quality of sleep, body composition, medication and perception of health through the SF-36 questionnaire. Their relationship with alcohol consumption was assessed through general linear models including confounding variables (age, sex, chronic disease prevalence and socioeconomic status). ABS were also compared to moderate drinkers (MOD = BEER + MIXED). Results The mean daily alcohol consumption in each group was (mean ± SD): ABS: 0.7 ± 1.1; BEER: 12.7 ± 8.1; MIXED: 13.9 ± 10.2 g/day. MOD and MIXED showed significantly higher physical activity (metabolic standard units; METs) than ABS (p = 0.023 and p = 0.004, respectively). MOD spent significantly less time doing housework activities than ABS (p = 0.032). Daily grams of alcohol consumption were significantly associated with METs (B = 21.727, p = 0.023). Specifically, wine consumption (g/day) was associated with METs (B = 46.196, p = <0.001) and showed borderline significant relationships with mental health (B = 0.245, p = 0.062) and vitality perception (B = 0.266, p = 0.054). Conclusion Moderate alcohol consumption, and in particular wine consumption, is associated with a more active lifestyle and better perception of own health in the Spanish elderly subjects studied.
... For an excellent recent review of studies documenting the link between activity and alcohol intake, see Ref. (10). One of the first indications of a link between activity and alcohol consumption outside of college sports was a national survey (21) that assessed responses from more than 40,000 American adults. They found that, compared to abstainers, moderate drinkers (4-7 drinks weekly for females; 8-14 for males) were twice as likely to be physically active. ...
... They found that, compared to abstainers, moderate drinkers (4-7 drinks weekly for females; 8-14 for males) were twice as likely to be physically active. Moreover, as the intensity of activity increased, so did the strength of the association with alcohol consumption (21). More recently, French and colleagues (8) surveyed responses from over 230,000 American adults, and also found that drinking was associated with an increased probability of exercising. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exercise provides a wealth of benefits to brain and body, and is regarded as a protective factor against disease. Protective factors tend to cluster together – that is, people who engage in one healthy behavior, such as exercise, also engage in other healthy behaviors, such as maintaining a nutritious diet and getting sufficient sleep. In contrast to exercise, alcohol consumption is not typically regarded as a health-promoting behavior, although moderate intake has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Surprisingly, several large, population-based studies have shown a positive association between physical activity and alcohol intake. The present review focuses on what is known about this relationship, including potential neural bases as well as moderating factors, and discusses important directions for further study, such as a more thorough characterization of people who both drink and exercise. We focus on ramifications for intervening with people who have alcohol use disorders, as exercise has been assessed as both a treatment and preventive measure, with mixed results. We believe that, in order for such interventions to be effective, clinical trials must distinguish treatment-seeking populations from non-treatment-seeking ones, as well as ensure that the use of exercise as a tool to decrease alcohol consumption is made explicit. We posit that a better understanding of the relationship between physical activity and alcohol intake will maximize intervention efforts by informing the design of clinical trials and research-driven prevention strategies, as well as enable individuals to make educated decisions about their health behaviors.
... In addition to excessive alcohol consumption, risk factors predisposing people with AUDs to an increased risk for CVD include associated unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as lack of sufficient physical activity (Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001) and co-morbid substance abuse (McKee et al., 2007), in particular smoking (Goodwin et al., 2013), and an impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (Herbsleb et al., 2013). To assist clinicians in identifying and treating patients at an increased risk of CVDs, the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been introduced. ...
... Considering the current meta-analytic data, it appears that a cumulative long-term effect of psychiatric co-morbidities and poor health behaviors places people with AUD at the greatest risk for cardio-metabolic disorders. People with AUD are more likely than the general population to have unhealthy lifestyle behaviors, such as being sedentary (Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001) and smoking (McKee et al., 2007) placing them at risk for MetS and CVD. Thus, considering the cardio-metabolic risks observed, screening for and trying to minimize risk factors (including adverse lifestyle factors) should be a key priority in the multidisciplinary treatment of people with AUDs. ...
Article
Aims People with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have a double increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and associated premature mortality. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of CVD. The primary aim of this meta-analysis was to describe pooled rates of MetS and its components in people with AUDs taking into account variations in demographic and clinical variables. Methods Medline, Embase and CINAHL were searched until 03/2016 for cross-sectional and baseline data of longitudinal studies in adults with AUDs. Two independent reviewers extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis with a relative risk, subgroups and meta-regression analyses were employed. Results The pooled MetS prevalence after adjusting for publication bias was 21.8% (95% CI = 19.1%–24.8%; N studies = 5; n participants = 865; age range = 34.8–51.1 years). Abdominal obesity was observed in 38.3% (N = 4, n = 389; 95%CI = 30.2%–47.0%), hyperglycemia in 14.3% (N = 4, n = 389; 95% CI = 3.7%–42.3%), hypertriglyceridemia in 43.9% (N = 4, n = 389; 95% CI = 31.7%–56.8%), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in 7.6% (N = 4, n = 389; 95% CI = 4.3%–13.2%) and hypertension in 46.5% (95% CI = 21.7%–73.1%). The MetS prevalence was similar across settings. A separate meta-regression analysis revealed that a higher MetS frequency was moderated by a higher percentage of psychiatric co-morbidity (coefficient = 3.651; standard error = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.50 to 5.80, z = 3.3, P < 0.001), Conclusions Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of metabolic abnormalities in people with AUD is needed. Special attention should be given to people with AUDs with psychiatric co-morbidities. Future research should focus on how cardio-metabolic outcomes are moderated by clinical characteristics. Short summary The metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases. Our meta-analysis demonstrates that more than 1 in 5 persons with alcohol use disorder (AUDs) has the MetS. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of metabolic abnormalities should be an integral part of the multidisciplinary treatment of AUDs.
... Results suggest that in general adult samples this is often the case, and alcohol interventions targeting physical activity have been found to be efficacious in reducing drinking. [8][9][10][11] Surprisingly, several cross-sectional studies with college students have suggested that there may be a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol consumption. [11][12][13] For example, one study investigated the relationship between physical activity and alcohol use in a sample of 2,436 college students ages 18 to 23. Results indicated that college students who reported higher levels of physical activity consumed significantly more alcohol than those who did not engage in physical activity. ...
... 38 For example, it is possible that despite positive cross-sectional relations, an increase in exercise would nevertheless support changes in drinking among students participating in an intervention program. Indeed, exercise interventions have shown efficacy in reducing adult substance abuse, [8][9][10] and one demonstration study with college drinkers found that students who were instructed to increase their exercise behavior over a 1-month period reported a corresponding reduction in drinking, despite the fact that they were not seeking treatment or directly instructed to reduce their drinking. 11 However, the current results do suggest that it is possible for some students (men and Greeks) to drink frequently while also exercising regularly, so it is unlikely that, for these students, an increase in exercise alone, without an accompanying focus on reducing alcohol, would result in a change in drinking. ...
Article
Full-text available
Among college students, several studies have found a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use. The current study tested gender, Greek status, and ethnicity as potential moderators of the physical activity-alcohol use relationship. Participants were college freshmen (n = 310) endorsing alcohol/drug use. Students completed questionnaires assessing a number of health behaviors. Results indicated that gender and Greek status were significant moderators of the relationship between physical activity and alcohol consumption. There was a positive relationship between physical activity and alcohol use for men and Greeks, but not for females and non-Greeks. These findings suggest that exercise does not serve as a protective factor for any of the subgroups of college students studied and is positively associated with drinking among college students who are men and/or involved with the Greek system.
... Whereas a low level of physical activity, associated with tobacco consumption, obesity and overweight, was characteristic of subjects with the lowest education and income (Wardle and Steptoe, 2003). According to one study, there is a weak correlation between drinking alcoholic beverages and physical activity (Wankel and Sefton, 1994; Johnson et al., 1998; Chung et al., 2007); according to another study, engaging in physical activity in spare time is linked to moderate alcohol consumption (Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001). Moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages is not a threat to health, but a factor preventing occurrence of cardiovascular disease (Wannametheee, 1999). ...
... Leisure-time physical activity and a moderate weekly alcohol intake are both important to lower the risk of fatal ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality (Pedersen et al., 2008). According to some research findings, physical activity is associated with non-smoking, alcohol abstinence or consumption in moderate amounts and with moderate frequency (Mensink et al., 1997; Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001; Aarnio et al., 2002; Jakicic et al., 2002). These relationships were confirmed in the present study. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the study was to determine associations between physical activity and other elements of women’s lifestyle (nutrition, being a nonsmoker, moderate alcohol consumption, medical check-ups). Between 1999 and 2004, 1361 women aged 20–75 were studied. They were inhabitants of cities located in the west of Poland and engaged in physical activity (purposeful selection). The subjects fell into four groups depending on the length of their physical exercise history: G I – those who had been exercising for 1 year; G II [1–4); G III [4–6); G IV [≥7). The diagnostic poll method was employed, (questionnaire and interview techniques). For the verification of the research hypotheses concerning the influence of socio-demographic factors on women’s physical activity, the evaluation of changes in health-related behaviors resulting from long term physical activity, indication of associated behaviors, the independence χ2 test and multiple correspondence analysis were used. Women’s physical activity was found to be related to maintenance of proper weight (BMI) (p≤0.05), moderate consumption of low-alcohol beverages (p≤0.05) and regular dental check-ups (p≤0.05). Despite more frequent attempts to take up smoking, the respondents gave up the habit two times as often as the whole population of women in Poland. These correlations were more apparent among women with longer exercise histories, who mostly had post-secondary education. Occurrence of associated behaviors affecting health positively and negatively was also shown, the latter concerning a smaller group of respondents. The noticed correlations between physical activity and health behaviors, which comprehensively influence lifestyle, may be of importance in gradual reduction of risk factors.
... It confers about a two-fold excess risk for coronary heart disease, major stroke subtypes, and deaths attributed to other vascular causes (Collaboration, 2010). Major risk factors for T2DM in people with AUDs include the high risk for acute pancreatitis (Das et al., 2013), unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as lack of sufficient physical activity (Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001), co-morbid substance abuse (McKee et al., 2007) in particular smoking (Goodwin et al., 2013) and an impaired cardiorespiratory fitness (Herbsleb et al., 2013 ). Once developed, patients with AUDs have a severely impaired diabetes selfmanagement and worse health outcomes (Thomas et al., 2012). ...
... It confers about a two-fold excess risk for coronary heart disease, major stroke subtypes, and deaths attributed to other vascular causes ( Collaboration, 2010). Major risk factors for T2DM in people with AUDs include the high risk for acute pancreatitis ( Das et al., 2013), unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as lack of sufficient physical activity ( Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001), co-morbid substance abuse ( McKee et al., 2007) in particular smoking ( Goodwin et al., 2013) and an impaired cardiorespiratory fitness ( Herbsleb et al., 2013). Once developed, patients with AUDs have a severely impaired diabetes self-management and worse health outcomes ( Thomas et al., 2012). ...
Article
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is highly predictive of cardiovascular diseases and is associated with worse quality of life and increased healthcare utilisation. The current meta-analysis aimed to (i) describe the pooled prevalence of T2DM in people with alcohol use disorders (AUDs), (ii) investigate the impact of demographic, clinical and treatment factors, and (iii) compare T2DM prevalences in AUDs versus the general population. The trim and fill adjusted pooled T2DM prevalence among 3,998 people with AUDs (age range 34.8 to 51.1 years; 76.6% male) (N studies=7) was 12.4% (95%CI=11.8%-13.9%). Higher T2DM prevalences were observed in studies with a higher mean age and a higher percentage of male participants, and in studies with self- or physician reported T2DM assessment. A trend for higher T2DM prevalences was found in inpatient settings, in studies assessing T2DM with the gold-standard oral glucose tolerance test compared with fasting glucose only, and with studies including patients with a higher percentage of physical co-morbidity. Although healthy control data are lacking, the pooled prevalence is similar to that observed in people with severe mental illness who are considered a high-risk group. Routine screening and multidisciplinary management of T2DM in people with AUDs is needed.
