Article

Vitamin C is reduced in human milk storage

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Abstract

In order to establish how cold storage of human milk affects levels of bioavailable vitamin C, 11 samples were stored for 24 h in the refrigerator or up to 2 mo in the freezer. Total vitamin C levels decreased on average by one-third in the refrigerator or after 1 mo of freezing, with wide variations between individuals (6 to 76% and 3 to 100%, respectively). After 2 mo of freezing, the average decrease was two-thirds (7–100%). Conclusion: We recommend a change in human milk storage practices, to under 24 h in a refrigerator or under 1 mo in a freezer. Alternatively, vitamin C supplementation may be considered.

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... th day of storage (p>0.01). Some studies indicated that ascorbic acid content of milk and human milk can be influenced by several factors including storage time and conditions (Lindmark-Mansson and Akesson, 2000;Buss et al., 2001). In our study, ascorbic acid content of raw milk samples decreased about 23.5 % after seven days of storage.Buss et al. (2001) reported that refrigeration for 24 h decreased the total bioavailable vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) content of human milk samples by about 35 %. ...
... th day of storage (p>0.01). Some studies indicated that ascorbic acid content of milk and human milk can be influenced by several factors including storage time and conditions (Lindmark-Mansson and Akesson, 2000;Buss et al., 2001). In our study, ascorbic acid content of raw milk samples decreased about 23.5 % after seven days of storage.Buss et al. (2001) reported that refrigeration for 24 h decreased the total bioavailable vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) content of human milk samples by about 35 %. Possible mechanism for vitamin C losses was also indicated to be caused by lactoperoxidase activity in milk during cold storage(Buss et al., 2001). Although the dehydroasco ...
... In our study, ascorbic acid content of raw milk samples decreased about 23.5 % after seven days of storage.Buss et al. (2001) reported that refrigeration for 24 h decreased the total bioavailable vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) content of human milk samples by about 35 %. Possible mechanism for vitamin C losses was also indicated to be caused by lactoperoxidase activity in milk during cold storage(Buss et al., 2001). Although the dehydroascorbic acid form of vitamin C was not determined in this study, results of this present study showed that N 2 -treatment did not have any protective effect on ascorbic acid contents of raw milk samples. ...
Article
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Continuous nitrogen gas (N2) flushing extends the shelf life of raw milk (RM) during cold storage. The effect of N2 treatment on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ascorbic acid (AA) content of RM was determined during cold storage. TAC of RM or deproteinized RM was determined by ABTS and DPPH methods, while L(+)-AA content of RM was determined chromatographically on days 0, 4 and 7 during storage at 6±1 °C. With the ABTS method, the TAC of RM decreased from 472.33±16.70 to 369.47±62.06 μM TEAC while it reduced from 13.30±0.84 to 8.20±0.66 μM TEAC with DPPH method during cold storage. TAC of RM determined with ABTS method decreased after 4 day-storage; however, they remained statistically similar for N2-treated samples during 7 day-storage. The AA content of RM ranged from 14.06 to 10.76 mg/L during storage but N2-treatment did not influence AA content significantly. Deproteinization reduced TAC values of milk samples significantly, and the reduction with the ABTS method was about 47.50 % for control samples cold-stored for four days, while it was 11.67 % for N2-treated deproteinized RM. In conclusion, N2-flushing through the headspace of milk containing vessels showed a significant protective effect on the antioxidant components of RM during cold storage.
... These guidelines pose 2 problems: firstly, the variation in recommendations makes it unclear which guidelines should be followed. Secondly, they are aimed primarily at avoiding [26,27]. ...
... Its other major functions include drug and steroid metabolism and lipid metabolism [38]. Previous studies have been conducted to follow the changes in the content of LA, ALA, ARA, DHA, vitamin C and riboflavin during storage of human milk at -20 o C and -80 o C [27,[39][40][41] and following Holder pasteurization [16,[42][43][44]. However, the reasons we selected these 6 nutrients is because from the literature the two water soluble vitamins are very sensitive to oxidation. ...
... Prior to the initialization of the procedure, aliquots of human milk were warmed in water (40 o C) until the contents reached a temperature of 38 o C, in order to liquidize milk fat and to dissolve lipids adhered to the walls of the containers [49]. Dithiothreitol (DTT) (Sigma-Aldrich) was used for the reduction of DHAA to AA [27,32]. Peak separation was carried out in the Agilent 1100 series HPLC (Agilent Technologies, Waldbronn, Germany). ...
Article
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This study addresses a matter of importance for: healthy infants; sick infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units; infants fed expressed human milk and infants who receive milk from Human Milk Banks. Current storage parameters for freezing of mother's milk are not well established and are often contradictory. Pooled fresh human milk was stored raw, in nitrogen gas and following Holder pasteurization for 6 days at 4 o C and for 6 months at-20 o C and at-80 o C. Contents of linoleic (LA), α−linolenic (ALA), arachidonic (ARA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, riboflavin and total vitamin C were analyzed under these conditions and during these storage times as they are sensitive to oxidation. The results of this study confirm the general appropriateness of freezing human milk at either-20 o C or at-80 o C, for preservation of two vitamins and four fatty acids. These storage recommendations are applicable also for the storage of human milk which underwent Holder pasteurization. Both the exclusion of oxygen and freezing at-80 o C may be redundant for nutrient preservation and in some cases even detrimental. Recommendations for human milk storage while based on bacteriological safety appear to be appropriate for preservation of vitamins C and riboflavin and LA, ALA, DHA and ARA. As vitamin C is highly susceptible to oxidation, its addition to human milk or direct supplementation of the infant is recommended, if the milk had been frozen for longer than 2 weeks or had been pasteurized. We recommend supplementation of the infant with vitamin C at the Adequate Intake (AI) level in these cases.
... According to Bank et al., [28] storage can result in the loss of components sensitive to oxidation, such as the physiologically relevant forms of vitamin C, ascorbic acid (AA) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) with a Loss up to 40% of AA and 20% of total vitamin C. Our results agree with Romeu-Nadal et al., [29] to somewhat as they found that total vitamin C content at 4°C (6 h), −20°C (8 mo) and −80 °C (12 mo) was significantly decreased while vitamin E levels did not change at either refrigeration temperature (under 24 h) or at freezing temperatures. Also it agrees with Buss et al., [30]; and Ahrabi et al., [31] where they stated that freezer storage affects nearly all vitamins and minerals in human milk. Level of vitamin C in this study differs from other studies as that of Buss et al., [30] (3.33±0.87 ...
... Also it agrees with Buss et al., [30]; and Ahrabi et al., [31] where they stated that freezer storage affects nearly all vitamins and minerals in human milk. Level of vitamin C in this study differs from other studies as that of Buss et al., [30] (3.33±0.87 vs 5.31±1.66). ...
... vs 5.31±1.66). The % decrease was higher in Buss et al., [30] study than this study (65 vs 35) for storage for 24 h. In this study vitamin C loss is higher with increasing storage time; the decrease increase from -35.43 to -65.95 with increasing time of storage from 24h to 15 days and this agree with Buss et al., [30] where they found that vit C decrease may reach 90-100% of the initial concentration. ...
