Article

Clinical effectiveness and tolerance of climbazole containing dandruff shampoo in patients with seborrheic scalp eczema

Authors:
  • Private Dermatology Practice SRH Hospital Gera
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Abstract

Pityrosporum ovale appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dandruff as a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis. Climbazole is an antimycotic agent with a high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against P. ovale. In the presented work we investigated the efficacy and safety of a climbazole 0.65% shampoo on seborrheic dermatitis of 30 volunteers. Subjects were diagnosed as having moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. After a 1-week washout and a 4-week treatment the clinical evaluation showed a successful reduction of dandruff, skin redness and itching in 80% of the volunteers and a mild improvement in 20% of the volunteers. The cosmetic acceptability was very good by the majority. It is concluded that the formulation tested is effective in the treatment of moderate to severe dandruff.

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... The various drugs that are used in the clinical practice as effective antiprotozoal, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal agents containing the imidazole nucleus are azomycin (2), metronidazole (3), secnidazole (4), ornidazole (5), benznidazole (6), tinidazole (7), nimorazole (8), megazol (9), dimetridazole (10), carnidazole (11), panidazole (12), misonidazole (13), clotrimazole (14), isoconazole (15), miconazole (16), butoconazole (17), econazole (18), oxiconazole (19), climbazole (20), ketoconazole (21), sertaconazole (22), flutrimazole (23), eberconazole (24), and luliconazole (25) [1,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] (Figure 1). ...
... The various drugs that are used in the clinical practice as effective antiprotozoal, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal agents containing the imidazole nucleus are azomycin (2), metronidazole (3), secnidazole (4), ornidazole (5), benznidazole (6), tinidazole (7), nimorazole (8), megazol (9), dimetridazole (10), carnidazole (11), panidazole (12), misonidazole (13), clotrimazole (14), isoconazole (15), miconazole (16), butoconazole (17), econazole (18), oxiconazole (19), climbazole (20), ketoconazole (21), sertaconazole (22), flutrimazole (23), eberconazole (24), and luliconazole (25) [1,[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17] (Figure 1). ...
... Dandruff may be control in the summer period; in general UV rays are control the Malassezia. Malassezia [10,11] and aggravated in winter period. Pityrosporum ovale appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dandruff as a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis. ...
... Pityrosporum ovale appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of dandruff as a symptom of seborrheic dermatitis. Climbazole is an antimycotic agent with a high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against P. ovale [11]. Many scientists proved that climbazole control the dandruff and it is safe to use in the shampoo format and it will not affects the product stability during the shelf life [13]. ...
... It is obvious that steroids are not appropriate for long-term and prophylactic use owing to the relapsing nature of SD.Various antifungal therapies against Malassezia species and anti-inflammation agents are helpful for scalp SD. Ketoconazole, climbazole, ciclopirox olamine, zinc-pyrithione, or selenium sulfide shampoos are also commonly used for scalp SD.5,14 Ketoconazole and climbazole are both azoles widely used as antifungal agents in cosmetic products. Ciclopirox olamine is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent with an anti-inflammatory activity.15 ...
Article
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Background Scalp seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis associated with sebum imbalance and proliferation of Malassezia species. Various antifungal shampoos are commonly used for scalp SD. Aims Glycyrrhetinic acid is known to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a new-formula shampoo that contains glycyrrhetinic acid for the treatment of scalp SD. Patients/Methods Thirty-four patients were enrolled and treated with the 6% glycyrrhetinic acid complex shampoo. Efficacy was assessed clinically with Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and Adherent Scalp Flaking Score (ASFS) by the same dermatologist at baseline, week 2, and week 5. Among the 24 subjects with the most significant clinical improvement, four common microorganisms from scalp samples were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at baseline, and week 5. Results The DLQI and ASFS at week 2 and week 5 improved significantly relative to baseline. The bacteria profiles showed a significant increase of Cutibacterium acnes and a decrease of Staphylococcus epidermidis at week 5. The fungi profiles showed significant decreases of both Malassezia restricta and Malassezia globosa. The ratio of C. acne to S. epidermidis increased significantly from 0.93 at baseline to 1.55 at week 5. The ratio of M. restricta to M. globosa decreased from 5.02 at baseline to 1.00 at week 5. Conclusions The effectiveness of this new regimen was objectively demonstrated at the clinical and microbiological levels. This new formula may alleviate the bacterial and fungal dysbiosis in scalp SD.
... Climbazole is used in antidandruff shampoos in Europe, with high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Malassezia evaluated for efficacy and safety. 89 This shampoo is not marketed in the United States. ...
... Climbazole is used in antidandruff shampoos in Europe, with high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Malassezia evaluated for efficacy and safety. 89 This shampoo is not marketed in the United States. ...