... Although there seems to be an association between physical activity and alcohol use behavior in population-based samples (French, Popovici, & Maclean, 2009;Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001), it is unclear whether this relation extends to alcohol use disorders. Two general population-based studies identified contrasting associations between levels of physical activity and levels of alcohol consumption. ...
... However, alcohol dependence was unrelated to the level of physical activity. Research from the general population (French et al., 2009;Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001) supports the current findings suggesting that until a certain level or a 'ceiling effect' is reached, higher consumption of alcohol is associated with higher levels of physical activity. Given this, it is likely that physical activity, particularly when vigorous in nature, serves as a reward by activating the same neurobiological reward systems that substance use or other rewards do (Greenwood et al., 2011). ...
Article
Physical activity might promote mental and physical health in persons with alcohol use disorder. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of participation in physical activity in persons with alcohol use disorder is an essential first step in order to devise effective physical activity interventions. The present review provides a systematic quantitative review of the correlates of physical activity in people with alcohol use disorder. Major electronic databases were searched by two independent authors from inception until June 2014. Keywords included 'physical activity' or 'exercise' and 'alcohol dependence' or 'alcohol abuse' or 'alcohol use disorders' or 'alcoholism'. Five papers evaluating 14 correlates were included. Three studies reported that alcohol dependence was unrelated to physical activity behavior, while alcohol abuse showed positive associations in 2 studies. No demographic variable was related with physical activity participation. Functional impairments and distress associated with alcohol use disorders including increased smoking rates, obesity, anxiety, depression and a lower self-efficacy may limit one's ability to be physically active. Data on social, environmental and policy related factors are currently lacking. No included study assessed physical activity levels utilizing objective measurements (e.g. pedometers, accelerometers). Although the literature on physical activity correlates in persons with alcohol use disorder still is equivocal, our varied findings support the hypothesis that the participation in physical activity by people with alcohol use disorder is determined by a range of complex factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a psychiatric disorder classified by the World Health Organization as either harmful use or abuse and dependency in the tenth version of International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10 [5]. Smothers and Bertolucci [6] found that heavy drinking was associated with declining physical activity and although Lisha et al. [7] found a positive association between physical activity and less severe forms of AUD (abuse), they also found that severe forms of AUD (dependence) were associated with lacking physical activity. Prior research has, however, not fully investigated physical activity patterns in a clinically diagnosed sample of individuals with AUD, but mostly focused on health behaviours of college students or in general population studies [2,3]. ...
... Our analyses indicate that drinking behaviour prior to treatment start is not related to physical activity patterns measured at treatment start. Other studies have found positive associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity [1,6,[21][22][23]]. Yet, similarly to our findings, physical activity was not significantly associated with alcohol consumption in another study of health behaviours among adolescents [24]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: The aim of this article is to assess baseline physical activity patterns in patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD). It examines the relationships between physical activity and alcohol consumption among patients with AUD. Methods: The study sample consisted of 119 consecutive patients, hereof 85 men. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (short form) is used for assessing patterns of physical activity in participants. The Time-line-follow-back method is used for assessing alcohol consumption. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression analyses are conducted. Results: At the time for initiation of treatment for alcohol use disorder, participants had performed vigorous physical activity (VPA) 1.6 days and moderate physical activity (MPA) 2.8 days of the last 7 days prior to treatment start. During the month prior to treatment start, the participants had 18 drinking days, and consumed a mean of approximately 50 units of alcohol per week. The proportion of the sample that reached minimum total physical activity guidelines was 80%. Conclusions: AUD patients were mostly physically active. Alcohol use was not a predictor for physical activity. People with low education tend to be exposed to many risk factors over their life course like the stress of unemployment, unhealthy living with smoking and obesity etc., and additionally, some risk factors interact with each other – i.e. the health effect of one cause is stronger in the presence of another cause. That is why some people are more vulnerable – or less resilient – than others to the effects of adverse conditions. In other words, risk factors tend to cluster in sub-populations: Smokers tend to exercise less frequent than non-smokers , and unhealthy diet is often followed by other unhealthy lifestyle habits [1]. In the western societies, however, large alcohol intake seems to be a lifestyle factor that to some extent shows a slightly different picture than the above. For instance, prior research has indicated a positive relationship between physical activity and both alcohol consumption frequency and heaviness [2,3]. Hence large alcohol intake, and even an alcohol consumption above the recommended maximum limits seems to be relative common among subgroups that in other respects are considered healthy and perform healthy lifestyles, like for example perform regular physical exercise.
... Previous research exploring associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity levels in the general population did demonstrate that this relationship is complex (Leasure, Neighbors, Henderson, & Young, 2015). While some studies indicate there is a positive association between the amount of alcohol consumed and self-reported physical activity levels (Piazza-Gardner & Barry, 2012) (and indirectly physical fitness), others (Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001) identified an 'inverted J' association; that is, the likelihood of having a physically active lifestyle increased from abstinence to moderate drinking, then declined with heavier consumption. More research is needed to disentangle the complex relation between the functional exercise capacity, physical activity participation, and alcohol consumption in people with AUD. ...
Article
We investigated the test-retest reliability of the 2-min walk test (2MWT) and its concurrent validity with the 6-min walk test (6MWT) in Ugandan outpatients with alcohol use disorder (AUD). We also explored practice effects, and assessed the minimal detectable change (MDC) and correlations with the 2MWT. Fifty outpatients [7 women; median age = 32.0 years] performed the 2MWT twice, the 6MWT once, and completed the Simple Physical Activity Questionnaire, Brief Symptoms Inventory-18 (BSI-18), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The median (interquartile) 2MWT score on the first and second test were 162.0 (49.0) meters and 161.0 (58.0) meters, respectively, without significant difference between the two trials (p = 0.20). The intraclass correlation between the two 2MWTs was 0.96 (95% confidence interval = 0.94–0.98). The Spearman Rho correlation between the second 2MWT and the 6MWT was 0.91 (p < 0.001). The MDC for the 2MWT was 18 m. There was no evidence of a practice effect. Variance in BSI-18 depression and the presence of leg pain following the 2MWT explained 18.7% of 2MWT score variance. The 2MWT is a reliable and valid fitness test, which can be conducted without any special equipment or substantial time demands in outpatients with AUD.
... In the present study, 50% of athletes practicing martial arts reported abstinence, compared to 25.0% of the Polish population [13]. In light of some research findings, physical activity is associated with moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages [30], and it is believed that practicing sport at a competition level might help to avoid alcohol abuse [31]. According to other research, there is no apparent correlation in this regard. ...
Article
Full-text available
Summary Introduction. The aim of the research was to find the answers to the questions of: which health-related behaviors are displayed by martial arts athletes, especially by champions, and what relationships there are between their health-related behaviors and their perception of health-threatening factors. Material and methods. The study (between 2009 and 2011) involved 134 athletes practicing martial arts. The diagnostic survey method was employed, with the use of the questionnaire technique. In the statistical examination of the results the trait frequency, the χ 2 independence test, and the multiple correspondence analysis were employed. Results. Most athletes did not smoke (83.6%). The athletes practicing taekwondo declared consumption of alcoholic beverages (85.7%), while those practicing wrestling were most often non-drinkers (87.0%) (p=0.0000). Athletes with the highest sporting level (champions) mostly did not smoke (93.3%) and abstained from drinking alcoholic beverages (59.1%). It was observed that those who regularly smoked more often failed to perceive tobacco consumption as a health risk (92.3%) (p=0.0000). Athletes who frequently drank alcoholic beverages did not see this behavior as dangerous to their health (41.7%) (p=0.0000). Conclusions. Athletes who display health-oriented behaviors are highly aware of smoking and frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages being health-threatening factors. In reducing the risk factors related to smoking and frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages, martial arts—based on a specific philosophy and lifestyle that requires a reflective attitude towards one’s own conduct and respecting the rules of fair play—should become a means of developing health-oriented behaviors among youth.
... Some reports in this series have shown that there is a possible dose-response correlation between the amount of alcohol consumption and the degree of physical activity (34,35). On the other hand, some studies have shown a curvilinear relationship between the two factors, thus suggesting that the degree of physical activity is relatively higher in moderate drinkers and relatively lower in problematic drinkers (36,37). These reports indicate that various beneficial effects of moderate alcohol drinking might be based on the increased physical activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted this cross-sectional study to examine the relationships between problematic alcohol drinking, unhealthy habits and socio-demographic factors based on the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). We analyzed a total of 13,488 participants based on the data collected from the KNHANES IV performed between 2007 and 2009. The frequency of binge and heavy drinking was significantly higher in men and the married participants with intermediate income. The frequency of binge drinking was higher in younger adults and individuals with at least high school graduates. After the adjustment of socio-demographic factors, the odds of current smoking (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] 4.11, 95% CI 3.35-5.03), abdominal obesity (aOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.48), stress (aOR 1.45, 95% CI 1.261.68), and depressed mood (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58) were greater in heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The odds of current smoking (aOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.42-2.09 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 4.95, 95% CI 4.25-5.77 for frequent binge drinking), obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06-1.41 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46-1.85 for frequent binge drinking), and abdominal obesity (aOR 1.22, 95% CI 1.04-1.43 for infrequent binge drinking and aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.36-1.77 for frequent binge drinking) were increased with the increased frequency of the binge drinking. Our results would be of help for screening a specific subgroup of individuals who are vulnerable to alcohol drinking by establishing effective population-based strategies to reduce the problematic drinking.
... In contrast, there have been mixed results regarding the association between alcohol use and physical activity. Some studies report no association between the two behaviours (Paavola, Vartiainen, & Haukkala, 2004), while other report that an increase in alcohol consumption is associated with increases in physical activity, to a certain extent (Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001). It may be, however, that the clustering of such behaviours is due to environmental and social factors. ...
... A positive association between excessive alcohol intake and low physical activity has previously been described among adults. The likelihood of displaying a physically active lifestyle increases from abstinence to moderate drinking, then declines at heavier consumption in US citizens (Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001). The association between alcohol consumption , physical inactivity and unhealthy diet has been demonstrated in Finnish subjects (Laaksonen et al., 2001), and leisure physical activity was inversely associated with alcohol consumption in the French (Scali et al., 2002). ...
Article
Aims: To describe alcohol consumption of adolescent boys and girls in Palma de Mallorca, and its relationship with physical activity and socio-demographic factors. Methods: Four hundred and forty five adolescents (171 boys, 274 girls; 14-18 years old) selected from the school census (participation 96%), using two-stage probability sampling were studied. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered and alcohol intake was analysed. Physical activity was computed as a ratio of energy expended in basal metabolic rate. Socio-demographic data were collected, and categorized as gender, mother's level of education, parental occupational status, and mother's region of origin. Results: About 60% of adolescents, 53% of boys and 65% of girls, reported alcohol consumption, which increased with age in boys (91% when they were 18 years old), but remained constant in girls. The adolescents consumed alcohol mainly on weekends; average consumption was four drinks per drinking day, and the most consumed drinks were mild distilled spirits. The mother's educational level and adolescents' physical activity were negatively and significantly related to alcohol consumption, whereas the adolescents from occupational upper-class parents and non Majorcan/Balearic mothers were positively and significantly related to alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The increased penetration of alcohol into the adolescents' environment may result in misuse of consumption. To give more information to parents and adolescents on considering alcohol to be a drug, and to promote physical activity among adolescents may be contributing factors towards decreased alcohol consumption among the latter age group.
... Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity levels are generally inversely related to SUDs. However, epidemiological and prospective studies examining the relationship between physical activity and alcohol use are mixed: some studies have found that individuals who report hazardous levels of drinking also report less physical activity (17,18), but others have found the reverse (19)(20)(21)(22)(23) or no relationship between these two risk factors (24). One study showed that those engaging in physical activity or related behaviors (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who report risky substance use are generally less likely to meet physical activity guidelines (with the exception of certain population segments, such as adolescents and athletes). A growing body of evidence suggests that individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) are interested in exercising and that they may derive benefits from regular exercise, in terms of both general health/fitness and SUD recovery. Objectives: The aims of this paper were to: (i) summarize the research examining the effects of exercise-based treatments for SUDs; (ii) discuss the theoretical mechanisms and practical reasons for investigating this topic; (iii) identify the outstanding relevant research questions that warrant further inquiry; and (iv) describe potential implications for practice. Methods: The following databases were searched for peer-reviewed original and review papers on the topic of substance use and exercise: PubMed Central, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL Plus. Reference lists of these publications were subsequently searched for any missed but relevant manuscripts. Identified papers were reviewed and summarized by both authors. Results: The limited research conducted suggests that exercise may be an effective adjunctive treatment for SUDs. In contrast to the scarce intervention trials to date, a relative abundance of literature on the theoretical and practical reasons supporting the investigation of this topic has been published. Conclusions: Definitive conclusions are difficult to draw due to diverse study protocols and low adherence to exercise programs, among other problems. Despite the currently limited and inconsistent evidence, numerous theoretical and practical reasons support exercise-based treatments for SUDs, including psychological, behavioral, neurobiological, nearly universal safety profile, and overall positive health effects.
... Furthermore, a Danish study found that men were more likely than women to drink alcohol during leisure activities: 11.5 versus 2.5%, respectively (Gronkjaer et al., 2010). Participation in recreational leisure activities is also believed to be a positive alternative to substance abuse among young people, which is why several prevention programmes have been designed to engage the young in such activities (Munro, 2000;Smothers and Bertolucci, 2001). However, certain leisure activities within certain social networks and context can affect behaviors in a negative way (e. ...
... Laaksonen et al. 26 reported a positive prospective association between alcohol use and physical inactivity, while other research (in a sample of 41,104 American adults) has shown that moderate drinkers were about twice as likely as abstainers to exhibit a physically active lifestyle. 27 In accordance with the latter finding, our results suggest that non-and rare drinkers are considerably less likely to be physically active than low risk drinkers. A recent study among men and women (median age 55 years) from four population-based studies in the UK, showed that moderate drinking combined with higher levels of PA resulted in lower cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk than low PA combined with high levels of alcohol or low PA combined with no alcohol consumption. ...
Article
Objectives To identify the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of physical activity (PA) in young adult women. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Self-reported data from 11,695 participants (aged 22-27 years in 2000) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were collected over 9 years in 2000, 2003, 2006 and 2009. Generalised Estimating Equations were used to examine univariable and multivariable associations of body mass index (BMI), country of birth, area of residence, education, marital status, number of children, occupational status, working hours, smoking, alcohol intake, and stress with PA status (active, ≥600 MET·min/week; or inactive, <600 MET·min/week, consistent with public health guidelines). Results All variables were significantly associated with PA in univariable models. In the multivariable model, the lowest odds of being active (compared with the relevant reference categories) were for women who: were born in Asia (OR = 0.53), had less than 12 years of education (OR = 0.79), were married (OR = 0.66) or in a de facto relationship (OR = 0.79), had at least one child (OR ranging from 0.67 to 0.69), and were classified as non (OR = 0.66) or rare drinkers (OR = 0.79). Conclusions These results are among the first to confirm the biological, socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle determinants of PA in women in their twenties and early thirties. These findings may be used to inform and improve the development of strategies, and to identify target groups most in need of intervention effort.
... Although these studies vary on specific thresholds of average alcohol consumption and patterns of associations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality, the results are generally consistent with the image of a U-shaped curve, in which mortality risk is lower in light-to-moderate drinkers than in either abstainers or heavier drinkers. The apparent benefit of light-to-moderate drinking is often attributed to reduced risk of coronary heart disease, but other explanations have also been hypothesized to account for these effects and patterns (Andreasson 1998): the physiological effects of different doses of alcohol (Corrao et al. 2000; Agarwal 2002), the health benefits of different types of alcohol (such as wine and beer versus spirits) (Klatsky et al. 1997; Malarcher et al. 2001), constellations of health-related practices or attitudes that covary with different patterns of alcohol consumption and affect health (Cooper et al. 1992; Cherpitel 1999; Holahan et al. 2001; Smothers and Bertolucci 2001; Kelly et al. 2005; Koppes et al. 2005; Naimi et al. 2005), and the ''sick quitter'' hypothesis – that is, that abstainer groups include individuals who quit drinking because of poor health or negative effects of alcohol. These latter explanations suggest that moderate drinking is more beneficial for health than abstaining, when this may not be the correct (Shaper 1995). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite considerable research, relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health remain controversial, due to potential confounding by health-related attitudes and practices associated with drinking, measurement challenges, and marked gender differences in drinking. We examined gender/alcohol consumption differences in health-related attitudes and practices, and evaluated how these factors affected relationships among gender, alcohol consumption, and health status. A stratified random sample of adult health-plan members completed a mail survey, yielding 7884 respondents (2995 male/4889 female). Using MANCOVAs and adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices, we examined gender differences in relationships between alcohol consumption and health. More frequent heavy drinking was associated with worse health-related attitudes and values, worse feelings about visiting the doctor, and worse health-related practices. Relationships between health-related practices and alcohol use differed by gender, and daily or almost daily heavy drinking was associated with significantly lower physical and mental health for women compared to men. Drinking status (lifelong abstainers, former drinkers, and level of regular alcohol consumption) was related to health status and vitality, even after adjusting for health-related attitudes, values, and practices. Relationships did not differ by gender. Former drinkers reported lower physical and mental health status than either lifelong abstainers or current drinkers. Drinking status is independently related to physical health, mental health, and vitality, even after controlling for the health-related attitudes, values, and practices expected to confound these relationships. Among current drinkers, women who engage in very frequent heavy drinking have worse physical and mental health than their male counterparts.
... Binge and heavy drinkers are more likely to be White or Hispanic, male, single, younger, and have higher incomes than individuals who do not report these drinking behaviors (Dawson, Li, & Grant, 2008; Miller, Mahler, & Gold, 1991; Mojtabai, 2005; Naimi, Brewer, Mokdad, Denny, Serdula & Marks, 2003; NIAAA, 2010; Schoenborn & Adams, 2010; Serdula, Brewer, Gillespie, Denny, & Mokdad, 2004; Tsai, Floyd, Green, & Boyle, 2007). Binge and heavy drinking are also associated with negative health behaviors, including smoking (Dawson et al., 2008; Rosal, Ockene, Hurley, & Reiff, 2000) and decreased engagement in physical activity (Rosal et al., 2000; Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001); increased physical health problems, including hepatitis (Bradley et al., 2001), hypertension (Dawson et al., 2008; Green & Polen, 2001), gastrointestinal problems (Theobold, Johansson, Bygren, & Engfeldt, 2001), and heart problems (Chen et al., 2006; Dawson et al., 2008; USDA & DHHS, 2005); and mental health difficulties (Chen et al., 2006; Dawson et al., 2008; Green & Polen, 2001; Miller et al., 1991). Taken together, research shows that binge and heavy drinking are associated with a number of negative physical and mental health outcomes, as well as some maladaptive health behaviors. ...
Article
Binge and heavy drinking are noted in the literature for their relatively high prevalence and adverse health-related effects. We used data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) to determine the associations between binge and heavy drinking and a wide range of health-related variables, including positive and negative health behaviors, preventive care practices, and quality of life indices in a nationally representative sample of 344,793 adults. Rates of binge and heavy drinking in the current sample were 15% and 5%, respectively. Binge and heavy drinking were more common among men, younger adults, and individuals with higher incomes and at least some college education. After controlling for relevant demographic variables, binge and heavy drinking were associated with a number of adverse health-related and preventive care behaviors (e.g., smoking, failing to receive a mammogram), as well as less life satisfaction and a greater number of poor mental health days than those who did not engage in these drinking behaviors. Interestingly, binge and heavy drinking were also associated with some positive health-related variables (e.g., recent physical activity, positive perceptions of one's own health). The current study findings provide additional information regarding the relations between health-related attitudes and behaviors and binge and heavy drinking in the U.S. population. Implications of study findings are discussed.
... The association between alcohol drinking and physical inactivity is less clear. While some authors have reported that subjects with higher alcohol consumption are more active (273), others have found an inverted J-shaped association where the likelihood of being active seems to increase with light and moderate drinking and then decreases with heavier alcohol consumption (274). ...