Article
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Human milk provides infant with the required nutrients for growth and development. Due to working mothers cannot breast feed their babies, storing milk is the answer to somewhat. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different temperatures and storing durations on macro-and micronutrients contents of breast milk. The samples were also subjected to microbiological investigation. This research was an experimental study with a complete randomized design. Mature breast milk samples were obtained from 20 volunteer lactating mothers residing in Cairo, Egypt, at least 3 months after they delivered their babies. Samples were divided into three treatment-groups of storing temperatures: room (RT), refrigerator (4˚C) and freezer temperatures (-18:-20˚C). The measurement (protein, fat, lactose, vitamins as A, E, and C; and minerals as Zn content) were done on the 0 time (Fresh RT); 1st (refrigerator) and 15th day (Freeze) for micro-, macro nutrients and also were investigated for microbiological contamination. A non significant decrease in protein and fat were observed while lactose shows a significant decrease. Vitamins A, E and C and Zn showed a significant decrease but vitamin C is more affected where decrease reach 65%. Based on this research, breast milk can be safely stored up to 24 hours in the refrigerator or freezer temperature to keep the nutrient contents intact.
... Enteral infant feeding is dependent upon nasogastric tubes (NGT) until 32-34 weeks gestation or until suck-swallow coordination, cough, and gag are sufficiently mature to allow for full feeding per os [1]. Substantial losses of nutrients may occur during tube feeding as a consequence of freezing and heating, adherence of specific nutrients to the tubing system, or photodegradation [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Previous studies have concluded that NGT infusion could decrease the fat content in human milk (HM) [3,[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. ...
... There is clinical significance to the type of milk delivered as well as the techniques of feeding preterm babies. The whole process of storing and preserving the milk as well as the way and speed of milk delivery can have an effect of the micronutrients, macronutrients, and energy content [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Pasteurization of donor HM, freezing, and thawing may lead to about 8% of fat loss, even before the feed is administered [8]. ...
Article
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Enteral nutrition supply to preterm infants requires feeding through a feeding tube. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in macronutrient composition of human milk (HM) while passing through a gastric feeding tube. Simulated real-life practice tube feeding was performed by using an infusion pump connected to a feeding tube. A human milk analyzer was used to compare the pre infusion and post infusion macronutrient contents of HM. There was a significant decrease in fat (from 4.06 ± 0.6 g/100 ml to 3.95 ± 0.6 g/100 ml), carbohydrates (from 7.51 ± 0.4 g/100 ml to 7.33 ± 0.5 g/100 ml), and energy content (from 70.77 ± 5.4 kcal/100 ml to 69.72 ± 0.5 kcal/100 ml) after passing through the feeding tube (P < 0.001). A simulated real-life bolus tube feeding model demonstrated small but significant decreases in fat, carbohydrate, and energy content. The biological significance of our results to the very low birth weight infants should be further studied.
... Ascorbic acid (AA), as the principal form of vitamin C, and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) represent the biologically relevant forms of vitamin C in human milk (153,154). Assays used for vitamin C quantitation in human milk include titration, colorimetric, and chromatographic techniques. Early approaches for AA measurement in human milk include AA oxidation to DHAA and titration with 2,6dichlorophenolindophenol (155)(156)(157). ...
... More recent approaches include HPLC with UV detection, FLD, or ECD (18,36,81,124,153,154,162,163). The fluorometric approach is initiated by reducing AA to DHAA, which is converted into a quinolaxine derivative for analysis (81). ...
Article
Full-text available
Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended by the WHO for the first 6 mo of life because human milk protects against gastrointestinal infections and supplies balanced and adequate nutrient contents to the infant. However, reliable data on micronutrient concentrations in human milk are sparse, especially because some micronutrients are affected by maternal diet. Microbiological and competitive protein-binding assays, nuclear magnetic resonance or inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and chromatographic analyses are among the methods that have been applied to human-milk micronutrient analysis. However, the validation or evaluation of analytical methods in terms of their suitability for the complex human-milk matrix has been commonly ignored in reports, even though the human-milk matrix differs vastly from blood, plasma, or urine matrixes. Thus, information on the validity, accuracy, and sensitivity of the methods is essential for the estimation of infant and maternal intake requirements to support and maintain adequate milk micronutrient concentrations for healthy infant growth and development. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on methods used for analyzing water- and fat-soluble vitamins as well as iron, copper, zinc, iodine, and selenium in human milk and their different forms in milk; the tools available for quality control and assurance; and guidance for preanalytical considerations. Finally, we recommend preferred methodologic approaches for analysis of specific milk micronutrients.
... Studies about the effects of time spent at -20°C on macronutrients (fat, protein, and lactose) and energy content are scarce. 9,10,11,12 Scientific evidence about nutritional quality losses during this procedure is needed. 12,13 The availability of fat in human milk is influenced by the duration of pregnancy, the number of postpartum months, the volume of milk produced, the time of breastfeeding, the mother's diet, and the mother's weight gain during pregnancy. ...
Article
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Background: The lipid content of human milk is its most variable component and provides from 35 to 50% of the daily energy needs of newborns. Losses occur during the freezing and thawing processes due to the coalescence of the fat globules and their adherence to bottle walls. Objectives: The objective was to test two methods of homogenizing pasteurized human milk in human milk banks in order to reduce the nutritional losses that occur between storage and feeding to newborns. Methods: Human milk samples collected in duplicate were homogenized either by sonication (MIRIS, Sweden) or vortex tube agitation. A total of 941 milk samples of different lactation stages from the human milk bank in Blumenau (SC, Brazil) were analyzed. A human milk analyzer (MIRIS, Sweden) was used to determine lipid content after homogenization. The statistical significance adopted in this study was α = 5%. Results: A mean of 1.87 grams of lipids per deciliter (g/dL) was observed in vortex-homogenized milk, whereas ultrasound homogenization yielded a mean of 2.07 g/dL, p < 0.01. The mean energy value of vortexhomogenized milk was 33.36 Kcal/dL, compared to 35.81 Kcal/dL for ultrasound-homogenized milk, p < 0.01. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is energy loss when human milk is not properly homogenized before being fed to newborns; better homogenization techniques decrease the adherence of fat globules to the bottle walls.
... Heat treatment or storage at -20°C/-70°C for longer duration have little effects on concentration of vitamins A, D and E in mother's milk (226,228,229) while levels of vitamins C and B6 may get affected. According to Buss et al. storage for more than one month in a freezer (-16°C) or 24 hours in a refrigerator (4°C-6°C) may substantially reduce vitamin C concentration in mother's milk (230) . Holder pasteurization can affect the vitamin B6 concentration in mother's milk (228) . ...
Preprint
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Breastfeeding benefits both infants and mothers. Nutrients in mother's milk help protect infants from multiple diseases including infections, cancers, diabetes, gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases. We performed literature mining on 31,496 mother's-milk-related abstracts from PubMed and the results suggest the need for individualized mother's milk fortification and proper maternal supplementations (e.g. probiotics, vitamin D), because mother's milk compositions (e.g. fatty acids) vary according to maternal diet and responses to infection in mothers and/or infants. We review at details the variability observed in mother's milk compositions and its possible health effects in infants. We also review the effects of storage practices on mother's milk nutrients, recommended durations for mother's milk intake and the associated health benefits.
... Their results may reflect pasteurization-induced degradation of ascorbate, which represents the main reducing agent in the human milk when it comes to transition metals, such as copper. The level of ascorbate was also affected by freezing/storage of raw milk, which is in line with previous findings (21,22). Two studies have applied ABTS assay to show that the storage of raw colostrum and mature milk at À208C for 7 or 14 days, causes a drop in the total antioxidative capacity (4,10). ...
Article
Objectives: Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing might alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. Methods: We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20C. Results: Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total non-enzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of two major antioxidative enzymes - superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total non-enzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared to mature milk. Conclusions: Pasteurization and storage affect non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that non-enzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing might be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate prior to use.
... Hence, such optimal methods are key for processing human milk samples in order to determine potentially important biological implications for endocannabinoids (and related compounds) and oxylipins in human milk. Previous studies have measured variations in vitamin concentrations or bactericidal activity in human milk during storage [15,16]. In our study, we explored disturbances in the bioactive lipid metabolome in human milk, including oxylipin and endocannabinoid (and related compounds) concentrations, due to storage conditions such as state, temperature, or duration using quantitative UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. ...
