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Stages of Change in Mood and Behavior During a Winter in Antarctica

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Abstract

Seasonal variation in mood and behavior was examined in 87 American men and women who spent the 1991 austral winter at three different research stations in Antarctica. The South Pole station (90 degrees S) crew reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety, depression, anger, confusion, and fatigue from March to August, followed by a significant increase in tension/anxiety and fatigue and a significant decline in vigor from August to October. The McMurdo station (78 degrees 51' S) crew also reported a significant decline in tension/anxiety from March to July and a significant increase in tension/anxiety from July to August. In contrast, the Palmer station (64 degrees 46' S) crew experienced no significant changes in any mood subscale from May to October. The nonlinear pattern of change in mood suggests that adaptation to prolonged isolation and confinement in an extreme environment occurs in two or three stages.

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... To give some examples of this diversity, on Earth, Arctic and Antarctic regions are characterized by higher latitudes which coheres with increased seasonality due to marked changes in photoperiodicity (i.e., the lack of a normal day-night alternance over an epoch of 24 h) (e.g., Friborg et al., 2012;Pattyn et al., 2018;Zivi et al., 2020). The observed consequences in studies in different Antarctic stations and Arctic trek expeditions over the years included sleep loss, impaired cognition, negative affect and interpersonal tensions and conflicts, a cluster of symptoms that has been labeled as the "winter-over syndrome" based on Antarctic winter-over studies (Palinkas, 1992;Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Palinkas and Suedfeld, 2008). Indeed, in Antarctica, a circadian phase delay in melatonin secretion (e.g., Kennaway and Van Dorp, 1991;Yoneyama et al., 1999;Pattyn et al., 2017), poor subjective sleep quality, an increased sleep fragmentation, as well as a decrease in slow wave sleep (Natani et al., 1970;Paterson, 1975;Bhattacharyya et al., 2008;Pattyn et al., 2017Pattyn et al., , 2018Mairesse et al., 2019) have been regularly reported (see Pattyn et al., 2018;Zivi et al., 2020 for a review). ...
... For instance, in Concordia station, the average pressure altitude of 3,800 m causes a condition of chronic hypobaric hypoxia which has been shown to be a pervasive disturber of sleep, overruling the impact of seasonality (Tellez et al., 2014(Tellez et al., , 2016Collet et al., 2015). A relationship between both latitude and/or altitude and the winter-over syndrome has been illustrated in several studies by Palinkas et al. (e.g., Palinkas, 1991;Palinkas et al., 1996;Palinkas and Houseal, 2000) showing that latitude and/or altitude were inversely associated with the outcomes on the winter-over syndrome. Changes in photoperiodicity are present in space as well, although in a different way than on earth. ...
... Not only has a crew more motivation and energy in the first half of the mission to build group cohesion, negative relations established early in isolation appear to remain stable over time of a mission (Sandal et al., 1995). This can be confounded by observable dips in crews' morale and cohesion in the second half (Wood et al., 1999;Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Kanas et al., 2001Kanas et al., , 2009Sandal, 2001;Palinkas and Suedfeld, 2008;Supolkina et al., 2021) and third quarter of a mission (Bechtel and Berning, 1991). ...
Article
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Introduction Isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments such as found at Antarctic, Arctic, and other remote research stations are considered space-analogs to study the long duration isolation aspects of operational space mission conditions. Methods We interviewed 24 sojourners that participated in different short/long duration missions in an Antarctic (Concordia, Halley VI, Rothera, Neumayer II) or non-Antarctic (e.g., MDRS, HI-SEAS) station or in polar treks, offering a unique insight based on first-hand information on the nature of demands by ICE-personnel at multiple levels of functioning. We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis to explore how sojourners were trained, prepared, how they experienced the ICE-impact in function of varieties in environment, provided trainings, station-culture, and type of mission. Results The ICE-environment shapes the impact of organizational, interpersonal, and individual working- and living systems, thus influencing the ICE-sojourners' functioning. Moreover, more specific training for operating in these settings would be beneficial. The identified pillars such as sensory deprivation, sleep, fatigue, group dynamics, displacement of negative emotions, gender-issues along with coping strategies such as positivity, salutogenic effects, job dedication and collectivistic thinking confirm previous literature. However, in this work, we applied a systemic perspective, assembling the multiple levels of functioning in ICE-environments. Discussion A systemic approach could serve as a guide to develop future preparatory ICE-training programs, including all the involved parties of the crew system (e.g., family, on-ground crew) with attention for the impact of organization- and station-related subcultures and the risk of unawareness about the impact of poor sleep, fatigue, and isolation on operational safety that may occur on location.
... Very few studies have investigated the differences in patterns of adaptation to long-term isolation, confinement, and exposure to extreme environmental conditions by comparing different stations at different latitudes. Palinkas and Houseal [18], reported that changes in mood assessed with the Profile of Mood States (POMS) varied across three American stations. The authors suggested an association between changes in mood and station latitude. ...
... To begin with, most of the data are based on retrospection or at best, on a small number of measures; in the latter case, these were usually limited to one administration at the beginning, and another at the end, of the austral winter [15,19,24]. More frequent assessments, in different stations at different latitudes, are required to determine the course of psychological adaptation under different environmental conditions [10,18,19]. Second, the use of many alternative measurement techniques in different studies makes comparisons between reports difficult [25][26][27]. ...
... We also examined the effects of PC on the dynamics of PAP experienced by winterers across the two aforementioned polar stations. According to the previous studies and the literature [18,19,21], we supposed that the dynamics of PAP should be proportional to the severity of environmental conditions and thus to the latitude of the polar stations. More specifically, we hypothesized that winterers of Amsterdam station should present less decreases of PAP (social, emotional, occupational, and physical components) over the one-year period of polar winterings compared to those of Concordia stations. ...
Article
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Grounded within a multidimensional and multilevel approach, the aim of this study was to investigate the time course of Psychological Adaptation Process (PAP) dimensions (social, emotional, occupational, and physical) during one-year polar winter-overs in Subantarctic and Antarctic stations. The effects of perceived control (PC) at the start of polar winter on the dynamics of the PAP dimensions were also examined. The present findings clarify some changes in PAP in extreme environments: (a) The dimensions of psychological adaptation evolved differently as a function of environmental conditions; and (b) PC influenced the trajectories of PAP dimensions. These findings elucidate the importance and complexity of psychological dimensions and the significant role of PC in adaptation to an extreme environment.
... In discovering this result, Sandal employed monthly repeated measures and used descriptive statistics to assess changes in means over time across a 5-month period. Palinkas and Houseal (2000) showed that individuals in Antarctica exhibited an initial decrease in both anxiety and fatigue from March to August and subsequent increase in anxiety and fatigue from August to October. The researchers aggregated 12 monthly scores of anxiety into three periods and employed a paired-samples t test. ...
... Third, ICE researchers rarely achieve the added power boost because they tend to employ low frequency of repeated measurement or collapse responses over time. For example, researchers often assess constructs at two time points over a year or employ monthly repeated measures (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000). Researchers have also averaged scores from 12 time points into three periods (e.g., Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) or even two periods (e.g., Palinkas et al., 2001). ...
... For example, researchers often assess constructs at two time points over a year or employ monthly repeated measures (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000). Researchers have also averaged scores from 12 time points into three periods (e.g., Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) or even two periods (e.g., Palinkas et al., 2001). These practices are problematic for capturing variance in constructs that change day to day such as affect (Kendell, Mackenzie, West, McGuire, & Cox, 1984 (Kozlowski & Chao, in press). ...
Article
Soon there will be a small but growing workforce beyond near‐Earth orbit, conducting explorations to asteroids, the Moon, Mars, and beyond. Space teams will be subject to difficult working conditions, persistent dangers, and a wide range of challenging stressors. National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other entities have sponsored research on teams in isolated, confined, and extreme (ICE) environments such as the Antarctic, the Arctic, and dedicated space simulations because they represent a reasonable “analog” to the kind of working and living conditions in space. The aim of this integrative review is to compile and organize the ICE literature on the basis of concepts from the team effectiveness literature to identify what we know and, most importantly, what we need to know—how ICE team research needs to advance—to support the future workforce in space and in other extreme environments (e.g., polar, deep sea, and high‐altitude exploration). This effort helped us identify important findings and themes surrounding how team members cope with the extreme conditions. We conclude by discussing explanations for the persistence of gaps, providing recommendations, and offering directions for future research.
... It is important to note from outset that personnel, environmental conditions, and stressors differ considerably across studies, as do the assessment methodologies used. At polar research stations, crews typically range in size from 15 to 1000 and deploy for up to 12 months [57][58][59]. Periods of isolation (i.e., winter-over) last from six to nine months [59][60][61]. Polar expedition teams are smaller (e.g., as few as two crew members), but face greater risk than crews at polar research stations, including blizzards, frozen patches, and channels of water. ...
... [66]], but few details are provided in most cases. In a more systematic study including crews from several polar stations, small but significant increases in scores on the tension-anxiety subscale of the POMS were found over the course of the winter season [58]. Palinkas and Houseal [58] also identified curvilinear changes in tension-anxiety characterized by decreases during the winter months and increases in springtime. ...
... In a more systematic study including crews from several polar stations, small but significant increases in scores on the tension-anxiety subscale of the POMS were found over the course of the winter season [58]. Palinkas and Houseal [58] also identified curvilinear changes in tension-anxiety characterized by decreases during the winter months and increases in springtime. Still, overall variation in scores remained within a restricted and normative range. ...
Article
Full-text available
Spaceflight to Mars will by far exceed the duration of any previous mission. Although behavioral health risks are routinely highlighted among the most serious threats to crew safety, understanding of specific emotional responses most likely to occur and interfere with mission success has lagged in comparison to other risk domains. Even within the domain of behavioral health, emotional constructs remain to be ‘unpacked’ to the same extent as other factors such as attention and fatigue. The current paper provides a review of previous studies that have examined emotional responses in isolated, confined, extreme environments (ICE) toward informing a needed research agenda. We include research conducted during space flight, long-duration space simulation analogs, and polar environments and utilize a well-established model of emotion and emotion regulation to conceptualize specific findings. Lastly, we propose four specific directions for future research: (1) use of a guiding theoretical framework for evaluating emotion responses in ICE environments; (2) leveraging multi-method approaches to improve the reliability of subjective reports of emotional health; (3) a priori selection of precise emotional constructs to guide measure selection; and (4) focusing on positive in addition to negative emotion in order to provide a more complete understanding of individual risk and resilience.
... Various studies have been performed on different continents, including Antarctica over-winter missions in which the extreme conditions that the participants face lead to periods of no communication with the exterior [1, 2, 3, 4], as well as subterranean missions (for a review see [5]). These space analog studies have revealed a major effect of confinement and isolation on the crew's mood, with both beneficial and detrimental effects depending on the phase of the mission and environmental factors [2]. ...
... An analysis without this subject revealed a similar trend as the one for motivation, following a bi-phasic model centered on the Moon-landing phase with an increase in positive affects before and during this specific phase and a drop afterwards. The negative affects were not varying and mostly kept constant at a low level, and the positive ones were in a general manner at the extremes or above the expected values which is in accordance with a beneficial effect of the mission without harsh environmental factors [2]. ...