Article
Full-text available
Contexte: Les facteurs de risque comportementaux, notamment l’inactivité physique, le comportement sédentaire, le tabagisme, la consommation d’alcool et le surpoids sont les principales causes modifiables de maladies chroniques telles que le cancer, les maladies cardiovasculaires et le diabète. Ces facteurs de risque se manifestent également de façon concomitante chez l’individu et entraînent des risques accrus de morbidité et de mortalité. Bien que les facteurs de risque comportementaux aient été largement étudiés, la distribution, les patrons d’agrégation et les déterminants de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux sont peu connus, surtout chez les enfants et les adolescents. Objectifs: Cette thèse vise 1) à décrire la prévalence et les patrons d’agrégation de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux des maladies chroniques chez les enfants et adolescents canadiens; 2) à explorer les corrélats individuels, sociaux et scolaires de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les enfants et adolescents canadiens; et 3) à évaluer, selon le modèle conceptuel de l’étude, l’influence longitudinale d’un ensemble de variables distales (c’est-à-dire des variables situées à une distance intermédiaire des comportements à risque) de type individuel (estime de soi, sentiment de réussite), social (relations sociales, comportements des parents/pairs) et scolaire (engagement collectif à la réussite, compréhension des règles), ainsi que de variables ultimes (c’est-à-dire des variables situées à une distance éloignée des comportements à risque) de type individuel (traits de personnalité, caractéristiques démographiques), social (caractéristiques socio-économiques des parents) et scolaire (type d’école, environnement favorable, climat disciplinaire) sur le taux d’occurrence de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les enfants et adolescents canadiens. Méthodes: Des données transversales (n = 4724) à partir du cycle 4 (2000-2001) de l’Enquête longitudinale nationale sur les enfants et les jeunes (ELNEJ) ont été utilisées pour décrire la prévalence et les patrons d’agrégation de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les jeunes canadiens âgés de 10-17 ans. L’agrégation des facteurs de risque a été examinée en utilisant une méthode du ratio de cas observés sur les cas attendus. La régression logistique ordinale a été utilisée pour explorer les corrélats de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux dans un échantillon transversal (n = 1747) de jeunes canadiens âgés de 10-15 ans du cycle 4 (2000-2001) de l’ELNEJ. Des données prospectives (n = 1135) à partir des cycle 4 (2000-2001), cycle 5 (2002-2003) et cycle 6 (2004-2005) de l’ELNEJ ont été utilisées pour évaluer l’influence longitudinale des variables distales et ultimes (tel que décrit ci-haut dans les objectifs) sur le taux d’occurrence de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les jeunes canadiens âgés de 10-15 ans; cette analyse a été effectuée à l’aide des modèles de Poisson longitudinaux. Résultats: Soixante-cinq pour cent des jeunes canadiens ont rapporté avoir deux ou plus de facteurs de risque comportementaux, comparativement à seulement 10% des jeunes avec aucun facteur de risque. Les facteurs de risque comportementaux se sont agrégés en de multiples combinaisons. Plus précisément, l’occurrence simultanée des cinq facteurs de risque était 120% plus élevée chez les garçons (ratio observé/attendu (O/E) = 2.20, intervalle de confiance (IC) 95%: 1.31-3.09) et 94% plus élevée chez les filles (ratio O/E = 1.94, IC 95%: 1.24-2.64) qu’attendu. L’âge (rapport de cotes (RC) = 1.95, IC 95%: 1.21-3.13), ayant un parent fumeur (RC = 1.49, IC 95%: 1.09-2.03), ayant rapporté que la majorité/tous de ses pairs consommaient du tabac (RC = 7.31, IC 95%: 4.00-13.35) ou buvaient de l’alcool (RC = 3.77, IC 95%: 2.18-6.53), et vivant dans une famille monoparentale (RC = 1.94, IC 95%: 1.31-2.88) ont été positivement associés aux multiples comportements à risque. Les jeunes ayant une forte estime de soi (RC = 0.92, IC 95%: 0.85-0.99) ainsi que les jeunes dont un des parents avait un niveau d’éducation postsecondaire (RC = 0.58, IC 95%: 0.41-0.82) étaient moins susceptibles d’avoir de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux. Enfin, les variables de type social distal (tabagisme des parents et des pairs, consommation d’alcool par les pairs) (Log du rapport de vraisemblance (LLR) = 187.86, degrés de liberté = 8, P < 0,001) et individuel distal (estime de soi) (LLR = 76.94, degrés de liberté = 4, P < 0,001) ont significativement influencé le taux d’occurrence de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux. Les variables de type individuel ultime (âge, sexe, anxiété) et social ultime (niveau d’éducation du parent, revenu du ménage, structure de la famille) ont eu une influence moins prononcée sur le taux de cooccurrence des facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les jeunes. Conclusion: Les résultats suggèrent que les interventions de santé publique devraient principalement cibler les déterminants de type individuel distal (tel que l’estime de soi) ainsi que social distal (tels que le tabagisme des parents et des pairs et la consommation d’alcool par les pairs) pour prévenir et/ou réduire l’occurrence de multiples facteurs de risque comportementaux chez les enfants et les adolescents. Cependant, puisque les variables de type distal (telles que les caractéristiques psychosociales des jeunes et comportements des parents/pairs) peuvent être influencées par des variables de type ultime (telles que les caractéristiques démographiques et socioéconomiques), les programmes et politiques de prévention devraient également viser à améliorer les conditions socioéconomiques des jeunes, particulièrement celles des enfants et des adolescents des familles les plus démunies. Background: Behavioural risk factors including physical inactivity, sedentary behaviour, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and being overweight are major modifiable causes of chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. These lifestyle risk factors also co-occur in individuals and lead to increased risks of chronic diseases morbidity and mortality. Although single behavioural risk factors have been extensively studied, little is known about the distribution, clustering patterns and potential determinants of multiple behavioural risk factors for chronic diseases, particularly in children and adolescents. Objectives: This thesis aims 1) to describe the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple chronic disease behavioural risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents; 2) to explore potential individual, social and school correlates of multiple chronic disease behavioural risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents; and 3) to assess, based on the conceptual framework of this study, the longitudinal influence of selected individual (sense of self, sense of achievement), social (social relations, others’ behaviours) and school (collective commitment to success, comprehension of rules) distal variables (variables situated at an intermediate distance from behaviours), as well as selected individual (demographics and personality traits), social (parental socioeconomic characteristics) and school (type of school, supportive environment, disciplinary climate) ultimate variables (variables situated at an utmost distance from behaviours) on the rate of occurrence of multiple chronic disease behavioural risk factors in Canadian children and adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data (n = 4724) from Cycle 4 (2000-2001) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) were used to describe the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple behavioural risk factors in Canadian youth aged 10-17 years. Clustering was assessed using an observed to expected ratio method. Ordinal logistic regression was used to explore correlates of multiple behavioural risk factors in a cross-sectional sample (n = 1747) of Canadian youth aged 10-15 years from Cycle 4 (2000-2001) of the NLSCY. Prospective data (n = 1135) from Cycle 4 (2000-2001), Cycle 5 (2002-2003) and Cycle 6 (2004-2005) of the NLSCY were used to assess the longitudinal influence of selected distal and ultimate variables (as described above in the objectives) on the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioural risk factors in Canadian youth aged 10-15 years; this analysis was performed using longitudinal Poisson models. Results: Sixty-five percent of Canadian youth had two or more behavioural risk factors compared to only 10% with no risk factor. Behavioural risk factors clustered in multiple combinations. Specifically, the simultaneous occurrence of all five risk factors was 120% greater in males (observed/expected (O/E) ratio = 2.20, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-3.09) and 94% greater in females (O/E ratio = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.24-2.64) than expected by chance. Older age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.21-3.13), caregiver smoking (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.09-2.03), reporting that most/all of one’s peers smoked (OR = 7.31, 95% CI: 4.00-13.35) or drank alcohol (OR = 3.77, 95% CI: 2.18-6.53), and living in a lone-parent family (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88) increased the likelihood of having multiple health risk behaviours. Youth with high self-esteem (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.85-0.99) and youth from families with post-secondary education (OR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.41-0.82) were less likely to have a higher number of behavioural risk factors. Finally, social distal variables (caregiver smoking, peer smoking, peer drinking) (Log-likelihood ratio (LLR) = 187.86, degrees of freedom = 8, P < 0.001) and individual distal variables (such as self-esteem) (LLR = 76.94, degrees of freedom = 4, P < 0.001) significantly influenced the rate of occurrence of multiple behavioural risk factors. Individual ultimate variables (age, sex, anxiety) and social ultimate variables (parental education, household income, family structure) exerted a less pronounced influence on the rate of co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors among youth. Conclusion: The results suggest that public health interventions should primarily target the individual distal (such as self-esteem) and social distal variables (such as parental smoking, peer smoking and peer drinking) to reduce or prevent the occurrence of multiple behavioural risk factors among youth. However, since distal variables (such as psychosocial characteristics and others’ behaviours) may be influenced by ultimate variables (such as demographic and socioeconomic characteristics), prevention programs and policies should also aim to improve the socioeconomic conditions of children and adolescents, particularly those of youth from less affluent families.
... 2.2 | Evidence that exercise ameliorates neuronal damage due to alcohol consumption As noted above, there is a well-documented relationship between exercise intensity and alcohol consumption in both men and women. [5][6][7][8][9][10] Mesolimbic dopaminergic reward pathway activation from both behaviors may contribute to this interaction; however, Leasure et al 33 speculated about other factors that may be involved. ...
Article
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to early death and many devastating consequences for individuals, families, and society. Currently, few effective treatments are available, but emerging research suggests exercise might be beneficial in some individuals. To develop the most effective exercise treatment program, more research on intensity, type, timing, stage of addiction, drug involved, sex of subject, and subject population is needed. This review highlights the complexity of the interaction between alcohol behaviors and exercise, with a focus on the role of sex and genetics. Moreover, we describe a variety of rodent models used to investigate the neuronal physiology changes that underlie alcohol consumption and exercise. Specifically, current data indicate that moderate exercise may ameliorate neuronal damage caused by alcohol consumption. Additionally, we describe studies of rodent models in the context of hedonic substitution to draw broad conclusions about shared underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Until recently, most studies in rodents were performed only in males, and few studies have utilized different genetic strains of mice or rats. Comparing similar behavioral paradigms across sex and strain, it has become clear that major sex and genetic differences exist for each behavioral context alone (alcohol consumption and exercise) and combined. Therefore, future research in this area should be developed with careful study design and attention to address both of these factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Behavioral and Neuronal Interactions between Exercise and Alcohol: Sex and Genetic Differences
... Im Erwachsenenalter zeigen einige Studien positive Zusammenhänge zwischen der körperlichen Aktivität und dem Al koholkonsum (vgl. Smothers/Bertolucci, 2001;French et al., 2009 Kleinknecht et al., 2014). Dennoch fehlt es hier an systematischen Interventionsstu dien zu angenommenen Zusammenhängen (vgl. ...
Chapter
In diesem Beitrag wird die positive Wirkung von körperlicher Aktivität und Sport sowohl aus gesundheitsförderlicher und ressourcenorientierter Perspektive (Salutogenese) als auch aus der krankheitsorientierten Perspektive (Pathogenese) betrachtet. Hinsichtlich ihrer gesundheitsförderlichen Wirkung können körperliche Aktivität und Sport die verfügbaren personalen und sozialen Ressourcen einer Person stärken und somit ihre psychische Gesundheit positiv beeinflussen. Im ersten Teil des Beitrags wird daher im Speziellen beleuchtet, wie körperliche Aktivität und Sport in Beziehung zu Aspekten der Persönlichkeit und des Selbst, zum Wohlbefinden und zu sozialen Faktoren stehen. Gemäß der pathogenetischen Perspektive können körperliche Aktivität und Sport krankheitserzeugende Faktoren reduzieren sowie als therapeutische Maßnahmen bei psychischen Beeinträchtigungen und Erkrankungen eingesetzt werden. In diesem Zusammenhang werden im zweiten Teil des Beitrags körperliche Aktivität und Sport in Beziehung zu Stress, Depressionen, Burn-out und Abhängigkeitserkrankungen gesetzt.
... A physically active lifestyle and risky behaviours are positively correlated 23 . Drinking was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in exercise, and participants with moderate drinking performed exercise two-times more than did abstainers 24,25 . Extroverted personality, increased social anxiety, exercise motivated by guilt from unhealthy behaviours, alcohol drinking as a reward for intense physical activity, and coping mechanisms for exercise and drinking to avoid negative affect could be possible explanations for the positive association 23 . ...
Article
Full-text available
There is a paucity of studies on the influence of alcohol intake among non-drinkers. We evaluated the association between an increase in alcohol consumption and primary prevention of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) among non-drinkers. Data collected by the National Health Insurance Service in the Korea between 2007 and 2013 were analysed. A total of 112,403 subjects were included and followed up from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013. Increases in alcohol consumption, measured as glasses per day, at the second medical check-up, were categorized into maintenance of nondrinking (0), > 0– ≤ 1, > 1– ≤ 2, > 2– ≤ 4, and > 4. Hazard ratios (HRs) for MACE and all-cause mortality on increase in alcohol consumption were calculated. Compared to that in non-drinkers at the second check-up, the risk of MACE significantly decreased among the subjects with an increase in alcohol consumption to ≤ 1 glass per day (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.68–0.92). However, a light increase in alcohol consumption did not reduce the risk of stroke or all-cause mortality (stroke, HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68–1.02; all-cause mortality, HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.73–1.09). Compared to continual non-drinkers, those who drank > 2 glass per day had higher risk for death due to external causes (aHR 2.06, 95% CI 1.09–3.90). The beneficial effect of light increments in alcohol consumption on the occurrence of MACE may have resulted from the inappropriate inclusion of sick quitters, who maintained a nondrinking status, in the reference group.