Article
The presence of fatty acid derived oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related compounds in human milk may be of importance to the infant. Presently, clinically relevant protocols for storing and handling human milk that minimize error and variability in oxylipin and endocannabinoid concentrations are lacking. In this study, we compared the individual and combined effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these fatty acid metabolites in human milk: state (fresh or frozen), storage temperature (4°C, -20°C or -80°C), and duration (1day, 1 week or 3 months). Thirteen endocannabinoids and related compounds, as well as 37 oxylipins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Twelve endocannabinoids and related compounds (2-111nM) and 31 oxylipins (1.2 pM-1242nM) were detected, with highest levels being found for 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 17(R)-hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of most endocannabinoid-related compounds and oxylipins were dependent on storage condition, and especially storage at 4°C introduced significant variability. Our findings suggest that human milk samples should be analyzed immediately after, or within one day of collection (if stored at 4°C). Storage at -80°C is required for long-term preservation, and storage at -20°C is acceptable for no more than one week. These findings provide a protocol for investigating the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in human milk, useful for future milk-related clinical studies.
... For instance, the constituents of pumped breast milk are different from directly acquired breast milk [30,48]. Decreases in lutein, vitamins C, B6, folic acid, lipase, immune cells, and fat have been reported [29,30,[49][50][51][52], as well as the growth of foreign pathogens [53,54]. In addition, freezing and re-heating of pumped milk may result in a breakdown of milk constituents [29]. ...
Article
Background: Modes of infant feeding such as direct and indirect breastfeeding, and formula feeding, and their combinations may play a role in child health. Objective: The aim was to investigate which feeding patterns in the first 6 months pose risks of eczema/skin allergy in children up to 6 years compared to direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months. Methods: The Infant Feeding Practices Study II in the United States and its 6-year follow-up provided data on feeding modes in infancy and doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (1387 infants), based on parental reports. Different feeding patterns were identified. Log-linear models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) of feeding patterns for doctor's diagnosed eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life, adjusting for confounders. Results: Compared to "direct breastfeeding for at least 3 months" (DBF3m), the combination of "direct feeding at the breast (DBF), pumping and feeding breast milk (BM), and formula (FF) in the first months" (DBF/BM/FF) showed a statistically significant higher risk of eczema/skin allergy in the first 6 years of life (PR = 1.46), adjusting for confounders. DBF combined with BM for the first 3 months followed by mixed feeding also had an increased risk (PR = 1.26), although not statistically significant. Formula feeding introduced since birth had no effect on eczema. Among the confounders, paternal eczema and race/ethnicity (Hispanic vs White) were associated with a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy. Conclusions & clinical relevance: Mixed infant feeding may carry a higher risk of eczema/skin allergy compared to direct feeding at the breast. The recent epidemic of pumping and feeding in the United States and the use of mixed infant feeding modes requires additional studies to provide appropriate and renewed assessments of the risks of feeding modes for the future development of allergies.
... Storing human milk at 4-6°C for up to 96 hours had no major effects on the nutritional content, enzymes and osmolality of human milk (24). However, it did reduce the concentration of vitamin C, alter the antioxidant capacities of human milk and induce lipolysis with increased free fatty acid concentrations and decreased pH (24,25). Fatty acids have cytolytic effect on pathogens (26). ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: There are no specific recommendations for using a mother's fresh milk for her preterm infant. We reviewed the available evidence on its collection, storage and administration. Methods: The working group of the French Neonatal Society on fresh human milk use in preterm infants searched the MEDLINE database and Cochrane Library up to June 2017 for papers published in English or French. They specifically analysed 282 papers providing information on prospective, retrospective and clinical studies and examined guidelines from various countries. Results: The review concluded that fresh mother's own milk should be favoured in accordance with the latest recommendations. However, it must be carried out under stringent conditions so that the expected benefits are not offset by risks related to different practices. The working group has summarised the best conditions for feeding preterm infants with human milk, balancing high nutritional and immunological quality with adequate virological and bacteriological safety. Professionals must provide parents with the necessary conditions to establish breastfeeding, together with specific and strong support. Conclusion: Based on their review, the working group has made specific recommendations for using fresh mother's own milk under stringent conditions, so that the expected benefits are not offset by risks related to practices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... (2008) reported a 60 % drop in vitamin C content during the storage of human milk at +4 °C for 96 hours. Similar results were achieved by Buss et al. (2001). Thus, it should be suspected that vitamin C in mares' milk is more stable than in the case of human milk. ...
Article
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Mares' milk is characterised by unique nutritional profile. In this study, the microbiological analysis of mares' milk was performed. The presence of total bacteria, total lactic bacteria, Lacto-bacillus spp., Streptococcus lactis, Salmonella spp. and coliforms was investigated. Moreover, the influence of refrigerated and frozen storage on the total bacteria count, vitamin C, acidity and colour of milk was examined. Pathogenic Salmonella spp. and coliforms were not detected in the raw milk. It was revealed that mares' milk can be stored for 72 hours under refrigeration at a temperature of +4 °C without reducing its microbiological quality. Most of the physicochemical properties remained unchanged, while colour measurements demonstrated a change in b* value after 48 h of refrigerated storage. Vitamin C content remained relatively stable during a week-long storage. Freezing of milk improved its microbiological status and caused significant changes in all colour components (L*, a*, b*). The obtained results demonstrated that mares' milk had a high microbiological quality, favourable chemical composition and high vitamin C content which make this product a valuable potential component of functional foods.
... Freezing has been shown to decrease the levels of watersoluble micronutrients, including vitamin C and vitamin B 6 , and has been shown to affect the concentration of fat and energy. [2][3][4] The loss of fat, and resulting generation of free fatty acids (FFAs), is thought to be a consequence of persistent activity of bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), the predominant lipase in human milk. 5 Some mothers anecdotally report that their infants will completely refuse previously frozen milk but will consume freshly expressed milk. ...
Article
Background: Infant refusal to feed previously frozen human milk is thought possibly attributable to lipase, an enzyme that cleaves fatty acids from milk triglycerides potentially changing the taste of the milk. Previous reports suggest that this milk is not harmful to infants; however, the lipase activity, macronutrient content, concentration of free fatty acids (FFAs), pH, and bacterial load of milk that meets this criterion are not fully understood. Objective: The objective was to determine whether refused frozen milk is different in composition from typical milk deposits received at a human milk bank. Methods: Frozen milk deposits previously refused by mother's own infant were collected from 16 mothers at five different time points when available (postpartum days 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150). Lipase activity, macronutrient composition, levels of FFA, pH, and bacteriology were determined. Analysis of mature donor milk and bacteriology data from the Ontario milk bank were used as controls. Results: The lipase activity for all samples was at or below literature values for mature human milk and lower compared with control milk (p < 0.001) for all time periods except at day 30. Macronutrient composition was not different from control values and did not change significantly over 150 days, with the exception of crude protein, which declined with milk maturity (p < 0.005). The pH for all postpartum time groups was lower (p < 0.02) in refused milk, and was inversely associated with lipase activity and FFA. FFA and bacterial counts were not different from control samples. Conclusions: Infant refusal of previously frozen milk may not be entirely due to endogenous lipase activity. This milk appears suitable for donation to human milk banks.