Chapter
The recent sequencing of the genomes of dandruff-associated basidiomycetous yeasts, Malassezia globosa and Malassezia restricta, disclosed that the M. globosa genome is among the smallest for a free-living fungus. M. globosa produces a similar set of secreted hydrolases as the human pathogen Candida albicans. Although phylogenetically more closely related to the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis, M. globosa produces a different set of secreted hydrolases, which is a likely adaptation to the host niche and may be involved in pathogenicity. M. globosa is apparently missing several enzymes in fatty acid metabolism, including fatty acid synthase, Δ9 desaturase, and Δ2,3 enoyl CoA isomerase. The two former enzymes are apparently missing also in another skin microbe, Corynebacterium jeikeium. M. globosa has six lipase genes in each of two lipase families, which, compared with the lipases from a related fungus U. maydis, had undergone duplications since divergence from the Ustilago-containing lineage. There is also evidence for duplication of other M. globosa genes for secreted enzymes such as aspartyl proteases, phospholipases C, and acid sphingomyelinases. The M. globosa genome encodes proteins similar to all Malassezia allergens, the coding sequences of which have been isolated, and genes associated with mating, although mating has not yet been observed in Malassezia.
... Climbazole is used in antidandruff shampoos in Europe, with high in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Malassezia evaluated for efficacy and safety. 89 This shampoo is not marketed in the United States. ...
... Several studies investigated the efficacy of anti-dandruff shampoos containing piroctone olamine or climbazole alone or in combination with other actives [17][18][19]. A shampoo comprising of 0.5% piroctone olamine and 0.45% climbazole showed an anti-fungal effectiveness comparable to shampoos containing particulate zinc pyrithione. ...
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Cyclodextrins (CDs), 1,4 -α-linked cyclic starches containing 6 (α-CD), 7 (β-CD), and 8 (γ-CD) glucose units, are water soluble molecular bracelets, with hydrophobic interiors and hydrophilic exteriors. They are widely known for their ability to serve as hosts in the formation of both soluble and solid crystalline inclusion complexes (ICs) with a large variety of non-covalently included guest molecules. Recently we have demonstrated that a wide range of high molecular weight polymers, as well as small-molecule guests may be included in the host CD channels and cavities of their CD-ICs. These CD-IC crystals melt at high temperatures (~300º C) and effectively screen their included guests from environmental influences. For example, crystalline CD-ICs may even be formed with polymer and small-molecule guests that are liquids in their pure bulk states. In polymer-CD-ICs the CD bracelets pack to form parallel stacks with narrow continuous channels (~0.5-1.0 nm in diameter), where the included polymer guests reside in highly extended conformations and are segregated from neighboring included polymer chains. Coalescence of guest polymers from their CD-ICs, which can be accomplished with a solvent for CD that is a non-solvent for the guest polymer or by treatment with an amylase enzyme, results in their consolidation into bulk samples with morphologies that are uniquely different from those normally obtained by consolidation from their disorder-ed solutions and melts. As a consequence, we have found their crystallinities, miscibilities with other polymers and small-molecules, and the phase separation of their block copolymers can be controlled by coalescence from their CD-IC crystals. Here we offer an assessment of the potential for using polymer materials processed with CD-ICs as a means to improve medical textiles, including applications such as the controlled delivery of drugs and genes and for fabricating anti-bacterial sutures, wound dressings, and implants.
Article
In this study, we have examined a number of parameters which affect the rate of sterol desorption from a model membrane surface (a monolayer at the air/water interface) to cyclodextrins (CD) in the aqueous subphase. The desorption experiments were carried out at a constant lateral surface pressure with a zero-order trough, which allowed for a determination of desorption rates which were unaffected by monolayer substrate concentration. At a surface pressure of 20 mN/m (30 degrees C), 0.9 mM beta-CD caused a desorption of about 13 pmol of cholesterol per minute and square centimeter of monolayer area. The desorption of cholesterol proceeded linearly as a time function and was sensitive to the concentration of beta-CD in the subphase. The rate of cholesterol desorption increased as the monolayer surface pressure increased (3->35 mN/m) but decreased slightly with increasing temperature (15->30 degrees C). The rate of sterol desorption appeared to be influenced by the relative polarity of the sterols. Oxidized sterols desorbed significantly faster than cholesterol (e.g., 4-cholesten-3-one desorbed 8.4-fold faster than cholesterol), whereas less polar sterols desorbed at slower rates [e.g., 20(R)-isoheptyl-5-pregnen-3 beta-ol, a cholesterol analogue with a ten-carbon branched side chain, desorbed at 1/10 of the rate of cholesterol]. Cholesterol desorption from a monolayer membrane containing both cholesterol and a phospholipid was much slower than from a pure cholesterol monolayer. When the effect of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and N-palmitoylsphingomyelin on cholesterol desorption rate was compared, it was found that cholesterol desorption was much more retarded from sphingomyelin monolayers as compared to that from phosphatidylcholine monolayers. Taken together, the results of this study show that the beta-CD-enhanced desorption of cholesterol (and other sterols) from monolayer membranes is influenced by the polarity of the desorbing molecules, as well as by lipid/lipid interactions in the membranes. Since beta-CD has no surface activity of its own, it appears to be a useful, nonintrusive catalyzer of cholesterol desorption and is expected to become a valuable probe in membrane and cell research.