Article
Future lunar bases and long duration space travel have increased the scientific interest in the potentially negative effects that confinement and isolation can have on a crew’s interpersonal behavior, cognitive state and performance. Given the hazardousness of these missions, it seems crucial to analyze the impact of Human Factors on the daily parameters of operators in order to enhance both their safety and performance. In order to progress towards a more global assessment of a confined operator’s cognitive state we propose to analyze subjective and objective measures regarding a professional task. Hence, this study evaluates the correlation between the participants’ performance in a teleoperation task with their reported mood, motivation and their measured cardiac activity during a ground-based analog space mission. The facility considered was the NEK at IBMP in Moscow, Russia. Six participants (3 females; Mean Age=33.4, σ=6.656; 2 Americans and 4 Russians) were confined during 4 months in this facility. Over the period of confinement, they undertook seventeen teleoperation sessions. The teleoperation task consisted in the remote control of a digital rover that was used to collect a sample on the lunar surface. Completion time and accuracy were measured for each session to evaluate the participants’ performance. Training sessions were run before and after the mission. Also, the participants filled shortened versions of the PANAS and the IMI questionnaires to assess their motivation and mood before the task. Additionally, their cardiac activity was measured during the task. The main results are significant Spearman correlations between the reported feeling of confinement and task completion time (ρ=0.375,p<.01) and the reported feeling of confinement with the positive affect component of the mood (ρ=−0.547,p=<0.01). In addition to that, a general decrease of motivation was observed along the mission with the exception of a booster created by the Moon landing phase. The results confirm a link between confinement stressors and the crew’s performance during this professional task as found in other analog missions such as the Lunares and MDRS ones. The project is in continuous expansion, as more data are required to confirm the obtained results and to pursue their analysis. This work was intended to lay the foundations for a neuroergonomic approach of space operators’ assessment.
... However, compared to the present design, isolation periods were much longer (e.g. 9 month, Abeln et al. 2015). Similar results support the assumption that longer periods of isolation adversely affect mood (Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Schneider et al. 2010). Palinkas and Houseal (2000) demonstrated an interesting behavior in their study, in which a deterioration of mood within the first half of isolation was then recuperated close to the end of isolation. ...
... Similar results support the assumption that longer periods of isolation adversely affect mood (Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Schneider et al. 2010). Palinkas and Houseal (2000) demonstrated an interesting behavior in their study, in which a deterioration of mood within the first half of isolation was then recuperated close to the end of isolation. This alteration in mood is defined as the "third-quarter phenomenon" which was first described by Bechtel and Berning (1991). ...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing demand of space flights requires a profound knowledge of the chronologic reactions of the human body to extreme conditions. Prior studies already have shown the adverse effects of long-term isolation on psycho-physiological well-being. The chronology of the effects and whether short-term isolation periods already lead to similar effects has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of short-term isolation (30 days) on mood, cognition, cortisol, neurotrophic factors, and brain activity. 16 participants were isolated in the Human Exploration Research Analog at NASA for 30 days. 17 non-isolated control participants were tested simultaneously. On mission days − 5, 7, 14, 28, and + 5, multiple tests including the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule-X and cognitive tests were conducted, and a 5-min resting electroencephalography was recorded. A fasted morning blood drawing was also done. Increased stress was observed via augmented cortisol levels during the isolation period. Activity within the parietal cortex was reduced over time, probably representing a neural adaptation to less external stimuli. Cognitive performance was not affected, but rather enhanced in both groups. No further significant changes in neurotrophic factors BDNF/IGF-1 and mood could be detected. These results suggest that 30 days of isolation do not have a significant impact on brain activity, neurotrophic factors, cognition, or mood, even though stress levels were significantly increased during isolation. Further studies need to address the question as to what extent increased levels of stress do not affect mental functions during isolation periods.
... For example, a cluster of symptoms has been described as the winter-over syndrome, consisting of sleep disturbance, impaired cognition, negative affect, and interpersonal tension and conflict experienced by people on polar expeditions in the Antarctic (Palinkas & Suedfeld, 2008). The symptoms appear to increase after the midpoint of an expedition and are reduced toward the end of the expedition (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000;Palinkas et al., 2007;Reed et al., 2001). ...
... In space programs, changes in behavior and performance shortly after the halfway point of missions, regardless of duration, and indicative of the third-quarter phenomenon, have been found in anecdotal reports of astronauts (Connors, Harrison, & Akins, 1985;Kanas, Weiss, & Marmar, 1996), although more recent analyses of data from space program studies reported no significant third quarter decrements in behavior and performance during long-duration missions in space or analogous settings (Belavy et al., 2013;Kanas, 2015;Manzey & Lorenz, 1998;Palinkas & Houseal, 2000;Palinkas, Suedfeld, & Steel, 1995;Sandal, Leon, & Palinkas, 2007). ...
... Currently, there are 104 Antarctic facilities, temporary and permanent, belonging to various National Antarctic conditions, such as space explorers and deep sea divers. [2][3][4] Such studies would also help in ameliorating adverse impact of prolonged isolation in adverse conditions. The chief stress factors on the continent are psychological, rather than the physical conditions. ...
... During the final phase of Antarctic residence, the anxiety and tension levels are heightened in response to the anxiety of returning home, disruption of station routine due to influx of new personnel, and period of high workload. [3,6,8,9] The symptoms have also been called the winter over syndrome. The symptoms included depression, irritability and hostility, insomnia, and cognitive impairment, including difficulty in concentration and the occurrence of mild fugue states known Antarctic stare. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background In view of the growing human activities in Antarctica and increasing exposure of humans to prolonged isolation under extreme conditions, such as space travel and deep sea diving, it is necessary to study the psychological adaptation to such an environment. The current study aimed to assess the psychological adaptation of Indian expeditioners to prolonged residence in Antarctica. Materials and Methods Twenty-four winter team members of 27th Indian Scientific Expedition to Antarctica were administered seven instruments 5 times during the expedition. The instruments measured cognition and memory, general psychological health and tobacco, and alcohol consumption. Results Alcohol consumption was maximum during the initial days of arrival on the continent and decreased thereafter, with another spike during the peak of the winter season. Externalized psychological reactions peaked during the midwinter period. Anxiety and insomnia peaked during the coldest period whereas depressive symptoms did not change throughout the expedition. Cognition was at its worst during the final phase of Antarctic residence. No significant change was noted in the third quarter of wintering. Conclusion Each phase of Antarctic residence could be equated with a particular stage in psychological adaptation. There was no third quarter phenomenon.
... However, compared to the present design, isolation periods were much longer (e.g. 9 month, Abeln et al. 2015). Similar results support the assumption that longer periods of isolation adversely affect mood (Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Schneider et al. 2010). Palinkas and Houseal (2000) demonstrated an interesting behavior in their study, in which a deterioration of mood within the first half of isolation was then recuperated close to the end of isolation. ...
... Similar results support the assumption that longer periods of isolation adversely affect mood (Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Schneider et al. 2010). Palinkas and Houseal (2000) demonstrated an interesting behavior in their study, in which a deterioration of mood within the first half of isolation was then recuperated close to the end of isolation. This alteration in mood is defined as the "third-quarter phenomenon" which was first described by Bechtel and Berning (1991). ...
Conference Paper
Introduction: Sleep, mood and cognitive impairments are known to occur during space and isolation mission. To date, underlying mechanisms are unclear and efficient countermeasures missing. This study aimed to investigate the progression of sleep, mood and cognitive performance during 30 days of isolation under space flight analogue conditions. Brain cortical activity will be monitored in order to explore possible underlying mechanisms. The current abstract reports of preliminary data based on three out of four planned isolation missions. Methods: Twelve volunteers (mean age 34.5 years, five females) were isolated in three missions (four crew members each) for 30 days inside the HERA module in Houston, Texas, United States. On mission days -5, 7, 14, 28 and +5 participants were asked to complete a sleep diary and the Self-assessment questionnaire for Sleep and Awakening quality (SSA), the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS-X), a cognitive test battery (lumosity.com) and a five-minutes resting electroencephalography in relaxed sitting position with eyes-closed (Brain Products, Munich). Statistical analyses were run using STATISTICA 7.1 (StatSoft, Hamburg) comparing measurements via ANOVA or Friedman ANOVA in case of non-parametric variables. Results: Subjective sleep quality showed a significant decrease at midpoint of isolation (p=0.02). At the same time, subjects stated to be awake more often (p< 0.02) and for a longer period (p< 0.01). General positive affect was significantly reduced during isolation starting from isolation midpoint (p< 0.01), whereas general negative affect was not found to be changed (p= 0.30). Improvements in cognitive performance were found (response time: p= 0.04, session level: p= 0.02). No significant changes in global electro cortical activity were observed (p=0.54). Discussion: Preliminary results let us assume that sleep impairments are related to mood impairments. The cognitive test battery did show minor improvements probably related to training effects. The expected additional data sets and parameters might allow further analyses and insights into possible effects of isolation on sleep, mood, cognition and its underlying mechanisms as well as their relation to the amount of physical activity.
... More severe environment = more severe symptoms (Palinkas, 1992) Winter 1. Decline in tension-anxiety, depression, anger & confusion (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) 2. Increase in depression (Palinkas et al., 1995) 3. Increase in depression, hosIlity & anxiety (Palinkas, 1992) Spring 1. Decline in vigor, increase in tension-anxiety & faIgue (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) 2. Increase in depression (Palinkas et al., 1995) 3. Increase in depression, hosIlity & anxiety (Palinkas, 1992) Before Departure ...
... More severe environment = more severe symptoms (Palinkas, 1992) Winter 1. Decline in tension-anxiety, depression, anger & confusion (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) 2. Increase in depression (Palinkas et al., 1995) 3. Increase in depression, hosIlity & anxiety (Palinkas, 1992) Spring 1. Decline in vigor, increase in tension-anxiety & faIgue (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000) 2. Increase in depression (Palinkas et al., 1995) 3. Increase in depression, hosIlity & anxiety (Palinkas, 1992) Before Departure ...
Poster
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Antarctica has inspired this study: with of up to six months of complete darkness, it is unsurprising that cognition should be affected when spending a year there. Effects on cognition have been mixed: overall, sustained attention, reasoning skills, processing speed, learning and recognition have been shown to change. The Arctic poses additional stressors to isolation and polar night, such as polar bears; and lacks research in this domain. The Polish Polar Station (PPS), Hornsund, Svalbard experiences polar night from late October to mid-February and its winter team is isolated from the rest of the island for much of that time; making it an ideal Arctic analogue to the Antarctic research stations. Results may be generalised to other non-native winterers in any Arctic nation and inform crew selection for any isolated and confined environment. The present study is still on-going. Ten out of 11 crew members of PPS are participating. Testing points were/are July and September 2015, January, April and June 2016. Tests selected include the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and Figure Learning & Memory Test (FLMT). Cognitive changes were not seasonal, but mental health-related. For each point in confusion in July, accuracy in the January TEA increased by 1.24% (R2=0.57, F(1,9)=10.79, p<.05). Lower confusion predicted lower accuracy. For each point in September depression, winter reaction time (WRT) sped up by 6.24ms (R2=0.59, F(1,9)=11.7, p<.01). July hostility similarly decreased WRT by 11.89ms per point (R2=0.6, F(1,9)=11.81, p<.01), while September hostility sped it up by 9.9ms (R2=0.75, F(1,9)=24.28, p<.01). The more hostile and depressed, the faster the WRT. Depression, confusion and cognition did not change seasonally, but hostility did; suggesting that Arctic seasons have little direct effect on mental health and none on cognition. Mental health may debilitate cognition.