... Their results may reflect pasteurization-induced degradation of ascorbate, which represents the main reducing agent in the human milk when it comes to transition metals, such as copper. The level of ascorbate was also affected by freezing/storage of raw milk, which is in line with previous findings (21,22). Two studies have applied ABTS assay to show that the storage of raw colostrum and mature milk at À208C for 7 or 14 days, causes a drop in the total antioxidative capacity (4,10). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. Methods: We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at À208C. Results: Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Conclusions: Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/ spiking with ascorbate before use.
... Studies about the effects of time spent at -20°C on macronutrients (fat, protein, and lactose) and energy content are scarce. 9,10,11,12 Scientific evidence about nutritional quality losses during this procedure is needed. 12,13 The availability of fat in human milk is influenced by the duration of pregnancy, the number of postpartum months, the volume of milk produced, the time of breastfeeding, the mother's diet, and the mother's weight gain during pregnancy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The lipid content of human milk is its most variable component and provides from 35 to 50% of the daily energy needs of newborns. Losses occur during the freezing and thawing processes due to the coalescence of the fat globules and their adherence to bottle walls. Objectives: The objective was to test two methods of homogenizing pasteurized human milk in human milk banks in order to reduce the nutritional losses that occur between storage and feeding to newborns. Methods: Human milk samples collected in duplicate were homogenized either by sonication (MIRIS, Sweden) or vortex tube agitation. A total of 941 milk samples of different lactation stages from the human milk bank in Blumenau (SC, Brazil) were analyzed. A human milk analyzer (MIRIS, Sweden) was used to determine lipid content after homogenization. The statistical significance adopted in this study was á = 5%. Results: A mean of 1.87 grams of lipids per deciliter (g/dL) was observed in vortex-homogenized milk, whereas ultrasound homogenization yielded a mean of 2.07 g/dL, p < 0.01. The mean energy value of vortexhomogenized milk was 33.36 Kcal/dL, compared to 35.81 Kcal/dL for ultrasound-homogenized milk, p < 0.01. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that there is energy loss when human milk is not properly homogenized before being fed to newborns; better homogenization techniques decrease the adherence of fat globules to the bottle walls.
... However, lutein content was compromised during storage-both in refrigerator and freezer-and microwave heating [103]. Another studies by Buss et al. [104] and Hanna et al. [105] mentioned that antioxidant activity and vitamin C in the breastmilk may decreased even during low temperature storage after several days. Hence, although most carotenoids did not significantly decrease during low temperature storage, feeding infants with breastmilk not too long after it is produced is recommended. ...
Article
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Society’s latest lifestyle has developed to a more rapid mobilization and advanced technology which makes people’s daily needs of nutrients have altered as well. This phenomenon comes to consequences where healthy diet has been neglected and people consume food only to fulfill the calories—which can be supplied by consumption of macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. To reach good health status, intake of micronutrients is also important to maintain biological process occurred inside human’s body as the deficiency of them may interfere the continuity of metabolic regulation of the body. Carotenoids have been known as pigments that are synthesized only in plants. The roles of carotenoids for the improvement of health have been investigated by numerous research reports, and they are highlighted in this review paper, especially their role for pregnancy and also, growth and development of infants and children. Readers will be able to read recommendation of carotenoid sources and their carotenoid composition that can be consumed periodically. Furthermore, several techniques on processing technology were also elaborated to improve people’s knowledge to preserve carotenoids in the ingredients.
... However, others have argued that freezing at −80 • C reduced the energy content of both fat and carbohydrates and suggested HM should be stored at −20 • C (251). Furthermore, even vitamin C was reduced significantly over time in cold storage but not tocopherols and total FAs (252,253 (255). ...
Article
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Human milk (HM) is dynamic and shows a high inter- and intra-individual variability. To characterize HM with precision, it is necessary to understand the factors that modulate its composition. The objective of this narrative review is to summarize the maternal, infant and methodological factors that affect HM composition. We searched SCOPUS and PubMed databases for articles related to factors that are known to or could potentially influence HM composition and volume across lactation periods. Our comprehensive review encompasses various maternal-, infant-related, and methodological factors that modulate aspects of HM composition including macro- and micronutrients, vitamins and minerals, as well as volume. The most profound changes were observed in HM lipids and lipophiles. Evidence exists for many of the infant-related factors known to affect the nutritive and non-nutritive components of HM (e.g., birth weight, gestational age, infant age/stage of lactation). In contrast, less is known with respect to maternal factors; where there is either limited research or conflicting evidence (e.g., maternal lifestyle, obstetric history, medical conditions), except for the mother's diet, for which there is a relatively well-established understanding. Equally, although many of the methodological factors (e.g., HM sampling, handling and analytics) are known to impact HM composition, few studies have investigated this as a primary outcome, making it an important area of future research in HM. Here we propose a systematic capture of numerous maternal- and infant-related characteristics to facilitate associative comparisons of HM data within and across studies. Additionally, it would be prudent to standardize the methodological aspects known to affect HM composition in analytics, not only for HM lipids and lipophiles, but also for those nutrients whose variability is yet less well-understood. Defining the factors determining HM composition with accuracy will open perspectives for maternal intervention to optimize milk composition for specific needs of infants.
... In one report, storage at both refrigerator and freezer temperatures led to a significant decrease in the antioxidant capacity of human milk [36]. In related reports, total ascorbic acid levels decreased on average by one-third after 24 hours of storage at 4°C, with wide variations between individuals (6 to 76% and 3 to 100%, respectively with N = 11) [37]. Similarly, in present study ascorbic acid significantly decreased at room temperature and 4 0 C in day 2 and day 4 respectively but not at -20 0 c. ...
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Background: The main function of milk banks is to serve as repositories of donated milk so it is available when needed. The concentrations of macronutrients in human milk can be influenced by various processes, such as storage and freezing. The objective of present study was to assess, understand changes in major nutrients, role of antioxidant and free radical generation after milk bank storage. Method: In this study the human milk samples were collected and analyzed for protein, lactose, fat and antioxidant as vitamin C and marker of free radical MDA. The breast was cleaned with sterile water before expression and by using automatic electric double pumping (medelalactina) 20 ml of milk sample collected in sterile container. The sample were divided in to three aliquotes, first analyzed immediately as fresh and the second refrigerated at 4 0 c and third frozen at-20 0 C. Results: There was no significant change in protein and lactose content in breast milk. The values of fat and ascorbic acid significantly decreased at room temperature and 4 0 C in day 2 and day 4 respectively but not at-20 0 C. End product of lipid peroxidation MDA significantly increased at room temperature and 4 0 C but there was no change at-20 0 C. Conclusion: There were no notable changes observed in all the nutritional contents studied even after four days of storage at-20 degrees Celsius. As a conclusion, the nutritional content of expressed milk is safe while kept at-20 degrees Celsius. How to cite: Mane S and Mahajan R. P. The effect of Storage conditions on nutritional quality of donor human milk in milk bank practice.
... Silvestre et al. (2010) have shown that significant reductions in the antioxidant properties of frozen HM occur over time, and such losses are lower at -80 °C. Moreover, Buss et al. (2001) reported that the concentration of vitamin C reduces over the freezing time. This study determined an ideal HM storage time of up to one month to preserve vitamin C that acts on the renewal of endothelial function, the prevention of formation of nitric oxide during infections and lipid peroxidation (Weitzel et al., 2009), besides being responsible for part of the antioxidant capacity of HM. ...
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Knowledge of the hygienic-sanitary quality of raw human milk helps to establish the best storage conditions for the preservation of its nutritional and functional components. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the hygienic-sanitary quality of human milk extracted at the mothers’ homes, and to analyze the effect of freezing time and temperature on the milk’s total antioxidant capacity. Milk of five mothers was evaluated individually for Staphylococcus aureus, total aerobic mesophilic counts, mold and yeasts, total and thermotolerant coliforms. The milk pool was stored at -8 °C, -18 °C and -40 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 15 days and analyzed for the total antioxidant capacity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical and 2,2-azino 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid scavenging methods. The microbiological analyses of the raw human milk samples indicated counts of all the studied microorganisms above the safe limits. Related to the effect of freezing time and temperature on total antioxidant capacity, it was concluded that, regardless of the freezing temperature, a significant reduction occurred on total antioxidant capacity over time and that the lower the storage temperature, the greater its total antioxidant activity.