Article
We report here the purification of the third protein factor, Apaf-3, that participates in caspase-3 activation in vitro. Apaf-3 was identified as a member of the caspase family, caspase-9. Caspase-9 and Apaf-1 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CED-3 homologous domains in the presence of cytochrome c and dATP, an event that leads to caspase-9 activation. Activated caspase-9 in turn cleaves and activates caspase-3. Depletion of caspase-9 from S-100 extracts diminished caspase-3 activation. Mutation of the active site of caspase-9 attenuated the activation of caspase-3 and cellular apoptotic response in vivo, indicating that caspase-9 is the most upstream member of the apoptotic protease cascade that is triggered by cytochrome c and dATP.
Article
Caspases are a large family of evolutionarily conserved proteases found from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. Although the first caspase was identified as a processing enzyme for interleukin-1beta, genetic and biochemical data have converged to reveal that many caspases are key mediators of apoptosis, the intrinsic cell suicide program essential for development and tissue homeostasis. Each caspase is a cysteine aspartase; it employs a nucleophilic cysteine in its active site to cleave aspartic acid peptide bonds within proteins. Caspases are synthesized as inactive precursors termed procaspases; proteolytic processing of procaspase generates the tetrameric active caspase enzyme, composed of two repeating heterotypic subunits. Based on kinetic data, substrate specificity, and procaspase structure, caspases have been conceptually divided into initiators and effectors. Initiator caspases activate effector caspases in response to specific cell death signals, and effector caspases cleave various cellular proteins to trigger apoptosis. Adapter protein-mediated oligomerization of procaspases is now recognized as a universal mechanism of initiator caspase activation and underlies the control of both cell surface death receptor and mitochondrial cytochrome c-Apaf-1 apoptosis pathways. Caspase substrates have bene identified that induce each of the classic features of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell body shrinkage, and DNA fragmentation. Mice deficient for caspase genes have highlighted tissue- and signal-specific pathways for apoptosis and demonstrated an independent function for caspase-1 and -11 in cytokine processing. Dysregulation of caspases features prominently in many human diseases, including cancer, autoimmunity, and neurodegenerative disorders, and increasing evidence shows that altering caspase activity can confer therapeutic benefits.
Article
Signal transduction is initiated by complex protein–protein interactions between ligands, receptors and kinases, to name only a few. It is now becoming clear that lipid micro-environments on the cell surface — known as lipid rafts — also take part in this process. Lipid rafts containing a given set of proteins can change their size and composition in response to intra- or extracellular stimuli. This favours specific protein–protein interactions, resulting in the activation of signalling cascades.
Article
Itraconazole is a triazole antifungal agent with a broad spectrum of activity. It is well tolerated and highly efficacious, particularly because its main metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole, also has considerable antifungal activity. Two new formulations of itraconazole, an oral solution and an intravenous formulation, have recently been developed, which combine lipophilic itraconazole with cyclodextrin. These formulations have improved the solubility of itraconazole, leading to enhanced absorption and bioavailability compared with the original capsule formulation, without having an impact on the tolerability profile of itraconazole. The oral solution and intravenous formulations of itraconazole produce consistent plasma concentrations and are ideal for the treatment of systemic fungal infections in a wide range of patient populations. The additional flexibility offered by the different routes of administration means that itraconazole treatment can be specifically tailored for use in all patients, including children and those requiring intensive care.
Article
Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides with a hydrophilic outer surface and a somewhat lipophilic central cavity. Cyclodextrins are able to form water-soluble inclusion complexes with many lipophilic water-insoluble drugs. In aqueous solutions drug molecules located in the central cavity are in a dynamic equilibrium with free drug molecules. Furthermore, lipophilic molecules in the aqueous complexation media will compete with each other for a space in the cavity. Due to their size and hydrophilicity only insignificant amounts of cyclodextrins and drug/cyclodextrin complexes are able to penetrate into lipophilic biological barriers, such as intact skin. In general, cyclodextrins enhance topical drug delivery by increasing the drug availability at the barrier surface. At the surface the drug molecules partition from the cyclodextrin cavity into the lipophilic barrier. Thus, drug delivery from aqueous cyclodextrin solutions is both diffusion controlled and membrane controlled. It appears that cyclodextrins can only enhance topical drug delivery in the presence of water.