... Simulating extreme conditions in model experiments involving healthy volunteers is one of the few means to disturb homeostasis in order to identify the mechanisms that maintain a constant internal environment and sustain health reserves and the adaptive potential of the body [21][22][23]. Ethically acceptable methods to simulate extreme conditions in Space flight factors: Microgravity [1][2][3][4][5][10][11][12][13] Radiation [14,15] Isolation [32,42,43,78] Exercise [24-28, 30, 35, 37, 94] Overload (take-off/landing) [2,4,18,11] Diet, nutrition [29,31,33,34,101] Artificial atmosphere (hypoxia) [79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87][88]93] Noise(> 50 dB) [2,18,11] Vibration [61,11] Changes in pathogen virulence [51] Behavioral changes: disturbance of sleep, interpersonal relations, mental function, stress, depression, emotional changes [52,75,76] Bone and muscle tissue loss [1, 4, 38-40, 47-49, 53, 54, 58-60, 71] Cardiovascular disorders [23,38,50,54,63,64,66,67,[74][75][76] Immune system weakening [6-8, 51, 69, 100, 108] Metabolic disorders [16-17, 29, 31, 55, 56, 98, 101, 107-106] Oncology [14-17, 70, 112] Red blood cell decrease: anemia [108] Ocular problems [16][17][18] experiments involving human subjects are relatively few and include extreme exercise or a decrease in locomotor activity [24][25][26][27][28][29][30]; various diets [31][32][33][34][35], in particular, with changed contents of major nutrients [31,32,36]; and functional loading tests [37]. Several experimental models and methods have been designed to study the physiological changes that are induced by various specific factors during space missions [19,20]. ...
... Fibrinogen is involved in blood clotting; and plasminogen, in fibrinolysis, which always accompanies clotting [76]. The fibrinogen level changes, in particular, in emotional stress, which is associated with any human isolation [77,78]. Changes were observed in the intensities of protein spots corresponding to complement components C1 and C4 and immunoglobulin M, suggesting activation of the immune system during isolation [79]. ...
Article
http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/rEE3ydRia4MHRUsWv78V/full Introduction: Spaceflight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans: Individuals are exposed to radiation, microgravity, hypodynamia, and will experience isolation. A better understanding of the molecular processes induced by these factors may allow us to develop personalized countermeasures to minimize risks to astronauts. Areas covered: This review is a summary of literature searches from PubMed, NASA, Roskosmos and the authors’ research experiences and opinions. The review covers the available proteomic data on the effects of spaceflight factors on the human body, including both real space missions and ground-based model experiments. Expert commentary: Overall, the authors believe that the present background, methodology and equipment improvements will enhance spaceflight safety and support accumulation of new knowledge on how organisms adapt to extreme conditions. Keywords: Spaceflight, Proteomics, Extreme conditions, Human proteome, MARS 500, Bed Rest Study, Dry Immersion, Microgravity, Spaceflight Simulation Disclaimer As a service to authors and researchers we are providing this version of an accepted manuscript (AM). Copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proofs will be undertaken on this manuscript before final publication of the Version of Record (VoR). During production and pre-press, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal relate to these versions also.
... Mood deteriorations are commonly reported during longterm isolation in space-analog environments (e.g., 9 months ), where it is assumed that longer periods of isolation adversely affect the mood (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Schneider et al., 2010). The general positive affect scale showed a reduction across all groups, which might therefore represent an effect of repeated tests rather than impairments due to isolation or exercise. ...
Article
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Isolation is stressful and negatively affects sleep and mood and might also affect the structure and function of the brain. Physical exercise improves brain function. We investigated the influence of physical exercise during isolation on sleep, affect, and neurobehavioral function. N = 16 were isolated for 30 days with daily exercise routines (ISO100) and n = 16 isolated for 45 days with every second day exercise (ISO50). N = 27 were non-isolated controls who either exercised on a daily basis (CTRLEx) or refused exercise (CTRLNonEx) for 30 days. At the beginning and the end of each intervention, intravenous morning cortisol, melatonin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and IGF-1, positive and negative affect scales, electroencephalography, cognitive function, and sleep patterns (actigraphy) were assessed. High levels of cortisol were observed for the isolated groups (p < .05) without negative effects on the brain, cognitive function, sleep, and mood after 4 to 6 weeks of isolation, where physical exercise was performed regularly. An increase in cortisol and impairments of sleep quality, mood, cognitive function, and neurotrophic factors (p < .05) were observed after 4 weeks of absence of physical exercise in the CTRLNonEx group. These findings raise the assumption that regular physical exercise routines are a key component during isolation to maintain brain health and function.
... the main idea is that the risk aversion increasing towards the winter solstice. this reflects in lower returns before the solstice and Fall effects should be negative on the return series (Palinkas, Houseal and rosenthal, 1996;and Palinkas and Houseal, 2000). Control variables have to be included in the analysis as well. ...
Article
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This paper observes the possibilities of exploiting a behavioural anomaly on the stock market. Previous literature confirms the existence of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) in return series on the Zagreb Stock Exchange. However, a comprehensive set of investment guidance based on such findings is lacking in the related literature. That is why after the confirmation of the existence of SAD effects in this research, the focus is on simulation of trading strategies that take such information into account. The results indicate that there exist SAD and fall effects on the Croatian stock market, alongside precipitation and temperature having significant effects on stock returns as well. Based on daily data ranging from Jan-uary 2010 until December 2020 for the Croatian stock market index CROBEX, several strategies are observed and compared via performance measures aimed at beating the market. Even with the inclusion of transaction costs, it is shown and commented on possibilities for speculators aiming to obtain extra profits in certain situations. Simpler strategies are considered in the study. However, they provide a starting point for future strategies that combine different (mostly calendar) anomalies with the SAD anomaly. This is due to showing that SAD-driven investors who aim to apply the contrarian strategies against the herd can obtain profits due to the changing risk-aversion of others over the year.
... Temp and colleagues [11] described an evacuee from the Polish Polar Station, Svalbard as experiencing increased anxiety and worry compared to other crew members. Studies of changes in anxiety among Antarctic cohorts have commonly found low, relatively stable anxiety symptoms across mission [18,19] and both trait and state anxiety scores that are similar to or lower to community comparison groups [20]. These findings are not necessarily surprising in light of selection procedures for Antarctic deployment. ...
Article
Although incidences of psychological crises occurring during space flight are reportedly rare, such events remain a distinct possibility and potential threat to future long-duration missions (e.g., a Mars mission). Extended residence in Antarctica offers an ideal setting for examining high-risk profiles for psychological crises. We therefore utilized data from a nine-month longitudinal study conducted at the McMurdo station to examine baseline and monthly reports of psychological and physical symptoms among four emergency evacuees compared to the remaining McMurdo sample (n = 84). Emergency evacuation occurred for medical reasons (n = 2) or for psychiatric reasons (n = 2). Evacuees were White, between 29 and 47 years of age, and mostly male (n = 1 female). There were few differences in evacuees’ baseline scores compared to the full sample. Monthly assessments showed elevated anxiety symptoms to be most common among all evacuees. Elevated physical symptoms were also apparent among a psychiatric and a medical evacuee in the months prior to evacuation. For one psychiatric evacuee, declines in positive emotions preceded increased problems with self-regulation before evacuation. While preliminary, findings contribute to sparse information about the symptoms that precede emergency evacuations from extreme environments and underscore the importance of regular, structured self-report assessments.
... In a previous study conducted on US station personnel, the depression score measured using the Profile of Mood States of winter-over staff in the South Pole decreased in later winter compared to that in early winter. 50 In this study, insomnia and sleep quality deteriorated in both early and late winter. In the previous studies, long-term residents in Antarctica showed shallow nighttime sleep, frequent awakening, increased sleep latency, and increased insomnia and daytime sleepiness. ...
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Purpose: Antarctica is a region with extreme climate, characterized by extreme cold and photoperiod. No research has been conducted on the mental health of Korean Antarctic dispatchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the status of mental illness and changes in mood and sleep among Korean crew members staying for a long-term period in the Antarctic station. Methods: From 2017 to 2020, crew members who were dispatched from South Korea to two Antarctic stations for a one-year period participated in this study. The crew were evaluated for mood and sleep status and mental illness through psychological tests and interviews by board-certified psychiatrists once before departure and twice during their stay in Antarctica. The incidence of mental illness was confirmed and changes in sleep and depression were analyzed. Results: A total of 88 participants were included in the final analysis, and 7 of them (8.0%) were diagnosed with mental disorders such as insomnia in early winter. The total Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score increased significantly in the early winter period, and the total Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) scores increased in both early and late winter. The difference in changes in mood and sleep symptoms before, during, and after dispatch between the two stations was not significant. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate the mental illness and mood and sleep status of Korean crews dispatched to Antarctica. In early winter, there were significant increases in mental illness and depressive symptoms, and a worsening of sleep status.
... Similar to other extreme environments, in space, affected by factors such as weightlessness, confined space and circadian rhythm changes, astronauts are prone to negative emotions such as anxiety and depression (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Ball et al., 2001). HDBR as a simulation of the space environment, the body is affected by microgravity and environmental constraints, which may induce negative emotions in the subjects and affect their attentional bias toward emotional stimuli. ...
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Previous researchers have found that head-down bed rest (HDBR) will affect the emotional state of individuals, and negative emotions such as anxiety are closely related to attention bias. The present study adopted the dot-probe task to evaluate the effects of 15-days of −6° HDBR on the attention bias of threatening stimulus in 17 young men, which was completed before (Pre-HDBR), during (HDBR-1, HDBR-8, HDBR-15), after (Post-HDBR) the bed rest. In addition, self-report inventories (State Anxiety Inventory, SAI; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale, PANAS) were conducted to record emotional changes. The results showed that the participants’ negative affect scores on HDBR-8 were significantly lower than the HDBR-1 in PANAS while there was no significant difference on positive affect scores and anxiety scores in SAI. And the results showed that at the Pre-HDBR, HDBT-1, HDBR-15, Post-HDBR, the response speed to threatening stimulus was faster than neutral stimulus, but no statistical significance. However, reaction time of threatening stimulus is significantly longer than neutral stimulus in the HDBR-8, indicating that HDBR may have an effect on the participants’ attention bias, and this effect is manifested as attention avoidance.
... However, the physical dimension showed no variation either in its stress component (Lack of Energy, Physical Complaints) or in its recovery component (Physical Recovery, Being in Shape). These unexpected results can be explained by the high motivation of the participants rigorously selected for these long-term experimentations (Palinkas & Browner, 1995;Palinkas & Houseal, 2000). Furthermore, environmental conditions and physical factors were different from an actual spaceflight with possible sanitary evacuations in case of emergency and no physical dangers such as radiation or meteorites. ...
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The psychological impacts of extreme situations are a great concern and have become an issue of major importance for performance, well-being and the outcome of missions (Kanas, 1998). A situation is considered as extreme when an individual is subjected to exceptional physical or psychosocial circumstances demanding adaptive responses which could overwhelm its physiological and psychological resources (Rivolier, 1992). Thus, extreme situations represent unfamiliar conditions (risks, hazards, and ultimately death) confronting persons with their limits and consequently with their adaptive capacities. Extreme situations are for example extreme sports, long duration spaceflights, wintering in polar stations or polar expeditions, submarine missions, solitary navigation, deep diving, very high terrestrial altitude, and military missions.