... [9][10][11][12] Although the milk bank only accepts donations pumped within the previous 6 months, vitamin C can be reduced by 35% after 24 hours of storage of freshly expressed milk vs 62% after 2 months of storage at -17°C. 13 The limitations of our study include lacking data on maternal supplement use, diet, storage time between pumping and donation, and vitamin C concentration in the batches before pasteurization. Future studies that include collection of these data could be helpful to account for the variability in vitamin C concentrations. ...
Article
Background When there is insufficient mother's milk for preterm infants, fortified human donor milk (DM) is the preferred supplement. Recently, there is growing interest in providing DM to term infants. Aside from vitamin D, mother's milk is a complete source of nutrition for term infants. It is unknown whether supplementation of micronutrients is required for term infants exclusively fed DM, particularly nutrients affected by heat processing, such as vitamin C. The objective of this study was to determine the total vitamin C content in DM and whether it would be adequate for an infant exclusively fed DM. Methods DM samples (n = 56) were collected at a Canadian milk bank from April to August 2018. Vitamin C concentration was determined by high‐performance liquid chromatography. Results DM samples had a vitamin C concentration of 17.7±9.8 mg/L (mean ± SD) and were variable, ranging from 1.9‐43.2 mg/L. Using these values and assuming an exclusive DM consumption of 780mL/day, the estimated vitamin C intake would be 13.8±8.6 mg (mean ± SD), falling below the Adequate Intake of 40 mg/day for infants (0‐6 months). Conclusion Vitamin C supplementation is required for all infants if DM is the sole source of nutrition. Future studies should investigate other heat and light‐sensitive nutrients. (CIHR‐FDN#:143233) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Study suggested that, decrease in carbohydrates have been found at different storage conditions including ambient temperature storage (29°C) after 3 hours, refrigerated storage (4°C) over 96 hours and frozen storage (-20°C) over 180 days [53]. The decline might have been caused by the activity of bacteria during storage, which converts the main sugar, lactose, to lactic acid by anaerobic glycolysis [54]. ...
Article
Background: Breast milk provides the optimal nutrition for growing infants. This is because it contains all the nutrients a baby needs in exactly the right proportions. It also contains biologically active live cells which promote health and helps to develop a passive acquired immunity by transferring antibodies developed by the mother. But, there are a large group of infants such as; pre-term, low birth weight and ill infants who are unable to breastfeed. On such condition, WHO recommends pasteurized donor human milk as the next best feeding option? However, its use is limited to industrialized countries and few developing countries. Thus, this study was designed to generate preliminary information on the knowledge and acceptability of pasteurized donor human milk banking. Methods: An institutional based descriptive cross sectional study was conducted to analyze the knowledge and attitude of mothers and health professional towards pasteurized donor human milk banking. In addition, the microbial safety of raw and pasteurized breast milk stored at -20 0C for 60 days was studied. Moreover, the flavor change of raw and pasteurized breast milk over 60 days of storage time was assessed. Result: Small number of mothers (5%) ever heard about donor human milk banking. About 53.7% of health professionals did not know donor human milk banking. All health professionals use infant formula as alternative to breast milk when mother unable to breastfeed. Only 20% of study mothers could accept feeding their baby donor human milk by physician prescription. Safety or fear of transfer of disease (85.1%) was the main factor for mothers not interested to feed their baby donor human milk. On the contrary, about two-third of study mothers were willing to donate their breast milk if human milk banking will be established. Three-fourth of health professionals believed that it is feasible to establish pasteurized donor human milk banking. Lack of knowledge about its safety by mothers and health professionals is the major challenge in establishing pasteurized donor human milk banking. In pasteurized breast milk sample stored at -20 0C (deep freezer) for 60 days no bacterial growth was detected. However, in raw breast milk samples a mean of 4.66 log10 CFU/ml of total aerobic plate count, 3.22 log10 CFU/ml of Enterobacteriaceae, 3.49 log10 CFU/ml of Staphylococcus aureus were detected. Within 60 days of storage time, pasteurized milk samples did not devolve off flavor. However raw breast milk samples developed off flavor. Conclusion: the present study showed that majority (95%) of mothers never heard about pasteurized donor human milk banking and substantial number (80%) of mothers did not went to feed their baby even after short description due to fear to transfer of disease. Additionally, more than half of health professionals never heard about pasteurized donor human milk banking. Similarly, fear of disease transfer and safety during processing of pasteurized donor human milk banking is the major concern mentioned by most health professionals on its acceptability. In our microbiological analysis Within 60 days of storage time pasteurized donor human milk was bacteriological safe and has acceptable sensory quality.
Chapter
Numerous advantages for infants, their mothers, families, and society from breastfeeding and the use of expressed human milk have been documented by extensive research. These benefits extend beyond the infant’s health and development by contributing to the mother’s wellness and that of families and the general community by raising healthier individuals [1]. Consumption of human milk is advantageous to the environment, as manufacturing and transport of infant formulas demands energy and produces waste. There are appreciable cost savings from a reduction in formula purchasing [2–4].
Article
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of Holder pasteurization and frozen storage at -20°C after pasteurization on fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content of breast milk. Both procedures are routinely practiced in human milk banks. Methods: A total of 34 samples of frozen breast milk, donated by 28 women, were collected. Once thawed, an aliquot of each sample was analyzed before pasteurization; the remaining milk was pasteurized (Holder method) and split into 8 aliquots. One aliquot was analyzed after pasteurization and the remainder frozen at -20°C and analyzed 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days later. For every aliquot, fat, total nitrogen, lactose, and energy content were determined using the device human Milk Analyzer. Results: We observed a significant reduction in fat (3.5%; -0.17 (-0.29; -0.04) g/dL) and energy content (2.8%; -2.03 (-3.60; -0.46) g/dL) after pasteurization. A significant decrease over time was observed for fat, lactose and energy content. No significant changes were observed for nitrogen content. Mean differences between day 0 postpasteurization and day 180 were -0.13 (-0.21; -0.06) g/dL for fat, -0.08 (-0.13; -0.03) g/dL for lactose, and -1.55 (-2.38; -0.71) kcal/dL for energy content. The relative decreases were 2.8%, 1.7%, and 2.2%, respectively. Overall (postpasteurization + frozen storage), a 6.2% and 5% decrease were observed for fat and energy, respectively. Conclusions: Holder pasteurization decreased fat and energy content of human milk. Frozen storage at -20°C of pasteurized milk significantly reduced fat, lactose, and energy content of human milk.
Article
Ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids (vitamin C), tocopherols (vitamin E) and unsaturated fatty acids are heat-sensitive and therefore, their concentrations in human milk could be affected by pasteurisation. Here we determined the concentrations of ascorbic acid plus dehydroascorbic acid, ascorbic acid alone, and α- and γ-tocopherols, and the percentages of fatty acids in samples of human milk after pasteurisation by a slow (62.5°C, 30min) or fast heating (100°C, 5min) procedure. Both methods led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of ascorbic acid plus dehydroascorbic acid (12% and 29%), ascorbic acid (26% and 41%), α-tocopherol (17% and 34%) and γ-tocopherol (13% and 32%), respectively. However, milk fatty acids, including the polyunsaturated long-chain fatty acids, were unaffected by the two methods. On the basis of these observations, we recommend that human milk be treated using a slow pasteurisation. In addition, we propose ascorbic acid as a marker of the degree of heat treatment.