Article
Defective cytochrome c release and the resulting loss of caspase-3 activation was recently shown to be essential for the susceptibility of human melanoma cells to CD95/Fas-induced apoptosis. Cytochrome c release from mitochondria is regulated by the relative amounts of apoptosis-promoting and apoptosis-inhibiting Bcl-2 proteins in the outer membrane of these organelles. The assignment of Bax/Bcl-2 ratios by quantitative Western blotting in 11 melanoma cell populations revealed a relation to the susceptibility to CD95-mediated apoptosis. We could show that a low Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was characteristic for resistant cells and a high Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was characteristic for sensitive cells. Low Bax expression was not a consequence of mutations in the p53 coding sequence. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was also in clear correlation with sensitivity to another cell death inducer, N-acetylsphingosine. Furthermore, Bcl-2 overexpression abolished apoptosis triggered by both apoptotic stimuli, confirming the critical role of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as a rheostat that determines the susceptibility to apoptosis in melanoma cells by regulating mitochondrial function. Interestingly, some chemotherapeutics lead to the activation of death pathways by CD95L upregulation, ceramide generation, direct activation of upstream caspases, or upregulation of proapoptotic genes. Taken together, these signals enter the apoptotic pathway upstream of mitochondria, resulting in activation of this central checkpoint. We therefore assumed that apoptosis deficiency of malignant melanoma can be circumvented by drugs directly influencing mitochondrial functions. For this purpose we used betulinic acid, a cytotoxic agent selective for melanoma, straightly perturbing mitochondrial functions. In fact, betulinic acid induced mitochondrial cytochrome c release and DNA fragmentation in both CD95-resistant and CD95-sensitive melanoma cell populations, independent of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
Article
Intranasal administration of midazolam has been of particular interest because of the rapid and reliable onset of action, predictable effects, and avoidance of injections. The available intravenous formulation (Dormicum i.v. solution from Hoffmann-La Roche) is however less than optimal for intranasal administration due to low midazolam concentration and acidity of the formulation (pH 3.0-3.3). In this study midazolam was formulated in aqueous sulfobutylether-beta-cyclodextrin buffer solution. The nasal spray was tested in 12 healthy volunteers and compared to intravenous midazolam in an open crossover trial. Clinical sedation effects, irritation, and serum drug levels were monitored. The absolute bioavailability of midazolam in the nasal formulation was determined to be 64 +/- 19% (mean +/- standard deviation). The peak serum concentration from nasal application, 42 +/- 11 ng ml-1, was reached within 10-15 min following administration and clinical sedative effects were observed within 5 to 10 min and lasted for about 40 min. Intravenous administration gave clinical sedative effects within 3 to 4 min, which lasted for about 35 minutes. Mild to moderate, transient irritation of nasal and pharyngeal mucosa was reported. The nasal formulation approaches the intravenous form in speed of absorption, serum concentration and clinical sedation effect. No serious side effects were observed.
Article
Cyclodextrins (CD) are enzymatically modified starches with a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries, agriculture and environmental engineering. They are produced from starch via enzymatic conversion using cyclodextrin glycosyl transferases (CGTases) and partly alpha-amylases. Due to its low solubility in water, separation and purification of beta-CD is relatively easy compared to alpha- and gamma-CD. In recent years more economic processes for gamma-CD and especially alpha-CD production have been developed using improved CGTases and downstream processing. New purification steps, e.g. affinity adsorption, may reduce the use of complexing agents. The implementation of thermostable CGTases can simplify the production process and increase the selectivity of the reaction. A tabular overview of alpha-CD production processes is presented.
Article
We compared the inhibitory effect of various cyclodextrins (CyDs) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) function and examined the contribution of cholesterol to the inhibitory effect of 2,6-di-O-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DM-beta-CyD) on the efflux activity of the function in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Of various CyDs, DM-beta-CyD significantly impaired the efflux activity of P-gp and MRP2. DM-beta-CyD released P-gp and MRP2 from the monolayers in the apical side's transport buffer and decreased the extent of cholesterol as well as P-gp and MRP2 in caveolae of Caco-2 cell monolayers, but not caveolin and flotillin-1. On the other hand, DM-beta-CyD did not change MDR1 and MRP2 mRNA levels. Therefore, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of DM-beta-CyD on P-gp and MRP2 function, at least in part, could be attributed to the release of these transporters from the apical membranes into the medium as secondary effects through cholesterol-depletion in caveolae after treatment of Caco-2 cell monolayers with DM-beta-CyD.
Article
Engagement of TNF receptor 1 by TNFalpha activates the transcription factor NF-kappaB but can also induce apoptosis. Here we show that upon TNFalpha binding, TNFR1 translocates to cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains, termed lipid rafts, where it associates with the Ser/Thr kinase RIP and the adaptor proteins TRADD and TRAF2, forming a signaling complex. In lipid rafts, TNFR1 and RIP are ubiquitylated. Furthermore, we provide evidence that translocation to lipid rafts precedes ubiquitylation, which leads to the degradation via the proteasome pathway. Interfering with lipid raft organization not only abolishes ubiquitylation but switches TNFalpha signaling from NF-kappaB activation to apoptosis. We suggest that lipid rafts are crucial for the outcome of TNFalpha-activated signaling pathways.