... However, the extent to which those who volunteer for missions in such environments experience stress, remains controversial. On the one hand, anecdotal reports of previous space flights and studies conducted in space simulations and polar research stations have sometimes reported symptoms of depression, insomnia, irritability or anger, anxiety, fatigue, and decrements in cognitive performance (Arendt, 2012;Barabasz et al., 1983;Bishop et al., 2010;Chouker et al., 2001;Christensen and Talbot, 1986;De La Torre et al., 2012;Eddy et al., 1998;Gemignani et al., 2014;Grigoriev and Federov, 1996;Gunderson, 1974;Ishizaki et al., 2002;Kanas, 1985;Kass and Kass, 1999;Mallis and DeRoshia, 2005;Manzey and Lorenz, 1998;Nicolas and Weiss, 2009;Palinkas, 1991;Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Reed et al., 2001;Stampi, 1994;Suedfeld and Steel, 2000). Although there have been anecdotal reports of astronauts experiencing cognitive changes described as "space fog" or "space stupids" (Kanas et al., 2001a,b), operationally significant declines in cognitive performance have not been reported from the more controlled empirical studies available, thus far (Strangman et al., 2014). ...
Article
PALINKAS, L.A., and P. SUEDFELD. Psychosocial Issues in Isolated and Confined Extreme Environments. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV (1) XXX-XXX, 2020. Psychosocial elements of behavior and performance will significantly impact the outcomes of long duration missions in space, ranging from individual and team decrements to positive benefits associated with successful adaptation. This paper reviews our current understanding of the individual, interpersonal and organizational issues related to living and working in isolated and confined extreme (ICE) environments. Individual issues include changes in emotions and cognitive performance; seasonal syndromes linked to changes in the physical environment; and positive effects of adapting to ICE environments. Interpersonal issues include processes of crew cohesion, tension and conflict; interpersonal relations and social support; the impact of group diversity and leadership styles on small group dynamics; and crew-mission control interactions. Organizational issues include the influence of organizational culture and mission duration on individual and group performance, crew autonomy, and managerial requirements for long duration missions. Improved screening and selection, leadership, coping and interpersonal skills training, and organizational change are key elements to optimizing adjustment to the environment and preventing decrements during and after long duration missions.
... As a result, an array of measures, constructs and symptoms have been examined, most often with a central focus on negative mood [2]. Although several investigations have reported overall low rates of negative mood among polar expedition and station crews [10][11][12][13], a recent meta-analysis of data from 21 studies reveals negative mood to fluctuate considerably across the course of Antarctic winter-over [14]. ...
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The Antarctic environment is characterized by many of the same extreme stressors as long-duration space flight (LDSE), thereby providing a useful earth-based analog for examining changes in and predictors of mental health over time. At coastal (n = 88) and inland (n = 22) Antarctic stations we tracked mental health symptoms across a nine-month period including winter-over using the Mental Health Checklist (MHCL [1]). Our monthly assessment battery also examined changes in physical complaints, biomarkers of stress, and the use of different emotion regulation strategies. MHCL positive adaptation scores showed linear decreases whereas MHCL poor self-regulation scores and severity of physical symptoms increased across the study period. During-mission use of emotion regulation strategies and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels predicted end-of-study MHCL scores, whereas trait-based psychological measures collected at the start of the mission showed little predictive utility. Results suggest that interventions and counter measures aimed at enhancing positive affect/emotion during prolonged exposure to extreme environments may be useful in reducing psychological risk.
... Some studies measure cognition through self-report, e. g. evaluating one's ability to concentrate on a 5-point scale using the Profile of Mood States (McNair et al. 1971), and we do not consider those articles here (e.g. Palinkas, Suedfeld, & Steel, 1995;Palinkas, Johnson, Boster, & Houseal, 1998;Houseal, 2000, Palinkas andHouseal, 2001). As noted, the studies are not aimed at determining whether human cognition is cyclical per se, so some have not measured cognitive performance at different points during the year. ...
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The idea that our mental life is more sluggish in winter is apparently seductive. This article reviews the evidence for the claim that there is a seasonal cycle in human cognition. Several methodologies have been used with participants such as over-wintering scientists in Antarctica, residents of polar regions, and patients with seasonal psychopathology and there is no clear tendency for cognition to be impaired in winter. Some large-scale public health studies report seasonality of cognition but are inconsistent regarding when in the year there is a peak and trough. Claims that human cognition has an annual cycle should be regarded as speculative and the burden of proof must be borne by anyone inclined to claim that such a cycle exists. An analysis of the influence of some key studies shows that their results are misleadingly cited and that there is resistance to the null conclusion.
... Analogs and simulators have been developed to create an approximate environment of similar challenges that the crew would counter in actual space missions. ICEs, which include Antarctica expedition, [2,3] submarine mission, [4] ground-based spaceflight simulation, and others, [5][6][7][8] have been used to study human psychological issues encountered during space flight. Psychologically, isolation can affect any individual. ...
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Introduction During space missions, crew is encountered with various psychological challenges. One major challenge during space mission is the issue of isolation and confinement. Understanding of human behavior and performance in isolated and confined environment (ICE) has been the area of interest for all those involved in human space program. Ground-based mission-specific studies are necessary before undertaking any specific mission so that the psychological impact of ICE can be investigated in details. The first human space flight of India, which may be launched in the near future, may involve for a duration not more than 24 h. This scientific experiment was undertaken with an aim to study the impact of 24 h isolation and confinement on psychological state of healthy human volunteers. Material and Methods During 24 h period of isolation and confinement, 10 healthy human volunteers were evaluated every 10–12 h with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Positive and Negative Affect State (PANAS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS) in the existing Isolation cum Group Confinement laboratory of Institute of Aerospace Medicne (IAM). Similar psychological evaluation was also carried out among nine healthy individuals who served as controls. Results There was a momentary increase in state anxiety level during early period of isolation and confinement exposure (ICE). However, the anxiety level returned to pre-exposure level after 24 h. Furthermore, there was a significant drop in the level of negative emotions among the subject group as well as among control group in the morning of day 2 though there was no significant change in the positive emotions. Over the period of 24 h of isolation and confinement, neither the subject group nor the control group showed statistically significant changes in the total mood disturbance. None of the groups showed any significant changes in any of the POMS subscales, that is, anger-hostility, confusion-bewilderment, depression-dejection, fatigue-inertia, and tension-anxiety except for vigor-activity. Thus, a stable mood state was observed among the participants. Conclusion Before exposure to isolation and confinement, the subject group exhibited a higher level of “State” anxiety on day 1 which had returned to pre-exposure level in the morning of day 2. In both days, the state of positive emotions was statistically insignificant among subject as well as among control group. However, a significant decrease in the level of negative emotions among the subject group and control group was observed. There was no significant change in the mood state in the study group as well as in the control group.
... Wynik ten może stanowić potwierdzenie danych uzyskanych w innych analizach, na podstawie których przypuszcza się, iż wbrew powszechnemu przekonaniu to nie fizyczne charakterystyki środowiska arktycznego są najbardziej stresogenne dla po-Bezpieczeństwo osób pracujących w regionach polarnych larników, a czynniki natury psychologicznej (Bishop i wsp., 2000). Innego wyjaśnienia tego wyniku można doszukiwać się w lokalizacji stacji polarnej (77°00'N); być może panujące na tej szerokości geograficznej warunki środowiskowe nie są dość skrajne, żeby ich wpływ został odnotowany przez polarników jako znaczący dyskomfort 8 (Palinkas, Houseal, 2000). W Matrycy Taksonomicznej można zaobserwować, że polarnicy nie identyfikują znacznych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem w poruszaniu się w trudnym terenie, jak i wynikających z poczucia zagrożenia ze strony niedźwiedzi polarnych. ...
... Wynik ten może stanowić potwierdzenie danych uzyskanych w innych analizach, na podstawie których przypuszcza się, iż wbrew powszechnemu przekonaniu to nie fizyczne charakterystyki środowiska arktycznego są najbardziej stresogenne dla po-Bezpieczeństwo osób pracujących w regionach polarnych larników, a czynniki natury psychologicznej (Bishop i wsp., 2000). Innego wyjaśnienia tego wyniku można doszukiwać się w lokalizacji stacji polarnej (77°00'N); być może panujące na tej szerokości geograficznej warunki środowiskowe nie są dość skrajne, żeby ich wpływ został odnotowany przez polarników jako znaczący dyskomfort 8 (Palinkas, Houseal, 2000). W Matrycy Taksonomicznej można zaobserwować, że polarnicy nie identyfikują znacznych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem w poruszaniu się w trudnym terenie, jak i wynikających z poczucia zagrożenia ze strony niedźwiedzi polarnych. ...
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PL: Artykuł ma charakter empiryczny i dotyczy problematyki bezpieczeństwa pracowników w miejscu pracy w obliczu zagrożenia mobbingiem. Treść opracowania odwołuje się do wyników badań przeprowadzonych w 2014 roku we Wrocławiu na celowo dobranej próbie14 specjalistów HR i 1 działacza związków zawodowych. Zrealizowane badania miały charakter jakościowy (ustrukturyzowane wywiady) i stanowiły element globalnego (udział 15 krajów świata) projektu badawczego „Workplace Bullying Culture Matters”. W artykule zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki badań polskich, które zostały odniesione do istniejących w naszym kraju uregulowań prawnych (Ustawa z dnia 14 listopada 2003…) oraz polskiej i międzynarodowej literatury przedmiotu. Zaprezentowane wyniki i podjęta dyskusja skłaniają do wysnucia wielu wniosków naukowych i implementacyjnych związanych z praktyką ZZL oraz sposobami ochrony pracowników przed mobbingiem. EN: The paper is empirical in character. It looks at the safety of Polish employees with respect to the threat of workplace mobbing. It is based on the results of research conducted in Wrocław in 2014 on a specially selected sample of fourteen human resource specialists and one trade union activist. The study was qualitative in character (structured interviews) and was an element of a major international research project—Workplace Bullying Culture Matters (WBCM)—in which fifteen countries from around the world participated. The study presents selected Polish findings making reference to legal regulations in effect in Poland as well as Polish and international literature on the subject. The presented results as well as discussion foster the forwarding of many scientific and implementation–oriented conclusions connected with HRM practice as well as ways of protecting employees against mobbing.
... item 19, "poor appetite"). The POMS has been widely used in isolated, confined and extreme environmental studies [1,21,22]. This version of the POMS had been modified by a Chinese research team to adapt to the Chinese context [23]. ...
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Mental health of the crewmembers is crucial to the success of the task during long-duration space exploration missions, especially in isolated and confined environments. The ability to recognize mental states is essential to effectively help safeguard mental health. However, the current recognition of the mental status is still based on relatively subjective assessment of symptoms as well as psychometric evaluations, lacking objective recognition methods. Fortunately, the “Lunar Palace 365” experiment offers us a precious opportunity to study the objective recognition indicators such as physiological phenotypes and urinary metabolites associated with the psychological changes of crewmembers in isolated and confined environments. In this study, 28 phenotypic measurements were recorded daily. Psychological measurements were completed 1–2 times per week with the symptom checklist 90 (SCL-90) and profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaires, while 24-h urine samples were collected for metabolomics analysis on the day of psychological measurement. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to identify potential physiological phenotypes and urine metabolic markers associated with mental changes. In this study, all crewmembers showed neither behavioral disturbances nor reports of psychological distress during the 370-day period of mission confinement. Psychological changes showed significant individual differences, but there were consistent and large fluctuations during the mission transitions and when encountering critical events such as power failures and “covering windows”. Crewmembers had lower negative mood scores and higher positive mood scores when they performed their missions the second time than the first. Significant gender differences were found in psychological scores, physiological phenotypes, and urinary metabolites. Spearman correlation analysis showed 11 physiological phenotypes (|R|≥ 0.4, P < 0.001) and 43 urinary metabolites (|R|>0.5, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with psychological changes. Our results provide some potential objective indicators for the diagnosis and evaluation of mental status, and offer more precise guidance for studying the psychological issues of crewmembers during long-term isolation missions in the future.