Article
Numerous short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding the full-term infant have been acknowledged. The use of human milk in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is emerging as the beneficial effects are being realized. Challenges facing the practitioners today include providing optimal storage and processing strategies for mother's own milk (MOM), as well as offering an alternative when MOM is unavailable or supply is insufficient. We review the health benefits of human milk for the ELBW infant and the strategies for optimal use of the milk in the NICU.
Chapter
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an ocular disease that occurs in premature infants and affects the blood vessels of the developing retina. It is characterized by the onset of visible vascular abnormalities in the second or third month after birth. The pathogenesis of ROP is related to many causative factors, like low birth weight, low gestational age, supplemental oxygen therapy, and some lines of evidence suggest the role of a genetic component. ROP is mild and undergoes spontaneous regression with no visual sequels in the majority of affected infants. However, progression to advanced ROP does occur in a significant number of infants and can lead to severe visual impairment and even complete unilateral or bilateral blindness in some cases. In general, more than 50% of premature infants weighing less than 1250 g at birth show evidence of ROP, and in approximately 3% of children it undergoes abnormal retinal vascular development, neovascularization, and, in its more severe forms, traction retinal detachment [1]. These injuries may occur despite the aggressive interventions currently available, such as cryotherapy or laser photocoagulation for this sightthreatening disease.
Article
The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.
Article
There are 13 nutrients classified as vitamins: 4 'fat-soluble' and 9 'water-soluble'. All are essential to maintain healthy homeostasis and metabolic function. Preterm infants are born with low levels and reduced stores of fat-soluble vitamins. Active placental transfer of water-soluble vitamins ensures high levels at birth, but as they are not stored, levels fall rapidly. All VLBW and ELBW infants require vitamins to be provided soon after birth. Quantifying exact requirements of each vitamin which will meet the needs for all infants is difficult due to a limited evidence base. However, timely prescription of vitamin supplements and awareness of situations where delivery or uptake might be compromised will help to ensure that these vulnerable patients do not suffer from vitamin deficiencies. Multivitamin preparations are available for parenteral and enteral use. Vitamins A, C and E have important functions as antioxidants. Further research is required to understand optimal doses and routes of administration for initial and ongoing nutritional support. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Article
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Maternal milk is the optimal feeding way for the infant at least for the first six months of life. Its properties include nutrients intake and, particularly, to provide the infant with several beneficial compounds improving his growth and protecting him from the diseases typical of this time period. These properties justify the manipulating processes before its intake in order to promote and warrant the adherence to it, both at the hospital and at home, being more important in premature infants and/or with low birth weight given their increased vulnerability, is spite of the fact that during these processes some of its properties may be partially lost. There exist, therefore, an interest in knowing the impact of the procedures applied to human milk on its qualitative properties, such as the antioxidant capacity. Objective: This work assesses the stability of the antioxidant capacity of human milk during its storage at 4o C, longitudinally from its extraction until 48 h of refrigeration, as well as the pH changes. Method: the milk from 30 healthy women was analyzed. The milk's antioxidant capacity was assessed by the following parameters: total antioxidant capacity and level of malondialdehyde. The results obtained showed that pH decreases gradually from the storage beginning, whereas the antioxidant capacity remains constant for the first 24 hours, with a different result depending on the parameter used, and thereafter significant changes were observed. Conclusions: In case of needing extraction and storage of maternal milk before its consumption, the storage time should be minimized, preferably less than 24 hours in order to preserve the oxidative stress.
Article
Abstract Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.
Article
Aim: Breast milk storage conditions, is an important issue alongside the protection of substantiality and immunological content of milk in terms of preventing the development of microorganisms. The purpose of this research was to determine breast milk storage applications of mothers. Methods: This study was a descriptive survey. Ten health care centers were taken for the study scope in Denizli. The study sample consisted of 77 mothers who stored breast milk. Results: 49.4% of the mother’s stores their milk at room temperature, 76.6% of them stores in the refrigerator, 59.7% of them stores it in the deep-freezer. % 41.6 of women use plastic milk storage bags to store milk, 57.1% of them write date on the storage container, 37.7% of them boil in order to clean the containers, 51.9% of them clean containers after each use. Conclusion: It was found incorrect applications, which can adversely affect baby’s health, at the selection of storage containers and cleaning, storage location, duration and thawing the frozen milk stages in this study. Important tasks fall to the healthcare personnel while teaching mothers the right applications for the storage of milk.
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tabella 1). Dal punto di vista biologico essi si originano nei tessuti anima-li, come sottoprodotto della respira-zione mitocondriale o in conseguenza all'esposizione di radiazioni elettro-magnetiche, in particolare di tipo ul-travioletto. Le principali molecole ad attività radicalica appartengono alla classe delle specie reattive dell'ossi-geno (Ros) e alla classe delle specie re-attive dell'azoto (Rns). Entrambi rive-stono importanti ruoli fi siologici negli organismi animali, ma a elevate con-centrazioni e a lungo termine determi-nano perossidazione delle membrane lipidiche, perdita di funzione dei siste-mi proteico-enzimatici e danni al DNA cellulare. Tali eventi possono condur-re all'insorgenza di svariate patologie cliniche, direttamente correlabili alla citotossicità delle specie radicaliche: diverse forme di cancro, aterosclero-si, artrite reumatoide e diabete (Fang et al., 2002). Molecole ad attività antiossidante Gli antiossidanti si caratterizzano per la loro attività riducente, in grado di neutralizzare l'attività dei radicali liberi (tabella 1). Alcuni di essi posso-no essere sintetizzati dagli organismi animali a livello di cellule e organi spe-cializzati, anche se la dieta quotidiana rappresenta una fonte di antiossidanti di primaria importanza. In generale, si distinguono antiossidanti di natura enzimatica (quali catalasi, glutatione perossidasi, lattoferrina) e non enzi-matica (quali tioli, vitamine A, C, E, carotenoidi e polifenoli). La dieta come fonte di antiossidanti La letteratura scientifi ca è ricca di contributi che descrivono dettaglia-tamente il contenuto e l'attività de-gli antiossidanti presenti nelle matri-ci alimentari. Frutta, verdura, olio e vino sono stati ampiamente studiati per il loro contenuto in vitamine, po-lifenoli, fl avonoidi, carotenoidi e fi bre a elevata capacità antiossidante. Gli effetti positivi di questi alimenti so-no stati provati a livello immunitario, cardiaco, circolatorio, gastro-intesti-nale, neuronale e cerebrale, tanto da rientrare nella categoria dei cosiddetti nutraceutici, neologismo ormai d'uso comune che unisce i termini nutrizio-ne e farmaceutico, per indicare la dieta come possibile terapia. Antiossidanti e radicali: la frontiera nel lattiero-caseario di G. Niero, M. Penasa, M. De Marchi, M. Cassandro N egli ultimi anni lo studio delle sostanze ad attività antiossidante in senso lato ha interessato i più dispa-rati settori della scienza e della tecni-ca: dalla farmacia alla cosmesi, dalla biologia alle biotecnologie, fi no ad ar-rivare alla medicina, alla nutrizione e alle produzioni alimentari. Gli antios-sidanti si sono fatti progressivamente spazio nell'ambito di queste discipline per il ruolo chiave che rivestono a livello tecnologico, economico e salu-tistico, attraverso la neutralizzazione delle molecole radicaliche e dei poten-ziali effetti negativi a esse correlati. In questo ampio contesto, gli stu-di scientifi ci svolti sinora hanno avu-to come protagonisti quasi esclusivi gli antiossidanti derivanti da matri-ci di tipo vegetale, che godono anche di un'ottima considerazione da parte dell'opinione pubblica. Le specie radicaliche Dal punto di vista chimico i radica-li sono molecole ad attività ossidante, caratterizzate da un'elevata reattività ● STATO DELL'ARTE SULLE CAPACITÀ ANTIOSSIDANTI DEL LATTE Sono ancora pochi gli approfondimenti sulla capacità antiossidante di matrici di origine animale, ma il latte sembra essere uno dei prodotti più promettenti per varietà e potenzialità dei composti ad attività antiossidante in esso contenuti 43 • supplemento a L'Informatore Agrario
Research
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Sono ancora pochi gli approfondimenti sulla capacità antiossidante di matrici di origine animale, ma il latte sembra essere uno dei prodotti più promettenti per varietà e potenzialità dei composti ad attività antiossidante in esso contenuti.