... De modo semelhante a este estudo, pesquisa conduzida pelo American College Health Association, envolveu 26.685 universitários e mostrou uma curva de dose-resposta positiva na associação do nível da AF com o consumo regular de bebida alcoólica 21 . Outra análise com mais de 40.000 adultos consumidores moderados de álcool de ambos os sexos (8-14 doses/semana para homens e 4-7 doses/semana para mulheres), resultou que os consumidores de álcool apresentaram pelo menos duas vezes mais probabilidade de serem fisicamente ativos quando comparados aos abstêmios 22 ou mais para homens) se exercitavam mais durante a semana quando comparados aos abstêmios e beber de modo leve, moderado e pesado se associou ao aumento de 9%; 14,3% e 13,7%, respectivamente, para a probabilidade de se exercitar vigorosamente 23 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Introdução A percepção de que as pessoas que adotam a prática de AF regular também tendem a adotar outros hábitos po-sitivos para a saúde parece coerente. Algumas evidên-cias mostram que indivíduos fisicamente ativos tendem a fumar menos e a consumir dietas mais saudáveis 1-3. Embora a AF seja considerada como um fator de pro-teção contra danos à saúde, cada vez mais evidências indicam que a prática de AF e o consumo de bebida alcoólica estão associados positivamente na população em geral 1-5 , embora os mecanismos envolvidos nessa associação e as consequências permanecem obscuros 4,5. Associação da atividade física de lazer com o consumo de bebidas alcoólicas em adultos RESUMO Evidências mostram que atividade física (AF) pode se associar a níveis mais elevados de consumo de bebida alcóolica. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo verificar se existe ou não associação do nível de AF de lazer com o consumo de bebida alcóolica entre adultos de ambos os sexos. Dados secun-dários foram coletados do Ministério da Saúde (Vigitel) referente ao inquérito transversal realizado no ano de 2014, na cidade de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. A AF foi a variável de exposição e o consumo de bebida alcoólica a variável de desfecho. Participaram do estudo 1.504 adultos, sendo 557 homens com idade média de 51,7 ±18,6 anos e 947 mulheres com idade média de 55,7 ± 16,9 anos. O nível de AF foi categorizado em inativo e ativo e o consumo de bebida alcóolica em regular e abusivo. Os resultados foram controlados por sexo, idade e escolaridade. Os adultos ativos tiveram risco pelo menos 1,5 vezes maior (Razão de Prevalência (RP)= 1,5; IC95%: 1,2-1,9) para o consumo regular de bebida alcoólica e pelo menos 1,3 vezes maior (RP= 1,3; IC95%: 0,8-2,1) para o consumo abu-sivo, quando comparado aos inativos. Os homens ativos tiveram risco pelo menos 1,7 vezes maior (RP= 1,7; IC95%: 1,2-2,5) para o consumo regular e 2,3 vezes maior (RP= 2,3; IC95%: 0,9-5,7) para o consumo abusivo, enquanto mulheres ativas tiveram risco pelo menos 1,4 vezes maior (RP= 1,4; IC95%: 1,1-1,8) para o consumo regular e 0,9 vezes maior (RP= 0,9; IC95%: 0,6-1,7) para o consumo abusivo. Os resultados apoiam a existência de uma associação positiva incongruente entre o consumo de bebida alcoólica e a prática de AF.
... A common explanation is that athletes celebrate their victories (or failures) together, and gathering in associations, clubs and teams encourages this type of behaviour [54]. As a result, among people who exercise, not necessarily in sports clubs, indicators of risky alcohol consumption are higher than in the general population [55]. Lisha et al. [52] indicate that this relationship is the strongest in men (especially up to 50-year-olds, who train intensively). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of our study was a quasi-experimental estimation of the relationship between sports activity and social capital, and an assessment made at an individual level of the impact of sports activity on health, beliefs and the social situation of Polish adults. Matching estimation method and Social Diagnosis data were used. The dataset enables not only an analysis of the self-reported health, but also of social capital. The panel structure of the data and the applied method allow for stratifying the sample using past characteristics, including past sports activity, as well as for assessing outcomes after the treatment—engaging in sports activity—takes place. Both allow for an interpretation of the results as reflections of a causal relationship. Even though publications applying matching estimation or IV estimation to assess the impact of sports activity have recently been increasing in number, ours is the first to concentrate on the effects on multidimensional social capital for adults using panel data and matching estimation. It is also the first to focus on a country that is neither one of the most developed in the world or one of the least developed. The results obtained suggest significant heterogeneity in terms of age, gender and place of living. We also found that sports contributed to building social networks and being socially active. Our research indicates that sports activity enhances social health. It can be used as a tool for a policy of social activation and strengthening the health potential of adults, especially those over 40.
... One explanation for the fact that hazardous drinking patterns themselves were not a significant correlate might be that we only included inpatients who were having high risk drinking behaviors and who were rather heavily dependent (shown by the relatively high AUDIT scores and a relatively small variance, 27.3 ± 7.0). In contrast, in general population surveys, the relationship between alcohol consumption and physical activity, and indirectly the functional exercise capacity, is more complex (Leasure, Neighbors, Henderson, & Young, 2015), with some studies indicating a positive association between the amount of alcohol consumed and selfreported physical activity levels (Piazza-Gardner & Barry, 2012), and with others (Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001) identifying an 'inverted J' association; that is, the likelihood of having a physically active lifestyle increased from abstinence to moderate drinking, then declined with heavier consumption. Therefore, future research should compare differences in functional exercise capacity and muscular fitness between (a) patients with different risk drinking and dependence levels, and (b) those with lower risk drinking and levels of alcohol dependence (e.g., outpatients not requiring inpatient treatment), against well-matched healthy controls. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUD) with an age-, gender-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy control group. Thirty patients (22 males, 40.4 ± 10.5 years, illness duration = 9.7 ± 9.3 years) and healthy control subjects (22 males, 40.2 ± 10.7 years) participated. Participants performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) to assess their functional exercise capacity, were asked about musculoskeletal problems and dyspnea, executed a standing broad jump to assess their muscular strength, and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Patients also filled in the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Our data show that patients with AUD walked a significantly shorter distance on the 6MWT (649.0 ± 72.9 m vs. 724.4 ± 89.0 m, p = 0.001). In patients with AUD, the variance in standing broad jump score explained 43.6% of the variance in the 6MWT score. The current study demonstrates that impaired muscle strength is negatively associated with functional outcomes in patients with AUD. Exercise interventions should be investigated in order to assess whether they can ameliorate muscle strength and daily life functioning of this vulnerable population.
... Niektoré výskumy zistili, že šport a cvičenie sú pozitívne spojené s alkoholom, ale negatívne spojené s fajčením a užívaním omamných návykových látok (Mattilla et al., 2012;Henchoz et 31 al., 2014). Naopak, iné štúdie prezentujú, že PA je účinným faktorom pri znižovaní konzumácie alkoholu (Smothers a Bertolucci, 2001;Correia et al., 2005). Užívanie návykových látok a fajčenie nesúvisí podľa Henchoza et al. (2014) so športom a cvičením, ...
Book
Full-text available
The aim of work is to broaden knowledge about selected lifestyle factors and subjective health problems of first-year university students at the two largest universities of Eastern Slovakia in the reflection of their sporting activity. We have analyzed questions about their eating habits, the quantity and quality of sleep, selected risk factors of behaviour - alcohol and smoking, and subjectively reported health. The weekly frequency of their sporting activity was considered to be indicative in order to emphasize the importance and necessity of regular physical activity in relation to selected factors of their lifestyle and health. The set of cross-sectional research consisted of 1055 first-year female university students. The research was part of grant project VEGA 1/1343/12 "Selected Risk Factors of Obesity and Physical Prevention". Collection of empirical data was facilitated by the means of a questionnaire compiled for the needs of the above VEGA grant project. For the needs of our study, we used a battery of questions about sporting activity, health condition and selected lifestyle aspects of the respondents. The results assess relationship between the examined lifestyle variables and sporting activity. Positive relation with sport activity was confirmed in the daily frequency of meals, the distribution of total food intake throughout the day and the presence of breakfast in daily regime. Negative relation has been proved between higher frequencies of sporting activity and fatigue after morning wake-up. Although not all variables indicated relevant correlation with sporting activity, it is desirable to continue monitoring and analyzing various lifestyle factors of university students, especially in their first year of study. University attendance represents the final stage of formal education that allows for shaping healthy life habits. Potential intervention during the study involves, among others, influencing the health of undergraduates, their healthier lifestyle and prevention of many health problems at a later stage of life.
... This alcohol assessment was adopted from the NHANES alcohol assessment. Although recognizing an inverted U-shaped relationship between alcohol behavior and health (Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001), due to cell size considerations, participants were ultimately scored as a heavy alcohol drinker or not, with heavy alcohol drinking defined as >30 alcoholic drinks/month for women and >60 alcoholic drinks/month for men (Arndt, Schultz, Turvey, & Petersen, 2002;Shaw, Schultz, Sperling, & Hedden, 2015). The one-week test-retest reliability of our 10% random sample was, ICC = .76. ...
Article
Full-text available
To examine the prospective association of personality with individual behavior, multibehavior and clustered health behavior profiles. A prospective study design was employed. Two hundred young adults provided baseline data and 126 (mean age: 21.6 yrs) provide complete data for a 5-month follow-up assessment (63% response rate). Personality and health behaviors (and covariates) were assessed via validated questionnaires. A multibehavior index variable was created ranging from 0-5; two separate health behavior cluster indices were created, including high (4-5 behaviors) vs. low (2 or fewer) behavior adoption and an energy balance cluster (MVPA and diet). When examining MVPA as a continuous variable, the personality trait conscientiousness was prospectively associated with MVPA and a healthy diet. Extraversion was prospectively associated with high (vs. low) behavioral clustering (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.40) and conscientiousness was prospectively associated with energy balance clustering (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17). Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness were associated with select health-related behaviors. Further, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with health behavior clustering.
... In addition Zschucke Heinz, & Ströhle, indicated that physical activities might reduce drinking episodes and craving, while improving psychological outcomes like depression, anxiety and increasing physical itness. This was supported by previous past studies that suggested physical activity as a potentially useful and relatively unexplored alternative behavior for alcoholics working towards long-term recovery [13,14]. As illustrated in table 2, the practice of physical activity by recuperating alcoholics was encouraged by health professionals and family members who were concerned about their recovery from alcoholism. ...
... In contrast to our results, there is strong evidence for the existence of a positive association between alcohol consumption and PA [43][44][45]. Additionally, another study reported that moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers were more likely than abstainers to have physically active lifestyles in data representative of the U.S. population [46]. Piazza et al. reported that alcohol consumers were more physically active than non-drinking peers; moreover, the authors concluded that these findings were contrary to the hypothesis of the investigators [47]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The association between the changes in lifestyle during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confinement and body weight have not been studied deeply. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine lifestyle changes, such as eating habits and physical activity (PA) patterns, caused by confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic and to analyze its association with changes in body weight. Seven hundred participants (women, n = 528 and men, n = 172) aged between 18–62 years old of the Chilean national territory participated in the study. Food habits, PA, body weight, and sociodemographic variables were measured through a survey in May and June 2020. The body weight increase presented positive association with the consumption of fried foods ≥ 3 times per week (OR; 3.36, p < 0.001), low water consumption (OR; 1.58, p = 0.03), and sedentary time ≥6 h/day (OR; 1.85, p = 0.01). Conversely, fish consumed (OR; 0.67, p = 0.03), active breaks (OR; 0.72, p = 0.04), and PA ≥ 4 times per week (OR; 0.51, p = 0.001) presented an inverse association with body weight increase. Daily alcohol consumption (OR; 4.77, p = 0.003) was associated with PA decrease. food habits, PA, and active breaks may be protective factors for weight increase during COVID-19 confinement.