Article
Apoptosis is an essential feature of development and homeostasis in higher organisms. Lipid rafts are subdomains of the plasma membrane that contain high concentrations of cholesterol and sphingolipids. In response to intra or extracellular stimuli, lipid rafts can include or exclude proteins to variable extents. This favors specific protein-protein interactions and modulates the activity of signaling cascades. Recently, a number of proteins involved in apoptotic signals have been located in lipid rafts. Among these proteins is included Bad, a pro-apoptotic molecule belonging to the Bcl-2 family. Bad is attached to lipid rafts in proliferating cells while associated to mitochondria in apoptotic cells, suggesting that the interaction of Bad with rafts is a dynamic process involved in the control of apoptosis. In this review, we briefly summarize the structure of rafts and illustrate their contribution to the control of apoptosis.
Article
To study the sensitivity and specificity of different staining methods to monitor apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in adherent cells. Sensitivity and specificity of several common methods for apoptosis determination were evaluated (Apo2.7-expression, Annexin V-binding, TUNEL-reaction, poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase-(PARP) cleavage and single-stranded-DNA (ssDNA) staining). Apoptosis was induced by oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide in 3 cultured cells types growing as adherent monolayer (MiaPaCa-2, Hep-G2 and human skin fibroblasts), necrosis was induced by depletion of cellular ATP using sodium azide. Cells positively stained by the respective apoptosis assay were quantified and alterations of cell morphology were monitored by fluorescence microscopy. The date was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and significance test of correlation coefficient. One hour after apoptosis induction significant cell fractions were positively stained for ssDNA (33% with MiaPaCa-2 cells, 35% with Hep-G2 cells, 56% with human skin fibroblasts). PARP-cleavage was less sensitive compared to the ssDNA-staining. Apo2.7-expression, Annexin V-binding and TUNEL-reaction were not applicable to detect early apoptosis induced by oxidative stress (below 2 hours), but were efficiently monitoring late apoptosis. Specificity of ssDNA-staining was complete with each cell type even 4 hs after induction of necrosis by the highest sodium azide concentration. In contrast, the same experimental conditions resulted in 50% - 90% positively stained necrotic cells by using Apo2.7-expression, TUNEL-reaction or Annexin V-binding. Surprisingly, specificity of PARP-cleavage was highly depending on the respective cell type. Our study prove that among the five methods investigated only ssDNA-staining allowed to completely differentiate apoptosis from necrosis, and is thus suitable to reliably detect early as well as late apoptosis. Therefore, the ssDNA-staining may be used as reference method to clearly identify apoptosis induced by oxidative stress in adherent cells. The TUNEL-reaction, annexin-V-binding and Apo-2.7-expression may be used to quantify the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells especially at later stages but without discrimination of apoptosis and primary or secondary necrosis.
Article
The plasma membrane of mammalian cells consists of microdomains differing in lipid and protein composition. Two distinct classes of cholesterol/sphingolipid microdomain (caveolae and lipid rafts) are assembly points for transmembrane signalling complexes. Recent evidence suggests that transient changes in cholesterol content may be important in regulating signal transduction.
Article
The objective of this work was to increase the nasal absorption of acyclovir by using absorption enhancers. Acyclovir was selected as a model drug. A rat in situ nasal perfusion technique was utilized in the investigation to examine the rate and extent of absorption of acyclovir. In vitro enzymatic drug degradation study was carried out with rat nasal washings. Various experimental conditions such as nasal perfusion rate, pH of the perfusion medium and concentrations of absorption enhancers such as sodium deoxycholate, hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin, sodium caprate, sodium tauroglycocholate and EDTA were optimized. Nasal absorption of acyclovir was pH dependent. Initial absorption rate constants were determined by the plot of log% remaining amount of drug in perfusate vs time. It was found maximum at pH 7.4 and decreased at lower and higher pH conditions. In in vitro enzymatic degradation study, no measurable degradation was observed during first week. The extent of drug absorption was increased via absorption enhancers. In vivo studies were carried out for the optimized formulation in rabbits and the pharmacokinetics parameters of nasal solution were compared with oral solution. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin appeared to be more effective for enhancing the nasal absorption of acyclovir than the other absorption enhancers. The order of increasing absorption of acyclovir caused by the enhancers was hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin>sodium deoxycholate>sodium caprate>sodium tauroglycocholate>EDTA.