Chapter
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an ocular disorder that affects the integrity and function of the immature vasculature and neurons of the developing retina. ROP is considered the major cause of visual impairment and blindness in premature infants. This chapter includes a general review of the current knowledge about this disorder including demographic incidence, risk factors, recent observations regarding neurovascular dysfunctions in both the inner and outer immature retina, mechanisms and factors implicated in the pathophysiology of ROP. Finally, recommendations for surveillance and follow-up for ROP, as well as current and future preventive therapeutic strategies to preserve retinal structure and function are discussed.
Article
OBJECTIVE: There exists evidence that phototherapy can disturb the oxidant/antioxidant balance in favor of oxidants. If phototherapy is continued during tube feeding in preterms, expressed human milk is subjected to phototherapy lights for about 20 min per feeding. We aimed to investigate the effects of phototherapy lights on oxidative/antioxidative status of expressed human milk. STUDY DESIGN: Milk samples of 50 healthy mothers were grouped as control and phototherapy and exposed to 20 min of day-light and phototherapy light, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity (mmol-Trolox equiv/L) and total oxidant status (mmol-H2O2/L) in expressed human milk samples were measured. RESULTS: Levels of antioxidant capacity of the expressed human milks in the phototherapy group were lower than those of the control group [mmol-Trolox equiv/L; median (interquartile-range): 1.30 (0.89-1.65) and 1.77 (1.51-2.06), p: < .001]. Levels of oxidant status were similar in both groups. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that phototherapy decreased antioxidant capacity of expressed human milk without any alteration in oxidative status. We think that this observation is important for the care of very low birth weighted infants who have limited antioxidant capacity and are vulnerable to oxidative stress. It may be advisable either to turn off the phototherapy or cover the tube and syringe to preserve antioxidant capacity of human milk during simultaneous tube feeding and phototherapy treatment.
Article
Background Milk is one of the most easily adulterated foods, and the fact that its milk composition is influenced by factors such as animal species and processing methods makes the identification of adulterated dairy products even more challenging. Therefore, there is a need for more accurate, faster and comprehensive techniques to address the problem of dairy product adulteration. Scope and Approach As one of the rapidly developing technologies in recent years, omic techniques have found increasing application for the identification of dairy products due to their high throughput, wide applicability and more accurate reflection of food status. This review provides an important overview of the nutritional characterization and adulteration identification of milk products by omic techniques over the last few years. Key Findings and Conclusions This paper highlights the differences between different breeds and processing methods of bovine milk from omic perspective, and introduces the scope, advantages and disadvantages of different omic techniques in dairy products. It is found that metabolomics, proteomics and lipid omics are widely used in the study of dairy products, and promising results have been achieved, and it is strongly recommended to apply multiple analysis techniques jointly to enhance the compound coverage and obtain comprehensive information for the future omics studies.
Article
Objective: When own mother's milk falls short, pasteurized human donor milk is recommended as alternative feeding for preterm infants. Donor milk has to meet the highest safety standards, but its processing and storage is expensive. The recommended storage time of pasteurized donor milk is three months. The objective of this study was to determine if the frozen storage time of pasteurized donor milk can be extended beyond 3 months without compromising its safety and quality. Methods: For this prospective observational study breast-milk samples of 34 unique women, collected between November 2014 and June 2015, were provided by the Dutch Human Milk Bank. Samples were Holder pasteurized within 3 months after expression and stored at -20 °C. Analysis of both bacterial growth (by inoculation of milk on a blood and a cysteine-, carbohydrate-, and electrolyte-deficient agar) and fat, crude protein, carbohydrate and energy content of milk (analyzed by infrared spectroscopy) was done monthly during the first six months and every two months thereafter, up to one year post-pasteurization. Results: 30 of 306 (9.8%) follow-up samples showed bacterial growth when cultured. None of the samples showed sequential contamination with the same strain up to eight months of frozen storage. No significant decreases in macronutrients and energy content were observed over eight months. Conclusion: Pasteurized human donor milk can be stored safely for eight months at -20 °C, without compromising its macronutrient and energy content. This longer storage time will reduce disposal of expired donor milk and subsequently reduce costs.
Article
Donor human milk (DHM) is the recommended alternative, if maternal milk is unavailable. However, current human milk banking practices may negatively affect the nutritional quality of DHM. This review summarises the effects of these practices on polyunsaturated fatty acids, lipid mediators and antioxidants of human milk. Overall, there is considerable variation in the reported effects, and further research is needed, particularly with lipid mediators and antioxidants. However, to preserve nutritional quality, DHM should be protected from light exposure and storage at 4 °C minimised, to prevent decreases in vitamin C and endocannabinoids and increases in free fatty acids and lipid peroxidation products. Storage at -20 °C prior to pasteurisation should also be minimised, to prevent free fatty increases and total fat and endocannabinoid decreases. Storage ≤-70 °C is preferable wherever possible, although post-pasteurisation storage at -20 °C for three months appears safe for free fatty acids, lipid peroxidation products, and total fat content.
Chapter
Decades of research have established that breastfeeding has multiple benefits for maternal and infant health, yet much remains to be elucidated about the underlying biological mechanisms. Research in this area requires analysis of human milk and its nutritive and bioactive components, with knowledge of compositional variations that occur during the course of a single feed, diurnally, with stage of lactation, and in response to maternal diet or health status. Standardization of methods is critical to ensure accuracy and maximize comparability between studies. The optimal collection strategy will depend on the specific research question and component(s) of interest, and must consider when and how the milk is collected, as well as the processing and storage of the milk sample. In this chapter, we describe and compare different milk sampling strategies, expression methods, and storage containers, and discuss the impact of storage time and temperature on specific milk components.
Article
Rational feeding is one of the most important conditions that ensure adequate maturation of various organs and tissues, optimal parameters of physical, psychomotor, intellectual development, infant resistance to infections and other unfavorable external factors. The ideal food for an infant is mother’s breast milk, because it has a relationship with the tissues of the child and is the ‘gold standard’ for optimal nutrition. The nature of feeding in the first year of life largely determines the state of health of the child, not only in infancy, but also in the subsequent years of his life. Insufficient or improper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy and lactation is a consequence of the production of milk with a low content of vitamins and essential nutrients, which may be one of the reasons for the development of alimentary‑dependent conditions in young children, negatively affect growth indicators, nervous and mental development of a child. The best way to replenish the micronutrient deficiency in the diet of nursing mothers is to take biologically active food supplements in the form of vitamin and mineral complexes.