... De modo semelhante a este estudo, pesquisa conduzida pelo American College Health Association, envolveu 26.685 universitários e mostrou uma curva de dose-resposta positiva na associação do nível da AF com o consumo regular de bebida alcoólica 21 . Outra análise com mais de 40.000 adultos consumidores moderados de álcool de ambos os sexos (8-14 doses/semana para homens e 4-7 doses/semana para mulheres), resultou que os consumidores de álcool apresentaram pelo menos duas vezes mais probabilidade de serem fisicamente ativos quando comparados aos abstêmios 22 ou mais para homens) se exercitavam mais durante a semana quando comparados aos abstêmios e beber de modo leve, moderado e pesado se associou ao aumento de 9%; 14,3% e 13,7%, respectivamente, para a probabilidade de se exercitar vigorosamente 23 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Evidências mostram que atividade física (AF) pode se associar a níveis mais elevados de consumo de bebida alcóolica. Assim, esse estudo teve como objetivo verificar se existe ou não associação do nível de AF de lazer com o consumo de bebida alcóolica entre adultos de ambos os sexos. Dados secundários foram coletados do Ministério da Saúde (Vigitel) referente ao inquérito transversal realizado no ano de 2014, na cidade de Curitiba, PR, Brasil. A AF foi a variável de exposição e o consumo de bebida alcoólica a variável de desfecho. Participaram do estudo 1.504 adultos, sendo 557 homens com idade média de 51,7 ±18,6 anos e 947 mulheres com idade média de 55,7 ± 16,9 anos. O nível de AF foi categorizado em inativo e ativo e o consumo de bebida alcóolica em regular e abusivo. Os resultados foram controlados por sexo, idade e escolaridade. Os adultos ativos tiveram risco pelo menos 1,5 vezes maior (Razão de Prevalência (RP)= 1,5; IC95%: 1,2–1,9) para o consumo regular de bebida alcoólica e pelo menos 1,3 vezes maior (RP= 1,3; IC95%: 0,8–2,1) para o consumo abusivo, quando comparado aos inativos. Os homens ativos tiveram risco pelo menos 1,7 vezes maior (RP= 1,7; IC95%: 1,2–2,5) para o consumo regular e 2,3 vezes maior (RP= 2,3; IC95%: 0,9–5,7) para o consumo abusivo, enquanto mulheres ativas tiveram risco pelo menos 1,4 vezes maior (RP= 1,4; IC95%: 1,1–1,8) para o consumo regular e 0,9 vezes maior (RP= 0,9; IC95%: 0,6–1,7) para o consumo abusivo. Os resultados apoiam a existência de uma associação positiva incongruente entre o consumo de bebida alcoólica e a prática de AF.
... At present, findings on the relationship between physical activity and alcohol use are contradictory and rest mainly on cross-sectional studies. Some studies found an association between increased alcohol consumption and increased physical activity, 31,32 while others found a curvilinear pattern with increased physical activity among moderate drinkers 33 or associations of both sedentary behaviour and high physical activity levels with higher levels of drinking. 34 Despite the relatively large amount of publications, we were not able to identify studies relating physical activity to spon- taneously quitting the hazardous use of alcohol. ...
... Treatment outcomes are also highly variable with many patients relapsing into the dependence syndrome following a period of abstinence [3]. Available evidence suggests that many people with an AUD are insufficiently active [4] and have impaired cardiorespiratory fitness [5]; factors contributing to a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome [6,7]. Of particular concern, even individuals with milder forms of AUD experience an excess mortality rate twice as high than those without the disorder [8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Help-seeking for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is low and traditional treatments are often perceived as stigmatizing. Physical activity has positive effects on mental and physical health which could benefit this population. We propose to compare the effects of aerobic training, yoga, and usual care for AUDs in physically inactive Swedish adults. Methods: This is a three-group, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT). In total, 210 adults (aged 18-75 years) diagnosed with an AUD will be invited to participate in a 12-week intervention. The primary study outcome is alcohol consumption measure by the Timeline Follow-back method and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Secondary outcomes include: depression, anxiety, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity levels, fitness, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life, and cognition. Blood samples will be taken to objectively assess heavy drinking, and saliva to measure cortisol. Acute effects of exercise on the urge to drink alcohol, mood, and anxiety will also be assessed. Discussion: The treatment potential for exercise in AUDs is substantial as many individuals with the disorder are physically inactive and have comorbid health problems. The study is the first to assess the effects of physical activity as a stand-alone treatment for AUDs. Considerable attention will be given to optimizing exercise adherence. Both the feasibility and treatment effects of exercise interventions in AUDs will be discussed. The Ethical Review Board (EPN) at Karolinska Institutet has approved the study (DNR: 2017/1380-3). Trial registration: German Clinical Trials Register, ID: DRKS00012311. Registered on 26 September 2017.
... HED increases injury risk because alcohol can impair a variety of psychomotor skills, such as reaction time, hand-eye coordination, accuracy, balance, and complex coordination (American College of Sports Medicine, 1982). Leisure-time physical activities, health status, and alcohol consumption collectively embody a lifestyle (Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001) susceptible to fall injuries. Although drinkers are healthier and more frequently engaged in muscle strengthening exercises (see Table 1), these supposedly protective characteristics may well be offset by the deleterious effect of excessive drinking on psychomotor performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background:Acute alcohol consumption is knownto be a risk factor for fall injuries.Objective: The study sought to determine whether usual alcohol consumption increases the risk for nonfatal fall injuries. Method: Data from289,187 sample adults in the 2004–2013 U.S. National Health Interview Surveyswere analyzed. Of these, 3,368 (∼1%) reported a total of 3,579 fall-injury episodes requiring medical consultation in the past 3 months. Latent class analysis based on four contextual indicators identified four ecological subtypes of fall injury within two age groups (18–49 and 50+). Five drinking patterns (i.e., lifetime abstainer, former drinker, low-risk drinker, increased-risk drinker, and highest-risk drinker) were categorized according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) low-risk drinking guidelines. Controlling for potential confounders, negative binomial regression estimated the adjusted rates of any type and subtypes of fall injury, by gender, for each drinking pattern relative to lifetime abstainer. Results: Compared with lifetime abstainers, the adjusted rate of any fall injury for adults ages 18–49 was significantly higher among highest-risk drinkers (men: incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 2.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.60, 4.20]; women: IRR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.24, 2.91]) and increased-risk drinkers (men: IRR = 1.94, 95% CI [1.25, 3.00]; women: IRR = 1.51, 95% CI [1.11, 2.07]). Furthermore, highest-risk drinkers had higher adjusted rates of either leisure- or sports-related fall injuries than lifetime abstainers. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption exceeding NIAAA’s low-risk drinking guidelines is associated with elevated rates of nonfatal fall injuries. Findings underscore the importance of adhering to these recommendations.
... Studies using cross-sectional or short-term follow-up designs in adulthood only are unable to account for these differences in drinking groups that may have their origins earlier in life. If such differences explain the observed higher mortality among abstainers, the apparent risk of abstention may be spurious (Batty et al., 2007;Greenfield et al., 2002;Klatsky, 2002;Smothers & Bertolucci, 2001). ...
Article
Objective: Adult alcohol abstainers have a heightened risk of premature mortality compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. We examine three plausible explanations, other than lack of alcohol, for this observed difference: Abstainers 1) have early life disadvantages that undermine long-term health; 2) lack social support; 3) are less healthy. Method: In the National Child Development Study, an ongoing national British cohort study of individuals born in 1958, we investigated whether early life disadvantages, lack of social support, and poor physical health reduce or eliminate the elevated risk of mortality through age 51 among those abstaining from alcohol at age 33. Using Cox proportional hazard models in a stepwise approach we examined whether the alcohol-mortality relationship changed when potential confounders were included. Results: The risk of mortality by age 51 was greater among age-33 abstainers compared to light drinkers (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.40, 3.40). Including early life disadvantages and social support in the hazard models did not alter these associations (HR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.27, 3.54). Including physical health in the model resulted in a 25% reduction in risk of death among abstainers, though the difference in risk remained statistically significant (HR = 1.75; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.94). Conclusions: Abstaining from alcohol in early adulthood, in comparison to light drinking, predicts increased risk for premature mortality, even after accounting for numerous early and young adult confounders. Future research should examine potential moderators of this association.
... In view of this, some studies recommend moderated drinking as a measure to tackle obesity (e.g. Kaplan et al. 2003;Smothers and Bertolucci 2001). However, it is important to note that considering the other health risks associated with smoking and alcohol consumption, caution must be taken when proposing any overweight or obesity intervention programs based on these findings. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Obesity is becoming an increasing cause of concern worldwide. This study examines the determinants and prevalence of obesity, as well as evaluates the potential health-related cost savings associated with the implementation and promotion of the health claim on low-calorie diets and obesity in Canada. Using data from the available nationwide survey in Canada (i.e. Canadian community health survey; Nutrition) and reviews of medical/nutritional literature, a Multilevel Multinomial Logistic Regression Model and a variation of Cost of illness approach reveal the following. We found that almost two-thirds of Canadians are overweight/obese. We also found that the aged, males, married, people born in America, less educated, physically inactive, and inadequate fruits/vegetable consumers have increased risk of becoming obese. A 5 percent to 10 percent reduction in caloric intake due to health-information/health-claims results in nontrivial health-related base savings of CAD$2.09 billion with range of CAD$360 million to CAD$4.18 billion. Stronger economic policies such as subsidies/taxes on low-calorie/high-calorie diets could potentially lead to social optimal calorie consumption.
... Human studies have revealed that a rise in adipose tissue accumulation in obesity is linked to enhanced methylation at the hypoxia-inducible factor 3A (HIF3A) locus in blood cells and adipose tissue, but not in the skin [202]. Metabolic intermediates from catabolism of macromolecules serve as cofactors for chromatin-modifying enzymes [203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210][211][212][213][214]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Oxidative stress, an alteration in the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and antioxidant buffering capacity, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disorders (CMD). At physiological levels, ROS functions as signalling mediators, regulates various physiological functions such as the growth, proliferation, and migration endothelial cells (EC) and smooth muscle cells (SMC); formation and development of new blood vessels; EC and SMC regulated death; vascular tone; host defence; and genomic stability. However, at excessive levels, it causes a deviation in the redox state, mediates the development of CMD. Multiple mechanisms account for the rise in the production of free radicals in the heart. These include mitochondrial dysfunction and uncoupling, increased fatty acid oxidation, exaggerated activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX), reduced antioxidant capacity, and cardiac metabolic memory. The purpose of this study is to discuss the link between oxidative stress and the aetiopathogenesis of CMD and highlight associated mechanisms. Oxidative stress plays a vital role in the development of obesity and dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, hypertension via various mechanisms associated with ROS-led inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction.