... Profile of Mood States (POMS) This questionnaire has yielded mood fluctuations in several Antarctic studies (Palinkas et al. 2004;Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Peri et al. 2000;Reed et al. 2001;Xu et al. 2003). and reveals the severity of tensionanxiety, depression, anger-hostility, confusion, fatigue and vigor. ...
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Psychological problems over the course of isolated missions in extreme environments are common, even with modern screening techniques. Occasionally, these problems warrant evacuation of the afflicted individual but no in-depth insight into such a case has been given in modern times, until now. A 21-year-old man-Albert-developed severe psychological distress over the course of a winter expedition to the Polish Polar Station, Svalbard. We collected data on his mental health and his mood using the Symptom Checklist 90-Revised and the Profile of Mood States, and we assessed his cognitive functions with the Sustained Attention to Response Task and the Test of Everyday Attention. Phenomenological interviews gave him room to relate his experience. The data collection occurred repeatedly during the mission, until his evacuation. Albert struggled to derive joy from his work at the station. He missed his loved ones at home, and he felt he was cognitively declining due to intellectual deprival. His attempt at combing his life at home and his life at the station led to him feeling increasingly depressed. Crawfordian case analysis suggests that he felt more depressed than other team members at the station, and men of equal age and education in their home environment (p < 001). We attempted an intervention using emotional freedom techniques (EFT) to help improve his symptoms. It was moderately successful. Albert's evacuation was medically warranted. The intervention temporarily alleviated his depressive symptoms. More such case studies should be conducted wherever possible.
... A reduction in the speed of the flow of time in depressed patients has already been reported [51], as well as a diurnal increase of negative affect followed by a decline over the course of the day [41], which may explain variations found only during the morning. Our results are consistent with those that show increases in fatigue during the second semester of the year in similar conditions [37]. Considering the mechanisms underlining the clock rate misalignment, decreases in dopaminergic activity have been associated with overestimated intervals [16,56]. ...
Article
Interval timing measures time estimation in the seconds-to-minutes range. Antarctica provides a real-world context to study the effect of extreme photoperiods and isolation on time perception. The aim of this study was to explore interval timing as a cognitive measure in the crew of Belgrano II Argentine Antarctic Station. A total of 13 subjects were assessed for interval timing in short (3 s), intermediate (6 s) and long (12 s) duration stimuli. Measures were taken during the morning and evening, five times along the year. Significant variations were found for 3 s and 6 s during the morning and 6 s during the evening. Results suggest an impact of isolation on morning performances and an effect of the polar night on evening measures. These findings shed some light on the use of interval timing as a cognitive test to assess performance in extreme environments.
... Wynik ten może stanowić potwierdzenie danych uzyskanych w innych analizach, na podstawie których przypuszcza się, iż wbrew powszechnemu przekonaniu to nie fizyczne charakterystyki środowiska arktycznego są najbardziej stresogenne dla po-larników, a czynniki natury psychologicznej (Bishop i wsp., 2000). Innego wyjaśnienia tego wyniku można doszukiwać się w lokalizacji stacji polarnej (77°00'N); być może panujące na tej szerokości geograficznej warunki środowiskowe nie są dość skrajne, żeby ich wpływ został odnotowany przez polarników jako znaczący dyskomfort 8 (Palinkas, Houseal, 2000). W Matrycy Taksonomicznej można zaobserwować, że polarnicy nie identyfikują znacznych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem w poruszaniu się w trudnym terenie, jak i wynikających z poczucia zagrożenia ze strony niedźwiedzi polarnych. ...
Article
In the Arctic and Antarctica there are several dozens of year-round research stations, which are a place of work for a large group of polar explorers. Poland manages two all-year-round polar bases (http://www.kbp.pan.pl). The environment of work of polar men is classified as extreme and is called ICE what means isolated-confined-extreme (Sandal, Leon, Palinkas, 2006). Whether the process of adaptation to life and work in the polar station is going to be effective depends on environmental conditions, individual characteristics and group characteristics (Skorupa, 2016). The aim of this article is to show the importance of psychological factors in work safety in polar stations and to present practical solutions that can affect the quality of life and work of polar men. Theoretical analyzes are illustrated by the results of research conducted on one of winter-over groups at the Polish Polar Station in Spitsbergen.
... The participants were asked to describe their own mood states using a POMS questionnaire. The POMS has been previously widely used in isolated, confined, and extreme environment studies (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000;Palinkas et al., 2004;Wu and Wang, 2015), and has been proven to be valid under such conditions. ...
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In manned deep-space exploration, extremely isolated environments may adversely affect the mood and cognition of astronauts. Horticultural plants and activities have been proven to be effective in improving their physical, psychological, and cognitive states. To assess the effects of applying horticultural plants and activities in isolated environments, this study investigated the influence of viewing strawberry plants on the mood of people in a laboratory experiment as indicated by heart rate, salivary cortisol, and psychological scales. The results showed that heart rate and salivary cortisol were significantly decreased after viewing strawberry plants for 15 min. "Tension" and "confusion" scored using the Profile of Mood States negative mood subscales, and anxiety levels measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scale were also significantly reduced. This study further explored the impact of viewing strawberry plants on cognition. A notable reduction of the subjects' reaction time after 15-min plant viewing was observed. Based on these findings, a long-duration isolated experiment in a bioregenerative life support system-"Lunar Palace I"-was conducted. A similar trend was obtained that crew members' mood states were improved by viewing the strawberry plants, but no significant change was observed. This study provided some experimental evidence for the benefits of interacting with strawberry plants in isolated environments.
... Wynik ten może stanowić potwierdzenie danych uzyskanych w innych analizach, na podstawie których przypuszcza się, iż wbrew powszechnemu przekonaniu to nie fizyczne charakterystyki środowiska arktycznego są najbardziej stresogenne dla po-Bezpieczeństwo osób pracujących w regionach polarnych larników, a czynniki natury psychologicznej (Bishop i wsp., 2000). Innego wyjaśnienia tego wyniku można doszukiwać się w lokalizacji stacji polarnej (77°00'N); być może panujące na tej szerokości geograficznej warunki środowiskowe nie są dość skrajne, żeby ich wpływ został odnotowany przez polarników jako znaczący dyskomfort 8 (Palinkas, Houseal, 2000). W Matrycy Taksonomicznej można zaobserwować, że polarnicy nie identyfikują znacznych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem w poruszaniu się w trudnym terenie, jak i wynikających z poczucia zagrożenia ze strony niedźwiedzi polarnych. ...
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Artykuł stanowi próbę przełoże­nia zasad stosowanych z powodze­niem w psycho­terapii Gestalt do prak­tyki ZZL. Opisano w nim wiele możli­wości wyko­rzys­ta­nia popar­tych naukowo pode­jść, które mogą przy­czynić się do wzrostu potenc­jału zarówno pra­cown­ika, jak i menedżera. W pier­wszej części została opisana idea psy­choter­apii, kole­jno – psy­choter­apia w pode­jś­ciu Gestalt, a następ­nie – możli­wości wyko­rzys­ta­nia pode­jś­cia Gestalt w prak­tyce ZZL, m.in. poprzez wzrost samoświa­domości, formy pracy z ciałem i emoc­jami, zwięk­sze­nie poziomu odpowiedzial­ności, roli wyz­nacza­nia fig­ury i tła oraz zaspoka­ja­nia potrzeb, a także unikanie etyki­etowa­nia i nastaw­ie­nie na rozwój. Autorzy odwołują się w nim nie tylko do klasy­cznych źródeł z psy­choter­apii Gestalt, lecz również do najnowszych wyników badań psy­cho­log­icznych, które potwierdzają skuteczność stosowanych od lat sposo­bów pracy z klien­tem w tym ujęciu.
... Wynik ten może stanowić potwierdzenie danych uzyskanych w innych analizach, na podstawie których przypuszcza się, iż wbrew powszechnemu przekonaniu to nie fizyczne charakterystyki środowiska arktycznego są najbardziej stresogenne dla po-Bezpieczeństwo osób pracujących w regionach polarnych larników, a czynniki natury psychologicznej (Bishop i wsp., 2000). Innego wyjaśnienia tego wyniku można doszukiwać się w lokalizacji stacji polarnej (77°00'N); być może panujące na tej szerokości geograficznej warunki środowiskowe nie są dość skrajne, żeby ich wpływ został odnotowany przez polarników jako znaczący dyskomfort 8 (Palinkas, Houseal, 2000). W Matrycy Taksonomicznej można zaobserwować, że polarnicy nie identyfikują znacznych problemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem w poruszaniu się w trudnym terenie, jak i wynikających z poczucia zagrożenia ze strony niedźwiedzi polarnych. ...
Article
Postępujące zmiany w otoczeniu biznesowym przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych spowodowane rozwojem Przemysłu 4.0, czyli czwartej rewolucji przemysłowej, stawiają wiele wyzwań zarówno obszarze technologii produkcji jak i organizacji i zarządzania. To jak firmy poradzą sobie z nimi dostosowując swoje strategie biznesowe w celu utrzymania przewagi konkurencyjnej, determinuje między innymi ich dojrzałość cyfrowa. W artykule autorzy wyjaśniają czym jest dojrzałość cyfrowa oraz znaczenie rozwoju kompetencji pracowników dla zwiększania stopnia dojrzałości firm, co ma bezpośredni wpływ na osiągane przez nie efekty biznesowe. Ponadto w wyniku dokonanej analizy kilkunastu modeli dojrzałości cyfrowej zaprezentowano kluczowe, z punktu widzenia rozwoju strategii cyfryzacji oraz dojrzałości cyfrowej, kompetencje Pracownika 4.0. Słowa kluczowe: Kompetencje pracowników, Transformacja cyfrowa, Przemysł 4.0, Industry 4.0, Dojrzałość cyfrowa
... The importance of increasing day length for relatively long days and decreasing day length for relatively short days is additionally investigated. According to Palinkas and Houseal (2000), increasing day length positively affects mood and decreasing day length negatively affects mood. No preceding study is known to the author that analyzed increasing day length for relatively long days and decreasing day length for relatively short days in a financial markets context. ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether sentiment and mood, which are distinct theoretical concepts, can also be distinguished empirically. Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of German small-cap stocks and linear techniques, the effect of sentiment and mood on short-term abnormal stock return following earnings announcements is tested separately. Findings Mood tends to be a positive factor in predicting short-term abnormal stock return, as its biologically based impact uniformly affects the risk aversion of all market participants. Notably, negative mood influences stock return significantly negatively. Sentiment is no factor, however, as its cognitively based impact affects only unsophisticated investors, namely, their cash-flow expectations. Research limitations/implications As the sample is restricted to small-cap stocks from a single stock market and only two proxies of sentiment and mood, respectively, are used, the findings should be generalized with caution. Future research might investigate other markets and employ different proxies of sentiment and mood. Practical implications Market participants should be aware of the different effect of sentiment and mood on stock return and adjust investment strategies accordingly. Social implications As sophisticated investors are likely to profit from the irrational behavior of unsophisticated investors, who are prone to sentiment, the financial literacy of retail investors should be enhanced. Originality/value This paper is unique in distinguishing between sentiment and mood, both theoretically and empirically. Such distinction was largely ignored by related past research.
