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#"!$%&%#' "!
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" ! 
 "!%* 0" 
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.!"! 00
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... Wetland mitigation requirements are designed largely to address anthropogenically induced wetland losses attributable to direct impacts of discrete events, such as filling or draining of wetlands for development or agriculture purposes (Turner, 1997;Boesch et al., 2001;Dahl, 2011). The continued and accelerating losses of coastal wetlands due to direct human action may in part be explained by non-compliance with mitigation requirements. ...
... There is mounting evidence that anthropogenic climate change effects will not be uniformly distributed along coastlines throughout the U.S. (Weston, 2014;Schuerch et al., 2018). As climate change results in sea level rise and increased storm frequency and intensity, rates of estuarine and palustrine wetlands losses are likely to accelerate, particularly in areas with highly developed uplands and sediment deficits that prevent wetlands from either transgressing landward (i.e., coastal squeeze) or accreting fast enough to keep pace with sealevel rise ( Boesch et al., 2001;Scavia et al., 2002;Nicholls and Lowe, 2004;Pontee, 2013;Weston, 2014;Peteet et al., 2018;Schuerch et al., 2018). Additionally, accelerating rates of sea level rise and associated saltwater intrusion will likely result in conversion of palustrine wetlands to estuarine wetlands, unconsolidated shore, or open water, resulting in further losses ( Sallenger et al., 2012;Neubauer, 2013;Peterson and Li, 2015;Valle-Levinson et al., 2017). ...
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Coastal ecosystems are under pressure from a vast array of anthropogenic stressors, including development and climate change, resulting in significant habitat losses globally. Conservation policies are often implemented with the intent of reducing habitat loss. However, losses already incurred will require restoration if ecosystem functions and services are to be recovered. The United States has a long history of wetland loss and recognizes that averting loss requires a multi-pronged approach including mitigation for regulated activities and non-mitigation (voluntary herein) restoration. The 1989 “No Net Loss” (NNL) policy stated the Federal government's intent that losses of wetlands would be offset by at least as many gains of wetlands. However, coastal wetlands losses result from both regulated and non-regulated activities. We examined the effectiveness of Federally funded, voluntary restoration efforts in helping avert losses of coastal wetlands by assessing: (1) What are the current and past trends in coastal wetland change in the U.S.?; and (2) How much and where are voluntary restoration efforts occurring? First, we calculated palustrine and estuarine wetland change in U.S. coastal shoreline counties using data from NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program, which integrates both types of potential losses and gains. We then synthesized available data on Federally funded, voluntary restoration of coastal wetlands. We found that from 1996 to 2010, the U.S. lost 139,552 acres (~565 km2) of estuarine wetlands (2.5% of 1996 area) and 336,922 acres (~1,363 km2) of palustrine wetlands (1.4%). From 2006 to 2015, restoration of 145,442 acres (~589 km2) of estuarine wetlands and 154,772 acres (~626 km2) of palustrine wetlands occurred. Further, wetland losses and restoration were not always geographically aligned, resulting in local and regional “winners” and “losers.” While these restoration efforts have been considerable, restoration and mitigation collectively have not been able to keep pace with wetland losses; thus, reversing this trend will likely require greater investment in coastal habitat conservation and restoration efforts. We further conclude that “area restored,” the most prevalent metric used to assess progress, is inadequate, as it does not necessarily equate to restoration of functions. Assessing the effectiveness of wetland restoration not just in the U.S., but globally, will require allocation of sufficient funding for long-term monitoring of restored wetland functions, as well as implementation of standardized methods for monitoring data collection, synthesis, interpretation, and application.
... Coral reefs are undergoing rapid changes as a result of increasing ocean temperatures, acidification, eutrophication, Acanthaster planci (crown-of-thorn starfish) eruption, and chemical pollution. Increasingly, coral reefs worldwide are being affected by perturbations that range from short-term, localized disturbances -where return to the original state is possible -to more chronic, widespread influences of shifts in climate that may fundamentally alter the ecosystem (Knowlton, 2001;Jackson et al., 2003;Boesch et al., 2001;Cressey, 2015;Raj et al., 2021). Regular monitoring activities are important for assessing the influence of unfavourable factors on corals and tracking subsequent recovery or decline (Pavoni et al., 2021;Cai et al., 2021), Figure 1 shows the partial coral changes in Moorea Island from 2017 to 2019 close to a known underwater survey control point. ...