Article
Background and Objectives While alcohol use disorder is prevalent in U.S. veterans, little is known about the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of alcohol consumption in this population. The objective of the current study was to identify predominant trajectories of alcohol consumption over a 4‐year period, and baseline determinants of these trajectories in veterans. Methods Data were analyzed from the National Health and Resilience in Veteran Study, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of 3,157 veterans (Wave 1). Assessments (Waves 2 and 3) were conducted every 2 years thereafter. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test‐Consumption, a brief alcohol screen for identifying problematic drinking based on alcohol consumption. Wave 1 sociodemographic, military, health, and psychosocial variables were examined as possible determinants of trajectories of alcohol consumption. Results Latent growth mixture modeling revealed that a four‐class model best fit the data: rare drinkers (65.3%), moderate drinkers (30.2%), excessive drinkers (2.6%), and recovering drinkers (1.9%). Lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD) was linked to an excessive drinking trajectory, while fewer medical conditions and lower social support were linked to a moderate drinking trajectory. Having a secure attachment style and greater social support, and absence of lifetime MDD was linked to recovery from excessive drinking. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Four predominant trajectories of alcohol consumption were identified. Targeting MDD and related interpersonal factors such as attachment style and social support in population‐based prevention and treatment initiatives may help prevent, mitigate, and promote recovery from excessive alcohol consumption in veterans. (Am J Addict 2018;XX:1–8)
Article
To examine the effect of physical activity on risk of developing alcohol use disorders in a large prospective cohort study with focus on leisure-time physical activity. Data came from the four examinations of the Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS), performed in 1976-1978, 1981-1983, 1991-1994 and 2001-2003. Information on physical activity (classified as Moderate/high, low or sedentary) and covariates was obtained through self-administered questionnaires, and information on alcohol use disorders was obtained from the Danish Hospital Discharge Register, the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register and the Winalco database. In total, 18,359 people participated in the study, a mean follow-up time of 20.9 years. Cox proportional hazards model with delayed entry was used. Models were adjusted for available covariates (age, smoking habits, alcohol intake, education, income and cohabitation status) including updated time-dependent variables whenever possible. A low or moderate/high leisure-time physical activity was associated with almost half the risk of developing alcohol use disorder compared with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity. This translates into a 1.5- to 2-fold increased risk of developing alcohol use disorder (Hazard ratios for men 1.64; 95% CI 1.29-2.10 and women 1.45; 1.01-2.09) in individuals with a sedentary leisure-time physical activity, compared with a moderate to high level. However, when stratifying by presence of other psychiatric disorders, no association was observed in women with psychiatric comorbidity. Residual confounding may have been present in this study, especially according to rough measures of income and education. In both men and women, being sedentary in leisure time was a risk factor for developing an alcohol use disorder. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Article
Background & Study Aim: We can talk about lifestyle when we deal with certain configurations of behaviour patterns, relatively constant and repetitive, in situations where there are conditions for alternative behaviours. Vitally significant in the realization of lifestyles are values which constitute the basis for human action, the criteria for the choices made. The aim of the study was socio-demographic conditions of the realization of health-oriented lifestyles by women. Material & Methods: Research conducted between 1999 and 2004 included 1361 women aged 20-75, living in cities of western Poland and participating in recreational physical exercise (purposive sampling). The diagnostic survey method was employed (the techniques of questionnaire, interview, List of Health Criteria). For the verification of the research hypotheses concerning the conditions (age, number of children, professional activity) of a health-oriented lifestyle (the recognized health and/or physical fitness values were set together with health-related behaviours: physical activity, forms of vacation, nutritional status, avoidance of smoking, moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages) the chi(2) independence test and the multiple correspondence analysis were used. Results: Women who appreciated the values of health and physical fitness (28.1%) were mostly characterized by many-year participation in physical exercise (p=0.0123 for the chi(2) test), choice of active forms of relaxation (p=0.0396 for the chi(2) test), moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages (p=0.0353 for the chi(2) test), mainly with low alcohol content (p=0.0054 for the chi(2) test). No statistically significant dependences were found between recognition of these values and smoking or body weight of the subjects. Women who recognize the values of health and physical activity, or only health, with 7 or more years of history of participation in physical recreation, choosing vacations directly connected with physical activity and avoiding consumption of alcoholic beverages, are mainly professionally active or temporarily inactive individuals aged 30 to 49, having one child. Conclusions: In the dissemination of physical activity in our society it is necessary to promote the value of physical activity, presenting it in the context of health-oriented lifestyle. Lifestyle in such an approach can be applied in analysing the results of the process of education.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Adopting healthy behaviours may facilitate the transition from hazardous to non-hazardous use of alcohol, yet, longitudinal studies of health behaviours in relation to the cessation of hazardous alcohol use are rare. We addressed this question using data from a large population-based cohort of adults in Sweden (Stockholm Public Health Cohort). Methods: Participants from two sub-cohorts (inception in 2002 and 2010), with follow-up until the year 2014 were included. Health behaviours (tobacco use, diet and physical activity) and alcohol use were self-reported in questionnaire-based surveys. Hazardous alcohol use was defined as either usual weekly consumption (2002 sub-cohort) or heavy occasional alcohol consumption (2010 sub-cohort). Baseline hazardous drinkers with complete data constituted the analytical sample (n = 8946). Logistic regression was used to calculate the Odds Ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of quitting hazardous alcohol use, with tobacco use, diet and physical activity as predictors of change. Results: In the 2002 sub-cohort, 28% reported non-hazardous use sustained through two consecutive follow-up points. In the 2010 sub-cohort, 36% of the participants reported non-hazardous use of alcohol at follow-up. Favourable health behaviours at baseline (e.g. no tobacco use, sufficient fruit intake and physical activity) were associated with a 19% to 75% higher of odds quitting hazardous alcohol use. Further, favourable changes in diet and tobacco cessation were associated with non-hazardous alcohol use at follow-up. Conclusions: As many as one-third of hazardous alcohol users may quit this drinking pattern in a medium-long term. Holding or achieving a healthy lifestyle may facilitate this transition.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Prior research has documented a counterintuitive positive association between physical activity and indices of alcohol consumption frequency and heaviness. Objectives: To investigate whether this relation extends to alcohol use disorder and clarify whether this association is non-linear. Methods: This is a cross-sectional, correlational population-based study of US adults (N = 34,653). The Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule was used to classify past-year DSM-IV alcohol use disorder and self-reported federal government-recommended weekly physical activity cutoffs. Results: After statistically controlling for confounds, alcohol abuse but not dependence was associated with greater prevalence of physical activity. Number of alcohol use disorder symptoms exhibited a curvilinear relationship with meeting physical activity requirements, such that the positive association degraded with high symptom counts. Conclusion: There is a positive association between physical activity and less severe forms of alcohol use disorder in US adults. More severe forms of alcohol use disorder are not associated with physical activity.
Article
Reduced bone mineral density (BMD) is commonly found in alcohol-dependent patients. Many risk factors have been reported, yet the course of markers of bone formation and resorption in abstinent alcoholic patients have not received much attention. In a prospective longitudinal study, we investigated BMD in male abstinent inpatients of an alcohol rehabilitation clinic aged 21 to 50 years at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. At baseline and at week 8, all patients had blood drawn for the analysis of liver function tests, calcium, phosphate, parathormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, osteocalcin (OC), serum crosslaps, sex hormones, and prolactin. BMD was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry in the lumbar spine and the proximal right femur. We also determined the amount of physical activity prior to inpatient treatment by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Low BMD was found in 15.1% of the patients for the lumbar spine, in 5.7% for the femoral neck, and in 1.9% for the total hip. BMD differed significantly from normal values, in the lumbar spine and in the femoral neck. At baseline, crosslaps were elevated in 34% of the patients, while OC levels were lowered in 17%. Over the course of the 8 weeks, we found a significant increase in OC plasma levels, indicating a higher rate of bone formation during continuous abstinence. There were also positive correlations between IPAQ scores and BMD as reflected by Z-scores in all regions, pointing to a protective effect of physical activity. In summary, this report confirms earlier cross-sectional studies of lowered BMD in alcoholic noncirrhotic men. We could also demonstrate that the initial imbalance between bone formation and resorption seems to adjust toward a balance between the two during abstinence.
Article
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the associations between participation in different leisure activities and binge drinking in Swedish adults. The study was based on a questionnaire in a general population sample (n=3567) of individuals aged 19-64 years old. Men and women were defined as binge drinkers if they reported that they had consumed alcohol at least once a month, and stated that at a typical drinking occasion they consumed five or more standard glasses (12g of alcohol). Multivariate analyses found associations between binge drinking and socializing with friends among men aged 19-30 years (odds ratio, OR 2.88), in the 31-64 years old age group (OR 1.87). Corresponding results was found in younger women (OR 2.36). A higher OR was also found for younger men who regularly attended sporting events as spectators (OR 1.83), and among respondents in the older age group who regularly played computer or video games (OR 2.11 for women and 1.61 for men). A lower OR for binge drinking was found for men who regularly participated in religious services in both age-groups. Lower prevalence of binge drinking among women was only found in the younger group among those who regularly participated in sports/athletics or other training (OR 0.51). Our findings suggest that prevention strategies could benefit from an everyday life approach, but also that different interventions should be used in relation to specific leisure activities.
Article
Summarize/categorize current scientific literature examining the association between alcohol consumption (AC) and levels of physical activity (PA). Electronic databases spanning education, psychology, sociology, medicine, and interdisciplinary reports. Included studies (n =17) must be published in a peer-reviewed, English language journal; measure either AC or PA as an independent/dependent variable; and primarily examine the relationship between AC and PA. Search terms/phrases included alcohol, alcohol consumption, drinking, physical activity, exercise, and physically active. The Matrix Method and PRISMA guidelines organized pertinent literature and identified/extracted salient findings. Alcohol consumers of all ages were more physically active than nondrinking peers. Further, several studies suggest a dose-response relationship between AC and PA, indicating that as drinking increases, so does PA level. Reviewed studies support a positive association between AC and PA across all ages. Findings were contrary to the hypothesis of the investigators. Future research should place specific emphasis on identifying why alcohol consumers exercise at higher levels than non-alcohol consumers.
Article
Full-text available
To assess excess mortality from chronic disease in the United States, state age-adjusted combined mortality rates for nine chronic diseases in 1986 were compared with three "minimum" rates--two calculated from rates actually achieved in states and a third estimated as the mortality remaining after elimination of one risk factor for each disease. Hawaii had the lowest mortality rate of combined diseases (305/100,000); state excesses ranged from 0% to 37%. The sum of lowest disease-specific rates in any state was 284 per 100,000, indicating excesses of between 7% and 41%. A minimum mortality rate of 224 per 100,000 was estimated to result from elimination of one risk factor for each of the nine diseases, indicating state excesses from 26% to 54%, or 524,000 US deaths. Reduction of US mortality from the nine diseases to the risk factor--eliminated rate is estimated to be associated with an increased life expectancy at birth of 4 years.