... (A) Team mood disturbance over relative time. (B) Team mood disturbance over relative time.Palinkas and Houseal (2000),Steel (2001),Vinokhodova et al. (2002), Sandal (2004,Wang et al. (2014). ...
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... Also known as "space analogues", they are a way to reproduce and study some of the conditions that a subject may deal with in a space mission. There are several scenarios in Earth that might guide us to enrich our knowledge about space challenges and to think about possible interventions to extend human adaptability to them [2][3][4][5][6][7]. Researchers have centered their attention on different psychological dimensions that can be affected in space modulated by the analogues. ...
Article
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Space analogues are settings where conditions can be reproduced to study physiological and psychological variables experienced in space. Antarctica is one of the most reliable analogues to assess the effects of isolation, confinement, light-dark cycle and extreme environmental conditions in human being. In the present review we describe some of the aspects of psychological adaptation to extreme latitudes.Most of the studies found some evidence about changes in emotional states during Antarctica expeditions. However, these changes are highly variable, and beneficial as well as detrimental aspects of adaptation have been described. Adaptation to extreme environments is a complex phenomenon that needs multidimensional studies to be fully understood, comprising aspects such as seasonality, psychological traits, isolation conditions and social interactions.
... While data from several studies conducted among groups operating in polar environments have indicated declines in mood and moral around the third quarter (Stuster et al., 2000;Kjaergaard et al., 2013), empirical support remains equivocal. An alternative perspective has been that psychological resilience gradually declines as individual resources are depleted (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000) and thus, that there is a linear relationship between psychological resilience, experience of stress, and time (Nicholas et al., 2015). In contrast to prior explanations, other researchers have pointed out that many participants also experience positive (salutogenic) effects from successful adaptation to polar environments and report feelings of personal growth and improvements in health (Palinkas and Suedfeld, 2008). ...
Article
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Human activity in Antarctica has increased sharply in recent years. In particular during the winter months, people are exposed to long periods of isolation and confinement and an extreme physical environment that poses risks to health, well-being and performance. The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of processes contributing to psychological resilience in this context. Specifically, the study examined how the use of coping strategies changed over time, and the extent to which changes coincided with alterations in mood and sleep. Two crews (N=27) spending approximately 10 months at the Concordia station completed the Utrecht Coping List, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), and a structured sleep diary at regular intervals (x 9). The results showed that several variables reached a minimum value during the midwinter period, which corresponded to the third quarter of the expedition. The effect was particularly noticeable for coping strategies (i.e., active problem solving, palliative reactions, avoidance, and comforting cognitions). The pattern of results could indicate that participants during Antarctic over-wintering enter a state of psychological hibernation as a stress coping mechanism.
... To control for these possible sources of bias, in the empirical model, we add a further control. Specifically, we built an indicator of negative personal traits (personality traits) by using the answers to the two following questions: "Which season of the year do you prefer?" and "Do you belong to any association?" Psychological literature indicates a positive relationship between personality traits and season of the year (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000); it seems that people who prefer winter are expected to be introverted and insecure (Radvan, 2014). Specifically, we select people that chose winter as their preferred season. ...
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This paper investigates residents’ perception of quality of life in cities; to do this, the paper uses the capability approach proposed by Sen. In his work, Sen defines capabilities as the opportunities or possibilities individuals have while functionings are a subset of achievements among a wider set of achievable goals. The capability approach offers a theoretical framework with which to explain how individual perception of quality of life in cities develops. In the present work, the residents’ perception of quality of life depends on personal characteristics, the presence of amenities (manmade and natural), and the actual use of those amenities. Residents of an Italian town were surveyed via face-to-face structured interviews. The main findings indicate that residents’ perception of quality of life in cities is highly dependent on the choices people can actually make. These choices are strictly connected with the accessibility to services, individual allocation of time, and the social interactions people enjoy.
... The two other aspects of mood either remained stable over time (occupational reactions) or showed a steady improvement with time on mission. Other moderators, which have found to affect the occurrence and time course of mood changes during polar expeditions, are physical characteristics (e.g., harshness of the environment) and crew size (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000). ...
... Traditionally, extreme environ- ments were defined as "settings that possess extraordinary physical, psychological, and interpersonal demands that require significant human adaptation for survival and performance" (Manzey & Lorenz, 1998). There are a variety of professions and activities that require indi- viduals and groups to expose themselves to such extreme conditions, including Antarctic scientists (Palinkas & Houseal, 2000), submarine operators (Sandal, Endresen, Vaernes, & Ursin, 1999), astronauts , military and defence personnel (Miller, 2006;Vos, Parmak, & Kral, 2012), humanitarian aid workers (Connorton, Perry, Hemenway, & Miller, 2012), and expeditioners (Atlis, Leon, Sandal, & Infante, 2004;Leon, Sandal, Fink, & Ciofani, 2011), amongst others. ...
Article
Personnel operating in extreme environmental conditions are exposed to a variety of stressors. Whether a person adjusts to the conditions and is able to cope has implications for their psychological health. In previous extreme environment work, temporal changes in stress, coping and emotion have been reported. Building on previous studies, we used a diary methodology to explore temporal changes in and associations between daily events, coping strategies and affect during a unique hyper-arid desert expedition. Four participants undertaking a crossing of the Empty Quarter desert were recruited to the study. Participants completed pre-, post- and 4-month follow-up questionnaires. A daily self-report diary was used to collect situational data. Time-based changes were analysed before testing predictive models linking events and coping strategies with affective responses. Findings suggest that participants had an overall positive experience. There were changes in both the events experienced and coping strategies used during the expedition. Variation in events and coping strategies significantly predicted fluctuations in positive and negative affect. Results offer valuable mechanistic information that could inform monitoring systems aimed at tracking psychological variables during operations in extreme environments. Results are discussed in relation to the novel context, diary methodology, and implications for those operating in extremes.
... However, the physical dimension showed no variation either in its stress component (Lack of Energy, Physical Complaints) or in its recovery component (Physical Recovery, Being in Shape). These unexpected results can be explained by the high motivation of the participants rigorously selected for these long-term experimentations (Palinkas & Browner, 1995;Palinkas & Houseal, 2000). Furthermore, environmental conditions and physical factors were different from an actual spaceflight with possible sanitary evacuations in case of emergency and no physical dangers such as radiation or meteorites. ...
Chapter
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The psychological impacts of extreme situations are a great concern and have become an issue of major importance for performance, well-being and the outcome of missions (Kanas, 1998). A situation is considered as extreme when an individual is subjected to exceptional physical or psychosocial circumstances demanding adaptive responses which could overwhelm its physiological and psychological resources (Rivolier, 1992). A better understanding of stress and recovery processes might have practical implications in psychological countermeasures for dealing with the human factor in extreme situations. Preventive countermeasures and interventions would prevent pathogenic psychological outcomes on both the well-being of the participants and their adaptation to such constraining environments, and would contribute to the success of missions in extreme environments. Further improvements in countermeasures may be possible by striking a balance between recovery-stress states in order to enhance adaptation to such constraining situations, thereby increasing salutogenic experiences in ICE environments. Interventions can be trained through regular exercises and especially practices during short simulated missions. As practitioners, we considered preventive measures and interventions such as close monitoring of the stress-recovery balance of participants and the planning of recovery including leisure time and distraction as important facets. These procedures may help to obtain a positive outcome on psychological states in extreme environments. Although not yet fully investigated, efficient psychological preparation may reduce stress, promote recovery and support adaptive responses to such extreme environments.
... Long-duration flights will have a significant likelihood of psychiatric problems emerging. [References: Santy 1987;Kanas 1998;Driskell et al. 1999;Ellis 2000;Palinkas and Houseal 2000;Suedfeld and Steel 2000;Lane and Feeback 2002;Woolford et al. 2002;Kanas 2004;Palinkas et al. 2004] Countermeasures: On-board unobtrusive technologies as astronaut's aids for valid detection of stress reactions and cognitive or emotional problems; on-board information technologies as astronauts' aids for management of stress reactions and cognitive or emotional problems; self monitoring of mood; improved diagnostic cognitive self-assessment; improved ability to safely and effectively manage an uncooperative crewmember during mission. formance capabilities are surpassed due to inadequate design of tools, interfaces, tasks or information support systems, mission failure or decreased effectiveness or efficiency may result. ...
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International Federation for Information Processing The IFIP series publishes state-of-the-art results in the sciences and technologies of information and communication. The scope of the series includes: foundations of computer science; software theory and practice; education; computer applications in technology; communication systems; systems modeling and optimization; information systems; computers and society; computer systems technology; security and protection in information processing systems; artificial intelligence; and human-computer interaction. Proceedings and post-proceedings of refereed international conferences in computer science and interdisciplinary fields are featured. These results often precede journal publication and represent the most current research. The principal aim of the IFIP series is to encourage education and the dissemination and exchange of information about all aspects of computing. For more information about the 300 other books in the IFIP series, please visit www.springer.com. For more information about IFIP, please visit www.ifip.org.
... The two other aspects of mood either remained stable over time (occupational reactions) or showed a steady improvement with time on mission. Other moderators, which have found to affect the occurrence and time course of mood changes during polar expeditions, are physical characteristics (e.g., harshness of the environment) and crew size (Palinkas and Houseal, 2000). ...
... The expression of a decrease in subjective stress among the participants suggests that, overall, the crewmembers' experience was not distressing, meaning that the environmental demands were not perceived as greater than their individual resources. Some suggestions have been put forward to explain the moderate level of stress linked to ICE situations, such as the high motivation of the participants who go through rigorous selection for these long-term missions (Palinkas, Suedfeld, & Steel, 1995, Palinkas & Houseal, 2000. In addition, the danger was relative. ...
Article
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The present study analysed the time course of the psychological process of stress and recovery in six healthy male volunteers during the Mars 105 experimentation, a 105-day ground-based space analogue. The multidimensional assessment of stress and recovery responses showed that stress levels decreased significantly throughout the 105-day isolated and confined extreme (ICE) experiment, especially on its social dimension. In line with previous studies, Fatigue showed a global and progressive reduction. The present results suggest that ICE exposure may not systematically induce stress overload and impaired psychological states. To optimize adaptation to ICE conditions, further improvements in positive psychological effects may be possible by improving the countermeasures, as well as the screening and selection of participants, in order to enhance coping capacities and to improve the balance of recovery–stress states.
Chapter
Psychological issues are critical components of crewmember selection pre-launch, well-being during the mission, and readaptation to life on Earth after the return. As was mentioned in Chap. 1, the first human to fly into space was Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961. However, there was much interest in studying the behavioral reactions of individuals working in other isolated and confined environments (ICEs) before then, not only for what they revealed about a particular ICE, but also how they might support and improve future human space missions. Many of these studies were longer, less expensive, and able to control critical variables in relatively safer environments on Earth versus space.