Article
Fas is a member of the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily. Fas-mediated apoptosis is an essential mechanism protecting against skin cancer. Activation of Fas by specific ligand or agonistic antibodies leads to the formation of a membrane associated death-inducing signalling complex comprising aggregates of Fas, the Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), and caspase-8. It has recently been suggested that activity of Fas is not only regulated by its cognate ligand but also by the association of this receptor with cholesterol-enriched lipid domains in the plasma membrane (lipid rafts). We report here that disruption of lipid rafts by cholesterol-depleting compounds (methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, filipin III, cholesterol oxidase, and mevastatin) leads to a spontaneous clustering of Fas in the non-raft compartment of the plasma membrane, formation of Fas-FADD complexes, activation of caspase-8, and apoptosis. We propose that in some cell types exclusion of Fas from lipid rafts leads to the spontaneous, ligand-independent activation of this death receptor, a mechanism that can potentially be utilized in anticancer therapy.
Article
We investigated the membrane localization of CD95 in type I and type II cells, which differ in their ability to recruit and activate caspase-8. We found that CD95 was preferentially located in lipid rafts of type I cells, while it was present both in raft and non-raft plasma membrane sub-domains of type II cells. After stimulation, CD95 located in phospholipid-rich plasma membrane was recruited to lipid rafts in both types of cells. Similarly, CD95 cross-linking resulted in caspase-independent translocation of FADD/MORT1 and caspase-8 to the lipid rafts, which was prevented by a death domain-defective receptor. CD95 internalization was then rapid in type I and delayed in type II cells and showed a substantial correlation with the kinetics of Fas-associated death domain (FADD)and caspase-8 recruitment to lipid rafts. Finally, electron microscopy analysis showed that after CD95 stimulation lipid rafts aggregated in large clusters that were internalized in endosomal vesicles, where caspase-8 underwent massive processing. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CD95 death-inducing signaling complex formation and internalization in type I and type II cells occur in lipid rafts, which are a major site of caspase-8 activation.
Article
To test the hypothesis that cyclodextrins reversibly enhance nasal absorption of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) and to investigate the mechanisms by which cyclodextrins enhance LMWH absorption via the nose. Absorption of LMWHs was studied by measuring plasma anti-factor Xa activity after nasal administration of various LMWH formulations to anesthetized rats. In vivo reversibility studies were performed to investigate if the effects of cyclodextrins are reversible and diminish with time. The absorption-enhancing mechanisms of cyclodextrins were investigated in cell culture model. The transport of enoxaparin and mannitol, changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), and distribution of tight junction protein ZO-1 were investigated. Formulations containing 5% dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbetaCD) produced the highest increase in the bioavailability of LMWH preparations tested. In vivo reversibility studies with 5% DMbetaCD showed that the effect of the absorption enhancer at the site of administration diminished with time. Transport studies using 16HBE14o(-) cells demonstrated that the increase in the permeability of enoxaparin and mannitol, reduction in TEER, and the changes in the tight junction protein ZO-1 distribution produced by 5% DMbetaCD were much greater than those produced by beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) or hydroxyl-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD). Of the cyclodextrins tested, DMbetaCD was the most efficacious in enhancing absorption of LMWHs both in vivo and in vitro. The study also suggests that cyclodextrins enhance nasal drug absorption by opening of cell-cell tight junctions.
Article
The preferential sphingomyelin—cholesterol interaction which results from the structure and the molecular properties of these two lipids seems to be the physicochemical basis for the formation and maintenance of cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched nano- and micro-domains (referred to as membrane “rafts”) in the plane of plasma and other organelle (i.e., Golgi) membranes. This claim is supported by much experimental evidence and also by theoretical considerations. However, although there is a large volume of information about these rafts regarding their lipid and protein composition, their size, and their dynamics, there is still much to be clarified on these issues, as well as on how rafts are formed and maintained. It is well accepted now that the lipid phase of the rafts is the liquid ordered (LO) phase. However, other (non-raft) parts of the membrane may also be in the LO phase.
Article
The dissolution profiles of flurbiprofen (Flu) and its beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (Flu/beta-CD) in buffer solutions at various pH values were examined. The percent dissolved at 15 min for Flu and Flu/beta-CD was almost 100% at pH 6.8 and 8.0 but the dissolution rate of Flu was extremely reduced at pH 1.2 and 4.0. In these lower pH conditions, Flu/beta-CD improved the dissolution rate of Flu. The percent dissolved at 1 h for Flu/beta-CD at pH 1.2 and 4.0 were 33.4 and 41.3%, respectively, and about 10 times larger than those for Flu. The oral bioavailability of Flu from Flu or Flu/beta-CD at doses of 1, 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg (as Flu) was examined in rats. An apparent linear relationship between doses and C(max) and AUC was observed after administration of Flu and Flu/beta-CD. The Flu C(max) and AUC values at 30 mg/kg, however, were much lower than would have been predicted from doses of 1-10 mg/kg. Those of Flu/beta-CD were also lower than the predicted values, but the gap was quite small. The results suggest that the absorption of Flu in rats was saturated at 10 mg/kg, and that the enhanced dissolution rate of Flu/beta-CD increased the saturation dose to 30 mg/kg.