Article
Full-text available
Studies in men suggest that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with a reduction in overall mortality, due primarily to a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Among women with similar levels of alcohol consumption, an increased risk of breast cancer has been noted that complicates the balance of risks and benefits. We conducted a prospective study among 85,709 women, 34 to 59 years of age and without a history of myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, or cancer, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1980. During the 12-year follow-up period, 2658 deaths were documented. The relative risks of death in drinkers as compared with nondrinkers were 0.83 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.74 to 0.93) for women who consumed 1.5 to 4.9 g of alcohol per day (one to three drinks per week), 0.88 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.80 to 0.98) for those who consumed 5.0 to 29.9 g per day, and 1.19 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.38) for those who consumed 30 g or more per day, after adjustment for other predictors of mortality. Light-to-moderate drinking (1.5 to 29.9 g per day) was associated with a decreased risk of death from cardiovascular disease; heavier drinking was associated with an increased risk of death from other causes, particularly breast cancer and cirrhosis. The benefit associated with light-to-moderate drinking was most apparent among women with risk factors for coronary heart disease and those 50 years of age or older. Among women, light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced mortality rate, but this apparent survival benefit appears largely confined to women at greater risk for coronary heart disease.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate differences between smokers and non-smokers in health behaviour, cardiovascular risk factors, coronary heart disease (CHD) risks, health knowledge, health attitudes, and compliance with a CHD prevention programme. Differences between smokers and non-smokers were studied via medical examinations, questionnaires, physical exercise activity logs, and food record sheets. Data were analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The five and 10 year CHD risks were assessed using the Framingham CHD risk estimate. The Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, and Sollentuna Primary Health Centre, Sollentuna, Sweden. The analyses were based on 158 healthy smoking and non-smoking men aged 35-60 years with raised cardiovascular risk factors who enrolled in controlled, randomised six month diet and exercise programmes. Discriminant analysis suggested that smokers, compared with non-smokers, were characterised by a higher alcohol energy percent, lower HDL cholesterol concentration, lower systolic blood pressure, and a higher plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) value. Knowledge of the risk factors for CHD was not a discriminating factor. Both smokers and non-smokers increased the exercise taken, improved their diet, and lowered their CHD risk. Before, as well as after the intervention, smokers had a higher CHD risk than non-smokers. The best CHD prevention action that could be taken by smokers would of course be to quit smoking. Those who cannot stop should be encouraged to improve their diet and increase the amount of physical exercise they take in order to reduce the health hazards of their smoking behaviour.
Article
The study analyses the risks of mortality associated with alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as possible counteracting effects of physical activity and social support through close personal relationships. Data are based on the Upper Bavarian Study, a longitudinal epidemiological study of a representative community sample (n = 1668) in a rural area. Extensive semistructural psychiatric interviews by research physicians were conducted between 1975 and 1977 (n = 1536). Thirteen years after psychiatric assessment, information was obtained from the community register concerning death in the interval, date of death and cause of death according to ICD 9. Tins information could be ascertained for 93.1% (n= 1430) of those who had been interviewed, thus providing a good basis for generalizing the findings. Results indicate that alcohol intake and cigarette smoking increased mortality while physical activity and the availability of a steady partner had protective effects. There were no interactive effects between the four variables studied, except far a dramatically increased risk for women drinking more than 20 ml of pure alcohol a day and reporting no physical exercise at wave one assessment. The relative risks of alcohol intake and smoking, and the counteracting effects of physical activity and partnership, are exemplified in the cases of a 40-year-old female and a 40-year-old male. Specific analyses of the relationship between alcohol consumption, smoking, physical exercise and personal relationships, on the one hand, and, on the other, different causes of death, are presented.
Article
Data on the associations between leisure-time physical activity and other health behaviours are conflicting. The National Heart Foundation 1989 Risk Factor Prevalence Survey data were analysed to examine the associations between leisure-time physical activity and other life-style health behaviours in a national representative sample with adjustment for potential confounders. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis using data from 9054 respondents aged 20 to 69 years showed that participation in leisure-time physical activity, even when it was not vigorous, was weakly associated with not smoking, following a special diet and moderate consumption of alcohol; it was inversely associated with obesity. These weak associations could influence health practices at a population level if, as has been hypothesised, the adoption of leisure activity promotes the adoption of other good health practices. Confirmation of earlier findings of cross-sectional associations between activity and other positive health practices justifies future prospective or experimental studies to determine the behavioural response to adoption of leisure-time physical activity.
Article
Many of the major studies of deaths related to alcohol use report evidence for a U-shaped relationship between mortality and consumption, with abstainers having higher mortality than moderate drinkers. Some have suggested that this indicates a protective effect of moderate drinking; others have argued that pre-existing health problems and demographic and lifestyle differences explain the finding. In this report, we present evidence that the U-shaped function is largely an artefact of inadequate controls for smoking and drinking intake and history. Never smoking abstainers die at about the same rate as never smoking moderate drinkers. We stress the importance of using precise measures of drug use history and drug use status and make the point that, given the strong interaction between smoking and drinking, controlling for smoking may produce misleading results.
Article
To measure the relationship between reported alcohol consumption and prevalent diagnosed and undiagnosed coronary heart disease (CHD) in men and women to see how much could be explained by covariation with diet, lifestyle, and biomedical factors. This was a cross sectional, random population survey covering 22 districts of Scotland and using general practitioner patient lists as the sampling frame. Odds ratios for prevalent CHD at different levels of alcohol consumption taken from a seven day recall were analysed. These ratios were then adjusted for lifestyle and biomedical factors. Male and female responders aged 40-59 years who completed the survey questionnaire and attended the survey clinic. The participation rate of those invited was 74%. Of the 10,359 responders, 658 were excluded because of missing alcohol data or ambiguous cardiovascular status. The questionnaire was used to designate 7058 drinkers and 2643 non-drinkers, who were then classified as having diagnosed or undiagnosed CHD, or who were controls. The prevalence of diagnosed CHD decreased with increasing alcohol consumption while undiagnosed CHD had a "U" shaped relationship. Patterns were similar in men and women if allowance was made for the lower alcohol consumption in women. Adjustment for several diet and lifestyle factors and for additional biomedical factors reduced the apparent protective effect of alcohol, leaving a modest but statistically insignificant (p > 0.05) reduction in CHD prevalence among light to moderate consumers compared with those who drank no alcohol. Wine drinkers seemed to be at lower risk than beer drinkers in both sexes. These results tend to confirm that intermediate alcohol consumption is a component and contributor to a low coronary risk lifestyle. Its effects are largely explained by adjusting for both confounding lifestyle associations and for biomedical effects but the remaining effect, and the lower risk with wine drinking compared with beer, are intriguing. Advice on alcohol habits should not be determined solely by the moderate apparent benefit to risk of CHD, however, as other disease risks cannot be ignored.
Article
This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and health behaviors related to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In particular, we examined the relationship between alcohol use and leisure time physical activity, participation in community physical activity programs and behaviors used for weight loss. Numerous studies have found a "protective" effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of CVD. However, most of these studies have not adequately controlled for potential confounding by health behaviors associated with alcohol use. We used descriptive and logistic regression analyses to examine cross-sectional survey data from 2,072 participants in the South Carolina Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Project. After controlling for age, race, education and preexisting CVD, moderate and heavy drinkers who do not smoke were more likely than nondrinkers to report engaging in regular leisure time physical activity. The relationship between other health behaviors and alcohol consumption was less clear. Among men, moderate and heavy drinkers were no more likely than nondrinkers to participate in community physical activity programs; among women, moderate and heavy drinkers were more likely than nondrinkers to report this activity. Moderate drinkers were more likely than nondrinkers to report that they were attempting to lose weight, however this difference was not statistically significant. These data suggest that at least some of the apparent protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption found in other studies may be due to differences between nondrinkers and drinkers with respect to physical activity and other health practices.
Article
This paper reviews the much discussed association between alcohol intake, lipoproteins and coronary heart disease (CHD). Epidemiological studies have consistently shown an inverse trend between low to moderate alcohol consumption and CHD. Such a protective effect of alcohol against atherosclerosis has been associated with the elevated concentration of HDL-cholesterol induced by alcohol. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby alcohol drinking enhances HDL-cholesterol levels are not yet fully clear. Various lifestyle variables, namely diet, smoking, hypertension, body mass index and exercise, can affect the lipoprotein status in both users and non-users of alcohol.
Article
Data were used from the 1990 US national alcohol survey to compare two volume measures of alcohol consumption: usual quantity/frequency (QF) and graduated frequency (GF). The QF measure obtained global estimates of average alcohol intake per day; the GF measure is a series of questions on the frequency of consuming specific numbers of drinks which ranges from the most ever consumed in the last year to 1-2 drinks per occasion. The GF measure provided higher estimates of alcohol use. Respondents whose reports were inconsistent between the measures were more likely to be male, never married, and report getting drunk at least monthly and drinking five or more drinks on one occasion at least monthly during the last year.
Article
It is planned to include in the Swiss Health Survey (SHS) the questions on the consumption of alcohol that have been part of the Trend Surveys of the Swiss Institute for the Prevention of Alcohol and Drug Problems (SIPA). Since both surveys use different questioning methods (SHS: telephone interview/self-administered questionnaire; SIPA Trend Surveys: personal interviews) a comparative study was carried out to test possible effects of the methods used on responses about alcohol consumption. A split-sample design was used, whereby 1097 persons were asked about their alcohol intake by personal interview, and 1154 persons completed a self-administered questionnaire with the same questions. Considerable differences were found: on an average, consumption reported by personal interview was 38.5% higher among males (including abstainers: 35.9%) and 18.0% higher among females (including abstainers: 17.4%) than that reported by self-administered questionnaire. Consumption figures as assessed by personal interview correspond better to the per capita consumption figures as estimated by sales. Preliminary conclusions concerning the design of future surveys of alcohol consumption in Switzerland are presented.
Article
The study analyses the risks of mortality associated with alcohol consumption and smoking, as well as possible counteracting effects of physical activity and social support through close personal relationships. Data are based on the Upper Bavarian Study, a longitudinal epidemiological study of a representative community sample (n = 1668) in a rural area. Extensive semistructured psychiatric interviews by research physicians were conducted between 1975 and 1977 (n = 1536). Thirteen years after psychiatric assessment, information was obtained from the community register concerning death in the interval, data of death and cause of death according to ICD 9. This information could be ascertained for 93.1% (n = 1430) of those who had been interviewed, thus providing a good basis for generalizing the findings. Results indicate that alcohol intake and cigarette smoking increased mortality while physical activity and the availability of a steady partner had protective effects. There were no interactive effects between the four variables studied, except for a dramatically increased risk for women drinking more than 20 ml of pure alcohol a day and reporting no physical exercise at wave one assessment. The relative risks of alcohol intake and smoking, and the counteracting effects of physical activity and partnership, are exemplified in the cases of a 40-year-old female and a 40-year-old male. Specific analyses of the relationship between alcohol consumption, smoking, physical exercise and personal relationships, on the one hand, and, on the other, different causes of death, are presented.
Article
The longitudinal relationship between serum levels of lipoproteins and lifestyle measures (e.g., intake of cholesterol, carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids [SFA], polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFA], the PUFA/SFA (P:S) ratio, alcohol consumption, smoking behavior, and daily physical activity) was investigated over a period of 15 years in a cohort study (the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study). Members of the cohort were 13 years of age at commencement of the study and were 27 years old at termination. The unique feature of the study presented is that the longitudinal relations were analyzed with generalized estimating equations, a statistical technique in which the relations at different time-points are tested simultaneously. The development of the total serum cholesterol (TC) level was positively related to the intake of cholesterol and negatively to the P:S ratio. The development of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) level was positively related to alcohol consumption and daily physical activity and negatively to smoking behavior. The development of the TC:HDL ratio was negatively related to alcohol consumption and positively to both smoking behavior and carbohydrate intake.
Article
Many studies report J- or U-shaped curves in describing the association between level of alcohol consumption and mortality. J-shaped curves may, however, be the result of complex associations between psychosocial and other confounding factors and health, rather than a simple causal association derived from the biological effects of alcohol. In this review, nine methodological issues are discussed: age and sex, causes of death, characteristics of abstainers, drinking pattern, smoking, diet, physical activity, social support and personality, and psychopathology.