Thesis
The idea for this thesis stems from a very specific question: what are the effects of a prolonged stay in space? To find the answer, we went into an analysis of the scientific literature, highlighting more which were the psychological aspects involved in an experience of this type. From our work, a profoundly complex and articulated picture emerges, deriving from the effect synergistic of several factors and essentially attributable to a bio-psycho-social model that also represents the theoretical approach of this analysis. In the first chapter, we focused on the effects of the space environment on human physiology, relating to the impact of microgravity and radiation and providing an overview of the existing countermeasures in this regard. In the second chapter instead there we focused on the psychological framework of long-term missions, placing emphasis on isolation and confinement, on the most relevant studies (relating to ICE environments and the Mars500 program) and analyzing crucial aspects deeply related to space exploration such as sleep, stress and cognitive impairment. In the last chapter, we dealt with the aspects concerning the psychosocial sphere. The emphasis was placed on the selection and preparation processes, on individual and personality aspects and on relationships social, both among the team members and between the latter and the operational base, highlighting the critical issues. Finally, we dealt with the psychological countermeasures currently used in space missions. What emerges is a psychological picture of current knowledge relating to space exploration which, however, suffers from some cognitive and methodological limitations, to which scientific research will have to provide a remedy in the coming years if the goal is to successfully carry out missions to Mars and beyond.
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Research to address the technical challenges of human missions into space is growing. Knowledge about the social-psychological aspects of individuals’ experiences of confinement within habitats in space missions or extreme environments is also rapidly expanding. Social isolation is among one of the best-known risk factors in these environments. This study focuses on the relationship between time spent in specific activities (e.g., talking about personal matters) and the social-psychological effects of social isolation and confinement as a part of the LUNARK project, which was aimed at building and testing the first Moon analog habitat. Two space architects took part in a 61-day mission in Northern Greenland to simulate human life conditions in the habitat as a prototype of a human settlement on the Moon. The two crew members independently filled out a time-based diary with self-report measures on their daily activities and negative emotions, feelings of loneliness, resignation, desire for social contact, and time perception. First, our results showed that, for either space architect, desire for social contact increased over time, whereas feelings of resignation did not. Moreover, the protective role of specific daily activities emerged. Talking about personal matters and leisure time were associated with a decrease in resignation, whereas talking about personal topics and physical exercising increased the desire for social contact. Finally, engaging in leisure activities increased the perceived speed of time. We discussed these results referring to research on the consequences of long-term social isolation in extreme human expeditions and social psychological models of social isolation. (249 words).
Article
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An Antarctic wintering-over station is a unique environment, as a small isolated society facing extreme survival margins. Psychological surveys have been done over ten years, including the Baum test, the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE), Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (SHC), the Two-Sided Personality Scale (TSPS) and medical consultations in Syowa Station, a Japanese Antarctic station to reveal the mental status of team members. Team members experienced fewer physical health risks in Antarctica than in Japan. Wintering-over team members reinterpreted situations positively and accepted their environment, sought instrumental social support, planned ahead, and used active coping skills and humour to overcome difficulties. They did not act out emotionally or deny problems. Individuals exhibited two types of coping, either stability through maintaining a previous lifestyle or flexible adjustment to a new way of life. Positive affect remained constant during the wintering-over period. In living through a harsh reality, team members drew support from the subjective feelings of an “internal relationship” with home or family in their minds. Thus, an Antarctic wintering-over station is an ideal isolated environment for psychological surveys, which can help understand future space travel and group managements in everyday societies.
Article
There can be few indoor workplaces that are more subject to the meteorological and atmospheric conditions of their locations than permanent stations on the high, inland polar plateau of Antarctica. The US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station is such a workplace, totally isolated during the 8–9 months of the austral winter, more than 800 miles (1287 km) from the nearest other human habitation. The wintering party at the South Pole must deal with all the demands and stressors of an isolated, confined, and extreme environment without the prospect of relief from the outside world. In 1975, the seventeen men chosen to winter at the South Pole had an additional challenge. In February, as the austral winter was about to begin, a new geodesic-domed research station had just been completed. The station was the first of its kind, and the vagaries of its design and construction would be significant factors in the health and well-being of station residents as winter progressed. Potential physical and psychological problems from isolation literature are commented upon, and some significant events from this noteworthy winter are described. In addition, supporting quantitative data from current research at South Pole are used to better understand these events.
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Space flight is an aggregation of the most extreme conditions that can be faced by humans. At present, space crews live and work aboard orbital stations in low Earth's orbits; however, controlled missions to the Moon and Mars planned for the near future will necessitate an extended autonomous existence of crews in the outer space. Although humanity seeks to explore deep space, space flight factors still pose a serious barrier to long-range missions. It is widely known that spaceflight factors disturb homeostatic systems of organism and impact functioning of the majority of physiological systems. According to the current concept, all changes occurring in the physiological systems during space flight are reversible. However, recovery of some systems after exposure in microgravity can be longer than actual mission duration. Nowadays the leading space agencies initiate research programs focused on molecular mechanisms of the spaceflight effects on human organism. It is believed that proteome remodeling in microgravity will shed light on molecular mechanisms and, specifically, signaling networks involved in the adaptive response of organism to the spaceflight environment. However none of the existing post-genomic technologies is applicable onboard spacecraft because of dimensions and mass of instruments, liquid behavior in microgravity and power constraints. Purpose of the review was to systemize the available proteomic data on the effects of spaceflight factors on the human organism obtained after real space flights and in ground simulation experiments. New molecular data will contribute to new physiotherapeutic methods and drugs development preventing undesirable changes in crew health.
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The third-quarter phenomenon is the dominant theoretical model to explain the psychological impacts of deployment in Antarctica on personnel. It posits that detrimental symptoms to functioning, such as negative mood, increase gradually throughout deployment and peak at the third-quarter point, regardless of overall deployment length. However, there is equivocal support for the model. The current meta-analysis included data from 21 studies (involving 1,826 participants) measuring negative mood during deployment to elucidate this discrepancy. Across studies analyses were conducted on three data types: stratified by month using repeated-measured all time points meta-analytic techniques and pre/post-deployment data for summer/winter deployment seasons. Our results did not support the proposed parameters of the third-quarter phenomenon, as negative mood did not peak at the third-quarter point (August/September) of deployment. Overall effect sizes indicated that negative mood was greater at baseline than the end of deployment for summer and winter deployment seasons. These findings have theoretical and practical implications and should be used to guide future research, assisting in the development and modification of pre-existing prevention and intervention programmes to improve well-being and functioning of personnel during Antarctic deployment.
Article
Sleep complaints are consistently cited as the most prominent health and well-being problem in Arctic and Antarctic expeditions, without clear evidence to identify the causal mechanisms. The present investigation aimed at studying sleep and determining circadian regulation and mood during a 4 months Antarctic summer expedition. All data collection was performed during the continuous illumination of the Antarctic summer. After an habituation night and acclimatization to the environment (3 weeks), ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) was performed in 21 healthy male subjects, free of medication. 18 hours profile (saliva sampling every 2 hr) of cortisol and melatonin were assessed. Mood, sleepiness and subjective sleep quality were assessed and the psychomotor vigilance task was administered. PSG showed, in addition to high sleep fragmentation, a major decrease in slow wave sleep (SWS) and an increase in stage R sleep. Furthermore, the ultradian rhythmicity of sleep was altered, with SWS occurring mainly at the end of the night and stage R sleep at the beginning. Cortisol secretion profiles were normal; melatonin secretion however showed a severe phase delay. There were no mood alterations according to the POMS scores, but the PVT showed an impaired vigilance performance. These results confirm previous reports on "polar insomnia" -the decrease in SWS- and present novel insight -the disturbed ultradian sleep structure. A hypothesis is formulated linking the prolonged SWS latency to the phase delay in melatonin.
Poster
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As the highest, coldest, driest and windiest of Earth’s continents, Antarctica poses a challenging environment which requires complex technological operations to ensure survival in this hostile climate. This can influence mental health through lack of privacy, boredom, sexual and emotional deprivation, and little opportunity to escape unpleasant individuals or situations for prolonged periods of time. Over the past decades, these stressors have been investigated and reviewed regularly. The most recent of these reviews (Palinkas & Suedfeld, 2008) focuses on somatic symptoms, disturbed sleep, impaired cognition, negative affect and interpersonal tensions and conflicts during winter. However, mental health of Northern Arctic winterers has received comparatively little attention, despite similarly isolated living conditions for scientists and the present study aims to rectify this. Using the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised, Profile of Mood States 2 Brief Form and the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire, the mental health, mood and seasonal affective disorder of the 11 winter expeditioners to the Polish Polar Station, Svalbard, will be examined. This longitudinal study’s polar day (July 2015) and pre-polar night (September 2015) results will be presentable by November 2015. Currently, the literature shows a decline on all three measures over winter, but changes over the summer’s polar day have not been described as extensively.
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Psychological studies were initiated at U.S. Antarctic stations during the International Geophysical Year of 1957-58. Attitude and symptom questionnaires, supervisor ratings, and sociometric test were administered to several wintering groups. A more comprehensive program of psychological studies, designed to develop selection criteria for screening Antarctic personnel, was instituted in 1962 by the U.S. Navy. A general concept of individual performance or adjustment emerged from earlier studies that included three essential components: task motivation, emotional stability, and social compatibility. Two methods, supervisor ratings and peer nominations, were used to measure these behavior components, and convergent and discriminant validities were evaluated. Regression equations were then developed to predict each behavior factor for each of three occupational groups, Navy construction personnel, Navy Administrative and technical personnel, and civilian scientists. Recent studies have focused on the impact of wintering-over stresses on long-term health and adjustment of participants. The winter-over experience does not place Navy Personnel at increased risk of hospitalization after their return from the Antarctic. The stressors associated with prolonged isolation in a harsh environment appear to be mediated by personality, environmental, and sociocultural factors. Antarctic psychological research may have significant implications for design of space stations and extraterrestrial exploration.
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Discusses the coping and health enhancing reactions to adversity by reviewing evidence from laboratory experiments on restricted stimulation, field studies in polar stations, archival analyses of decision-making under stress, and interviews with Holocaust survivors, which attest to the fortitude and resilience of human beings in the face of severe environmental demands. Psychologists should address the many remaining questions—theoretical, scientific, and practical—concerning such positive reactions to even extreme stressors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The original diaries of 13 members of British polar expeditions of the Heroic Age (mid-19th to early 20th century) were subjected to content analysis. Individual words were rated on pleasantness and arousal. Antarctic explorers showed more negative responses than did arctic expeditioners, but there were many positive as well as negative experiences of both polar regions. Surprisingly, the least stressful phase of the journeys was the polar midwinter. Arousal and tension were high during the trip from home port to the polar base and just before beginning the voyage home. The authors conclude that the polar experience was not generally aversive or stressful and that the polar bias to the contrary is at least partly a result of overgeneralization, dramatization, and cognitive assimilation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The authors delineate the similarity of previously reported behavioral and cognitive changes in two disparate groups, prisoners of war released from North Vietnam and Antarctic wintering personnel. The consonance of the changes in these two groups, each exposed to a protracted stress situation, is discussed with regard to several existing theories of stress response. The resultant constellation in the two groups is viewed as a maximal adaptation to unremitting stressors. The authors suggest the observed changes represent a generalized response, a predictable behavioral final common pathway in situations of protracted stress.