Article
Signaling by receptors in the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily mediate biological outcomes ranging from inflammation to apoptosis and other forms of programmed cell death. How receptor signaling mediates these divergent responses is just beginning to be understood. Here, we discuss how receptor submembrane localization and the formation of alternate signaling complexes can alter the fate of cells stimulated through TNFRs with a death domain, also known as "death receptors."
Article
This study investigates the solubilization of a potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent [PG-300995 or 2-(2-thiophenyl)-4-azabenzoimidazole] for oral administration. The intrinsic solubility of PG-300995 is 51 microg/mL. Multiple approaches including combinations of pH control and cosolvency, micellization, or complexation were used to improve the solubility of PG-300995. The combined techniques increased the solubility of both the unionized and ionized species. The solubility of the drug increased from 20 to 200 times depending on the pH and concentration of solubilization agents. The following formulations which contain the desired doses of 5 and 10 mg/mL were developed for oral administration. Formulation A: 10 mg/mL PG-300995 in 20% sulfobutyl ether-beta-cyclodextrin at pH 2; formulations B: 5 mg/mL PG-300995 in 10% sulfobutyl ether-beta-cyclodextrin at pH 2; formulation C: 5 mg/mL PG-300995 in 10% ethanol + 40% propylene glycol at pH 2. No precipitation was observed after series dilution of these three formulations with water or pH 2 buffers. These formulations are stable for at least 6 months after storing at room temperature and 37 degrees C.
Article
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ligand-receptor system plays an essential role in apoptosis that contributes to secondary damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). TNF also stimulates inflammation by activation of gene transcription through the IkappaB kinase (IKK)/NF-kappaB and JNK (c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase)/AP-1 signaling cascades. The mechanism by which TNF signals between cell death and survival and the role of receptor localization in the activation of downstream signaling events are not fully understood. Here, TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling complexes in lipid rafts were investigated in the cerebral cortex of adult male Sprague Dawley rats subjected to moderate (1.8-2.2 atmospheres) fluid-percussion TBI and naive controls. In the normal rat cortex, a portion of TNFR1 was present in lipid raft microdomains, where it associated with the adaptor proteins TRADD (TNF receptor-associated death domain), TNF receptor-associated factor-2 (TRAF-2), the Ser/Thr kinase RIP (receptor-interacting protein), TRAF1, and cIAP-1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-1), forming a survival signaling complex. Moderate TBI resulted in rapid recruitment of TNFR1, but not TNFR2 or Fas, to lipid rafts and induced alterations in the composition of signaling intermediates. TNFR1 and TRAF1 were polyubiquitinated in lipid rafts after TBI. Subsequently, the signaling complex contained activated caspase-8, thus initiating apoptosis. In addition, TBI caused a transient activation of NF-kappaB, but receptor signaling interacting proteins IKKalpha and IKKbeta were not detected in raft-containing fractions. Thus, redistribution of TNFR1 in lipid rafts and nonraft regions of the plasma membrane may regulate the diversity of signaling responses initiated by these receptors in the normal brain and after TBI.
Article
Due to limited aqueous solubility of dorzolamide at physiologic pH, the pH of Trusopt eye drops (cont. 2% dorzolamide) has to be kept at about 5.65, and to increase the topical bioavailability of the drug from Trusopt the contact time of the drug with the eye surface is increased by increasing the viscosity of the eye drops to 100 cps. This low pH and high viscosity can lead to local irritation. In this study, dorzolamide hydrochloride was formulated as 2% and 4% low viscosity solutions (viscosity 3 to 5 cps) containing randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin at pH 7.45. These formulations were evaluated in rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at various time points after topical administration of the drug and the dorzolamide concentration determined in the different parts of the eye. Trusopt was used as a reference standard. The topical availability of dorzolamide from the cyclodextrin-containing eye drops appeared to be comparable to that from Trusopt and the drug reached retina and optic nerve to give measurable concentrations for at least 8 h after administration of the eye drops.
Article
A transdermal patch for delivering nicotine for periods of 12-48h was designed. An inclusion complex formed between the nicotine and beta-cyclodextrine (beta-CD) was used in drug depot. The usefulness of a specially cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol (cross-PVA) membrane was investigated as a rate controlling membrane. The influence of carbopol polymers, type C-934P and C-940 and propylene glycol on transdermal permeation of nicotine through the rat skin was investigated. The results indicated a maximum flux of 42 microgcm(-2)h(-1) after 48 h from the patches made from C-934P when the propylene glycol concentration was 15% and the nicotine-beta-CD mole ratio in the inclusion complex was 3:1. These nicotine transdermal patches can be fabricated to obtain a controlled release, zero order systems.