Article
Background & aims: The effect of human milk storage in the refrigerator has been investigated with regard to sensory changes and modifications to the molecular composition of the milk odour-active volatiles. Methods: In the present study, characteristic odorants from fat oxidation, known from previous studies, as well as free fatty acids were quantified as representative marker substances by means of stable isotope dilution assays of fresh milk samples and milk samples stored at +4 °C for one and three days, respectively. Results: Sensory evaluation showed that rancid and sweaty odour attributes were generated during storage, resulting in an unpleasant aroma profile for adults; however, odour changes were not as pronounced as those observed in our previous study for freeze storage. Fatty and buttery odour notes and a cooked milk-like smell were also generated. In total eight odorants from fat oxidation were determined and some potent odorants showed slight concentration increases. Moreover, five free fatty acids were determined and these all showed drastic concentration increases, even after storage for just one day. Conclusions: These investigations support our previous findings that storage recommendations for breast milk might need to be slightly reconsidered in view of potential sensory changes; on the other hand, no negative physiological effects are to be expected from these changes.
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A survey of infant feeding practices indicated that 40% of the mothers who breast-fed their infants frequently expressed and stored their milk in the home refrigerator/freezer prior to feeding. Effects of different lengths of storage time on the levels of folacin and vitamin C in both term (T) and preterm (PT) human milk were examined. Folacin and vitamin C intakes of most mothers were such that the levels of these vitamins in milk appeared to have reached saturation. Folacin levels in T and PT milk were similar but were lower in both after three months of freezer storage compared to one week of storage. Vitamin C content in PT milk was significantly higher than that in T milk and did not change after three months of freezer storage, whereas the vitamin C level in T milk decreased significantly. After 24 hr refrigeration of T milk, vitamin C content was lower but the folacin level was similar to that observed prior to refrigeration. The findings indicated that T or PT human milk, stored for 3 months in the freezer, would provide the recommended allowance of vitamin C but not of folacin for infants.
Article
SECTION ONE: FACTORS INFLUENCING SUCCESSFUL BREASTFEEDING 1. Breastfeeding as a Public Health Priority 2. Social and Cultural Trends Influencing Breastfeeding 3. Psychologic Factors 4. Anatomy and Physiology Related to Lactation SECTION TWO: BREASTFEEDING MANAGEMENT FOR HEALTHY MOTHERS AND NEWBORNS 5. Maternal Educational Programs 6. Maternal Physical Assessment and Counseling 7. Achieving Successful Milk Production and Transfer 8. Hospital Practices to Support Successful Breastfeeding 9. Managing Newborns with Common Breastfeeding Challenges SECTION THREE: BREASTFEEDING MANAGEMENT UNDER DIFFICULT CIRCUMSTANCES 10. Strategies for Breastfeeding the Preterm Newborn NEW! 11. Strategies for Breastfeeding the Compromised Newborn 12. Strategies for Managing Breast and Nipple Problems 13. Disease Implications and Risk-Benefits of Pharmacologic and Herbal Therapies SECTION FOUR: SOURCES OF NUTRITION AND DELIVERY TECHNIQUES 14. Providing Human Milk When Mother and Infant are Separated 15. Nutritional Sources for Newborns 16. Techniques for Delivering Human and Artificial Milk APPENDICES
Article
Vitamin C concentrations have been measured in the plasma of 200 mothers and their newborns as well as in amniotic fluid and breastmilk. Out of this group 19 mother-infant-pairs were taken as normal control group with no risk factors, complications or diseases during pregnancy or delivery or in the newborn infant. Vitamin C concentrations in plasma showed great variability. This is true for both the entire study group and the normal control group. A positive correlation was found between the vitamin C concentrations in maternal plasma at the time of admission to the obstetric unit and that in the second stage of labor immediately before delivery. Cord blood and newborn plasma vitamin C concentrations were nearly twice as high compared to maternal concentrations. They too correlate with the concentrations in the maternal plasma. A further correlation was found between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid at the time of delivery (ratio about 1:3). No more significant correlations of vitamin C concentrations have been found in the normal control group. Various diseases or risk factors in mother and/or child were shown to be associated with lower vitamin C concentrations. Vitamin C concentrations were considerably lower in all biological fluids in smokers and mothers with diabetes. Other statistical correlations will be shown and possible casualties will be discussed. In this study vitamin C concentrations in groups with abnormal states are documented only with small numbers of cases and are therefore considered as a basis for further more specific investigations.
Article
The influence of maternal intake of vitamin C on the vitamin C concentration in human milk and on the vitamin C intakes of breast-fed infants has not been demonstrated conclusively. This study examined these influences of diet and supplementation in 25 lactating women administered 90 mg of ascorbic acid for 1 day followed by 250, 500 or 1000 mg/day for 2 days or unsupplemented for 1 day followed by either 0 or 90 mg ascorbic acid supplement for 2 days. Vitamin C content in milk and urine was determined by the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine method. Vitamin C intakes of infants were calculated from milk volume, as determined by the test-weighing method and from vitamin C levels in milk samples obtained at each feeding. Total maternal intakes of vitamin C, which exceeded 1000 mg/day or 10-fold the RDA for lactation (100 mg/day), did not significantly influence the vitamin C content in milk or the vitamin C intakes of infants. However, maternal vitamin C intake was positively correlated (r = 0.7) with maternal urinary excretion. These differences in milk and urine response to vitamin C intake suggest a regulatory mechanism for vitamin C levels in milk.
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Measurements of ascorbic acid concentration in leukocytes by "high-performance" liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides better nutritional assessment, leading to better management, particularly of presymptomatic and critically ill patients. This procedure includes a simple, reproducible cell-separation technique that requires no more than 2 mL of whole blood. Cell populations are separable with greater than 95% purity and greater than 99% viability. Ascorbic acid is assayed by HPLC. The vitamin can be reproducibly quantified in concentrations as low as 0.1 microgram/mL of cell extract. The chromatographic procedure is very rapid, analysis being completed within 15 min after specimen preparation. The assay is suitable also for urine and protein-free filtrates of plasma and of other biological materials. Reference intervals for plasma, mononuclear leukocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were established. A preliminary clinical evaluation revealed that hospital patients were at a greater risk of ascorbic acid deficiency than expected.
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The effects of collection technique, storage container, and the duration and temperature of storage on selected nutrient concentrations in mature human milk were evaluated. Milk samples were collected during the fourth week of lactation from women 20-35 years of age by hand expression or suction. Greater volumes and fat concentrations were observed in milks collected by suction. Vitamin A, zinc, iron, copper, sodium, and protein nitrogen concentrations were not affected by storage of milk in either pyrex or polypropylene containers for up to 24 h. The storage temperature had a significant effect on protein nitrogen and ascorbic acid concentrations. These findings indicate that collection methods and storage procedures used for comparatively brief periods will affect the concentrations of selected nutrients of mature human milk. Specific recommendations are made for the collection and storage of milk.
Article
In this double-blind study, the effects of ascorbic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, and folate supplementation on the maternal nutritional status and vitamin content of breast milk in 16 low socioeconomic lactating women were studied. Nine subjects were administered a commercial multivitamin-multimineral supplement and seven were given placebos. Milk samples were collected four times per day at 4-h intervals from 5 to 7 and 43 to 45 days postpartum. Fasting blood samples were taken from all mothers at the end of each milk collection period. Dietary records of all foods consumed were kept from 4 to 7 and 42 to 45 days postpartum. There were no significant differences in milk or plasma levels of ascorbic acid between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups. Both the EGPT index and milk concentration of vitamin B6 were significantly different (p less than 0.01) between the unsupplemented and supplemented groups. The milk concentrations of vitamin B12 increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in the supplemented group, as did the milk concentrations of folate (p less than 0.01). Because of consistently low levels of dietary vitamin B6 and folic acid in this group of low socioeconomic lactating women, either dietary changes or supplements could be necessary to maintain recommended levels of these vitamins in the womens' breast milk.