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: Psychological stress is a 'normal' part of wintering-over in the Antarctic given the unusual living conditions of small groups, the harsh environment, and the prolonged isolation from outside contact. The degree of stress, however, is influenced by different sociocultural factors. Three in particular are examined in this paper: (1) those located in the individual personality; (2) those located in the sociocultural backgrounds of station personnel; and (3) those located in the sociocultural systems of the stations themselves. Certain conflicts emerge from the interaction of these influences. The process of social comparison which fosters group homogeneity also generates perceptions of relative control over the social environment and self-esteem. Those people who perceive themselves to be powerless or helpless because they cannot exercise autonomy in either a social or a psychological sense have the greatest difficulty in adjusting to the Antarctic environment. Resources enabling one to deal with similar conflicts in the outside world are absent here, while strategies such as social isolation may be viewed as adaptive in this particular environment. Other processes, such as values, group behavior, and group identity serve to bring together a group of individuals whose sociocultural and personality idiosyncracies are integrated into a cultural form common to the confined or isolated group.
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The personality of the polar sojourner has been of interest to psychologists for a number of years. Using the NEO Five Factor Inventory, this study examined the general personality factors of the polar worker compared to a normative population, and how these factors differ according to the worker's occupational classification and the polar region in which he or she is working. It was found that polar workers scored higher than a normative group on all factors except Neuroticism. Comparisons across occupational groups showed that scientists were lower than military personnel on Extraversion and lower than technical/support staff on Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. The analysis by polar region indicated that Antarctic workers were higher than Arctic personnel on Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. A group of Italian Antarctic personnel, completing a translated form of the NEO-FFI, scored lower than the rest of the polar groups on all factors. These findings are discussed in light of various features of the polar environment and Gunderson's 3-predictor model of polar adaptability.
Chapter
During the cold regions study project (Bechtel & Ledbetter, 1976), a number of anecdotes were encountered that did not get into the final report because of a lack of hard data. These anecdotes were supplied by chaplains, school teachers, police officers, and base commanders to the effect that the hardest part of the winter seemed to be in February, after the peak of winter cold had passed. The chaplains claimed that marital counseling reached a peak at this time, the police remembered more accidents and assaults, and base commanders thought there were more absences.
Article
Clinicians have gained considerable knowledge about psychopathology and treatment but this knowledge is poorly systematized and hard to transmit. One way to organize clinical knowledge is to circumscribe a limited area and describe within it the interactions between personality dispositions, states of disorder, and treatment techniques. This report models such an approach by limiting disorder to stress response syndromes, personality to obsessional and hysterical neurotic styles, and treatment to focal dynamic psychotherapy. Within this domain, an information processing approach to working through conflicted ideas and feeling is developed. The result is a series of assertions about observable behavior and nuances of technique. Since these assertions are localized conceptually, they can be checked, revised, refuted, compared, or extended into other disorders, dispositions, and treatments.
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This article examines the influence of physical and social environmental stressors on the short-term and long-term health and well-being of 358 enlisted U.S. Navy personnel who wintered-over in Antarctica between 1964 and 1974. Station size and severity of physical environment were significantly inversely associated with symptomatology of the winter-over syndrome. These characteristics of station environments were also significantly inversely associated with subsequent risk of total first hospital admissions relative to a group of 2,396 enlisted Navy men who volunteered for winter-over duty and were evaluated as medically and psychologically qualified for such duty but who were assigned elsewhere. The results suggest that adaptation to extreme social and physical environments may provide long-term health benefits for certain individuals.
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Scientific interest in Antarctica has increased greatly since the inception of the International Geophysical Year, but relatively little attention has so far been paid to psychological aspects of adjustment amongst personnel.
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In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This influence of prolongea isolation in an extreme environment on depressive symptoms, personality, and coping resources was examined in 121 members of the United States Antarctic Program in 1988–1989. Subjects were followed for a 1-year period in Antarctica. Winter-over personnel experienced an increase in depressive symptoms, avoidance as a coping method, and emotional discharge as a coping resource from baseline (T0) to Year-1 (T1). At T0, education, negative life events, job-related stress, low self-confidence, active cognitive and behavioral coping methods, and low satisfaction with social support were independent predictors of depressive symptoms. At T1, negative life events, low self-confidence, active behavioral and avoidance coping methods, affective regulation as a coping resource, and low satisfaction with social support were independent predictors of depressive symptoms. However, with the exception of T0 depressive symptoms, none of the social and demographic characteristics and T0 psychosocial measures predicted T1 depressive symptoms. The results of this study support the hypothesis that coping may be more strongly associated with environmental conditions that influence severity of stressor and availability of coping resources than with more remote and stable background factors.
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The personality and coping pattern characteristics of a successful North Pole Expedition team consisting of seven men and one woman were studied through psychometric inventories, mood scale ratings completed while on the trek to the North Pole, and for some a post-expedition personal interview. Good psychological adjustment was demonstrated by low stress reactivity, anxiety, and depression, and relatively high scores on scales measuring achievement orientation, selfcontrol, and feelings of well-being. There was little evidence of sensation-seeking or risk-taking tendencies. Planful problem solving and positive reappraisal were the major coping patterns engaged in on the expedition. Effective social support in this highly task oriented group did not seem to involve a great deal of sharing of personal feelings. The adaptive nature of the groups' personality and coping characteristics for completing a successful expedition was discussed.
Article
The question of whether the concept of adaptation remains useful in medical anthropology is examined in the context of the human experience in Antarctica. This experience is characterized by prolonged isolation, confinement, and exposure to extreme environmental conditions. Men and women who winter-over at scientific research stations often exhibit a complex of psychophysiological symptoms in response to these stressors. However, this experience also appears to provide long-term health benefits. It is argued that the psychological symptoms are themselves part of the process of coping and do not necessarily represent an inability to adapt to the extreme environment. Coping is viewed as a process of negotiation leading to a compromise between individual and group needs. The cultural systems of Antarctic research stations are both a product of this negotiation and a set of normative and pragmatic rules regulating this process. Further, this process fosters the acquisition of new strategies or resources for coping with subsequent stressful experiences.
Article
Evidence suggests that alterations in thyroid function are associated with depression. Thyroid hormones also play an essential role in regulating metabolism. They influence the balance between metabolic rate and caloric intake and thus affect body weight changes. Appetite and weight disturbances are common in the syndrome of depression. There may be changes in resting metabolic rate in depression as well. Hence an interrelationship between thyroid function, metabolic regulation, and depression is suggested. A basic model of metabolic regulation is presented and linked to changes in mood and various indices of thyroid function. The model is offered as an initial framework for studying endocrine and metabolic components of depression. Testable hypotheses are generated through the use of the model, and research strategies are discussed.
Article
The human population which lives and works in polar environments has been increasing steadily over the last 15 years. Very little is known about how these residents adjust to their environment. Cold adaptation in man is a poorly understood phenomenon. Euthermic mammals maintain body temperature during cold exposure via non-shivering thermogenesis, a process which is hormonally mediated. We studied prospectively the response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in 17 euthyroid men before, during and after assignment to duty in the Antarctic. Serum total and free T4 levels fell slightly but not significantly after very prolonged Antarctic residence. Serum total and free T3 decreased significantly from basal levels of 170 +/- 3 ng/dl and 388 +/- 19 pg/dl to 155 +/- 5 ng/dl and 319 +/- 14 pg/dl respectively after Antarctic duty. Serum T3 levels increased after 42 weeks of polar living, the end of the observation period, but the change did not attain statistical significance. The integrated TSH response to TRH administration increased by 50% to 734 +/- 58 microIU.min/ml over warm climate basal response levels of 456 +/- 33 microIU.min/ml by the end of the study. The daily circadian rhythm of serum cortisol was maintained throughout the study period. The alterations in thyroid hormones which we describe, are apparently related to the chronic cold exposure which our subjects experienced in this polar environment.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
Symptom characteristics and risk factors for seasonal variation in depressive symptoms were prospectively examined in 119 men and women who overwintered in Antarctica. Over a 12-month period, this cohort reported significant increases in their global depressive symptom scores as well as several individual symptoms associated with winter depression. Summer depression and marital status were significant independent predictors of winter depression. Factor analyses of summer and winter symptoms revealed a set of symptoms traditionally associated with the winter-over experience in a distinct factor not found in summer. These results indicate that even asymptomatic, clinically normal populations experience seasonal variation in mood in high-latitude environments. However, this seasonal variation may be the result of social isolation during the winter months rather than the prolonged absence of sunlight.
Article
While depressed mood, insomnia, irritability and impaired cognition represent common responses to the physical and psychosocial stressors associated with polar environments, wide variations exist in their expression and the degree to which they adversely affect the health and performance of polar expeditioners. In particular, the process of successful adaptation to polar environments and the psychosocial characteristics associated with this process remains poorly understood. Psychosocial characteristics associated with successful coping with typical stressors are also associated with successful adaptation in polar environments. The 4 men and 3 women participating in a 3-week scientific expedition in the Canadian High Arctic completed a battery of psychological questionnaires, including the Profile of Mood States (POMS), prior to their departure to Isachsen, N.W.T. In Isachsen, subjects completed the POMS and the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale--Seasonal Affective Disorders Version (SIGH-SAD) each week. Good psychological adjustment was demonstrated by a significant decline in POMS factor scores for tension-anxiety (p = 0.005), fatigue (p < 0.0001), and confusion (p = 0.024) from baseline to Week 3, and a significant decline in SIGH-SAD depressive symptoms (p < 0.0001) during Weeks 1-3. This is attributed to high levels of paratelic dominance and low levels of neuroticism, and use of planful problem-solving as a coping strategy more frequently than other coping strategies. Improved psychological functioning among polar expeditioners reflects a combination of psychosocial characteristics that facilitate successful adaptation to any stressful experience, as well as characteristics specifically adaptive for living in polar environments.
Article
The seasonality of depressed mood was examined in 70 men and women who spent the 1991 austral winter at three American research stations in Antarctica. Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire global seasonality scores increased significantly from late summer (February/March) to midwinter (July/August; p < .001). Only one case of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) was found during midwinter, but the prevalence of subsyndromal SAD increased significantly, from 10.5 to 28.4 per 100, during this period. Station latitude was significantly associated with SAD-specific symptoms and global Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorders Version scores in midwinter and in early spring (October). The results suggest that even clinically normal individuals are likely to experience symptoms of subsyndromal SAD in high latitude environments, that these variations become more pronounced with increasing latitude, and that they can be detected through repeated administrations of instruments such as the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire and Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-Seasonal Affective Disorders Version.
Article
Some psychological effects of isolated group living in the Antarctic are described. It would appear that the cold, danger, and hardship are not major stresses. The most important psychological stresses appear to be: First, the problem of individual adjustment to the group; second, and more subtly acting, the relative "sameness" of the milieu; and third, the absence of certain accustomed sources of emotional satisfaction.
Health, stress, and coping
  • A Antonovsky
Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Franciso: Jossey-Bass.
Interpersonal relationships in isolated small groups Psy-chological aspects of manned spaceflight (pp. 263-270) The stress of life The psychological aspects of physical illness and disability
  • J Rohrer
Rohrer, J. (1961). Interpersonal relationships in isolated small groups. In B. Flaherty (Ed.), Psy-chological aspects of manned spaceflight (pp. 263-270). New York: Columbia University Press. Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGraw Hill. Shontz, F. C. (1975). The psychological aspects of physical illness and disability. New York: Macmillan.