Article
The potential use of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-betaCD) in the solubilization and stabilization of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) was investigated. The solubility and chemical stability of PGE(1) were significantly improved upon complexation with HP-betaCD. The nasal delivery of PGE(1) from the complex formulation was also studied in Wistar rats and compared with intravenous administration. PGE(1) complex after nasal administration caused a rapid decrease of blood pressure and exhibited an obvious dose-efficacy relationship, showing results nearly similar to those obtained for intravenous route. The time to reach the peak effect (T(max)) was approximately 3-4 min. Except T(max), other pharmacodynamic parameter values such as the maximal percent of blood pressure decrease (E(max), %), the lasting time of effect (T(d)), and the area under the curve (AUC, blood pressure decrease % min) were increased with increasing the administered doses. The E(max), T(d), and in particular AUC values between doses were significantly different (P < 0.01), but T(max) between doses were not significantly different (P < 0.05). The AUC values per unit dose of PGE(1) for nasal administration, however, were smaller than those for intravenous route, probably due to the incomplete absorption of nasally administered PGE(1). Besides, the in vitro effect of the PGE(1) complex on nasal mucociliary movement was also investigated with a toad palate model. The PGE(1) complex formulation exerted only minor effect on nasal mucociliary movement. These results indicate that the PGE(1)-HP-betaCD complex formulation for nasal delivery is a very promising preparation with advantages such as rapid and effective absorption, good chemical stability, ease of administration, and minor nasal ciliotoxicity.
Article
It is recognised that poorly soluble drugs may show an increased oral bioavailability when incorporated in o/w-emulsions. Encapsulating the emulsion lipid droplets in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) by spray drying has been demonstrated to preserve an improved bioavailability releasing lipid droplets from the powder in vivo. However, the spray-dried powder is cohesive and bulky requiring additional processing to improve handling. This was resolved in previous work where a directly compressible dry emulsion formulation was described. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the oral bioavailability resulting from administration of a directly compressible dry emulsion as a tablet and compare it with a HPMC dry emulsion powder and a simple lipid solution. Four female Beagle dogs received a single dose of each formulation containing the same amount of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) and a model drug, Lu 28-179. Cyclodextrin solutions administered orally and intravenously were used as references. The absolute bioavailability decreased in the order cyclodextrin solution (0.14), HPMC dry emulsion (0.11), technically improved dry emulsion (0.10) and MCT solution (0.06). The directly compressible dry emulsion tablets were concluded to be comparable to a HPMC dry emulsion powder in terms of bioavailability. The lack of statistically significant differences relative to a MCT solution was ascribed to a low and variable absolute oral bioavailability of the model drug.
Article
Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enriched microdomains in plasma membranes. The functional activity of many membrane proteins, including death and growth factor receptors, depends on their insertion in lipid rafts. We have previously demonstrated the presence of lipid rafts in keratinocytes and shown that lipid rafts are involved in the control of keratinocyte proliferation and metabolic activity. In this work, we investigated the effect of lipid-raft disruption on HaCaT keratinocyte survival. Lipid rafts could be disrupted or rearranged with cholesterol-targeting detergents: methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and filipin III. Moreover, cholesterol oxidation by a specific oxidase or blocking of cholesterol synthesis by mevastatin had a similar effect on lipid rafts. All cholesterol-modifying substances caused cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. More detailed studies on the effects of cyclodextrin revealed apoptotic cell death at concentrations >or=0.5% (w/v). The molecular mechanism of apoptosis precipitated by raft disruption remains unknown but does not seem to be dependent of either membrane permeabilization or cell-cycle arrest imposed by cholesterol-modifying compounds.
Article
Cyclodextrins, especially methylated beta-cyclodextrins offer several advantages for drug delivery which include improved drug solubilization, protection against physicochemical and enzymatic degradation, as well as a potential for absorption improvement. However, little or no data are available for their use as drug penetration enhancer via the buccal route. This study focuses on the toxicity of randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) on buccal mucosa using a reconstituted human oral epithelium model composed of TR 146 cells. Toxicity of RAMEB on TR 146 cells was evaluated by measuring cell viability (MTT assay) and membrane damages followed by LDH release after single and repeated exposures to RAMEB solutions. Inflammatory effects of RAMEB are also considered by measuring expression of interleukin-1alpha and are supported by histological examination. The present results indicate that 10% RAMEB results in cytotoxic and inflammatory effects depending on time exposure, whereas 2% and 5% RAMEB do not induce tissue damages even after 5 days of repeated exposures. Therefore, the highly water-soluble RAMEB is thought to be a safe candidate as an excipient for buccal mucosal drug delivery.
Article
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