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Regular monitoring activities are important for assessing the influence of unfavourable factors on corals and tracking subsequent recovery or decline. Deep learning-based underwater photogrammetry provides a comprehensive solution for automatic large-scale and precise monitoring. It can quickly acquire a large range of underwater coral reef images, and extract information from these coral images through advanced image processing technology and deep learning methods. This procedure has three major components: (a) Generation of 3D models, (b) understanding of relevant corals in the images, and (c) tracking of those models over time and spatial change analysis. This paper focusses on issue (b), it applies five state-of-the-art neural networks to the semantic segmentation of coral images, compares their performance, and proposes a new coral semantic segmentation method. Finally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the performance of neural networks for semantic segmentation in these experiments, this paper uses mean class-wise Intersection over Union (mIoU), the most commonly used accuracy measure in semantic segmentation, as the standard metric. Meanwhile, considering that the coral boundary is very irregular and the evaluation index of IoU is not accurate enough, a new segmentation evaluation index based on boundary quality, Boundary IoU, is also used to evaluate the segmentation effect. The proposed trained network can accurately distinguish living from dead corals, which could reflect the health of the corals in the area of interest. The classification results show that we achieve state-of-the-art performance compared to other methods tested on the dataset provided in this paper on underwater coral images.
... Coastal marine ecosystems are broadly at risk due to human activities (Boesch et al. 2001). Humpback dolphin (Sousa spp.) are distributed in onshore waters and are therefore vulnerable to a combination of anthropogenic pressures such as fisheries (Read et al. 2006;Slooten et al. 2013), pollution (Würsig and Gailey 2002), habitat change (Lotze et al. 2006), aquaculture (Würsig and Gailey 2002;Díaz López, 2012;Díaz López 2019, 2020), global warming (Simmonds and Isaac 2007), and underwater noise (Wang et al. 2004;Ross et al. 2010;Dungan et al. 2012). ...
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The Persian Gulf is positioned in the heart of the Middle East as one of the most critical water bodies. Indian Ocean humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) are distributed in nearshore waters and are therefore highly vulnerable to a variety of anthropogenic pressures. To our knowledge, there is a little information and data available about habitat use and abundance of this endangered species in Iranian waters. In the present study, baseline data about population size and site fidelity of Indian Ocean humpback dolphins in the Dayer-Nakhiloo Marine National Park in Northern Persian Gulf, Iran, has been explored for the first time. From March 2014 to December 2018, 127 boat-based surveys and 6436 km of survey effort were conducted. Overall, 127 groups of humpback dolphins were observed on 62% of the surveys. Humpback dolphin group size ranged from 1 to 14 individuals (mean 5.8 ± SE 0.3). Abundance estimates were calculated and fitted with open population models. Thirty (95% CI 22–38) humpback dolphins were estimated to inhabit the study area. There was a lack of seasonality in the occurrence of humpback dolphins and strong site fidelity within the Dayer-Nakhiloo Marine National Park. Most of the identified individuals used the study zone regularly (79.5%), while a smaller number were present less often. The results of this study provide important baseline information about humpback dolphin ecology in an area subject to significant anthropogenic pressures which can help to take effective conservation and management measures.
... In addition, the lower temperatures in autumn and winter reduced the rate of organic mineralization, resulting in a decrease in the production of NH 4 + . Nutrient limitations vary based on the different biogeochemistries within and among ecosystems and in different seasons (Boesch et al., 2001) and show significant seasonal changes in the coastal seawater (Danielsson et al., 2008;Baek et al., 2015). Justić et al. (1995) proposed standards for the stoichiometric limitation of nutrients (Table S2). ...
Analysis of the common and most influential natural and anthropogenic activities on the spatiotemporal variation in nutrients at a multiannual scale is important. Eleven cruises from 2015 to 2017 were carried out to better elucidate the seasonal and spatial variations in nutrients, as well as the impact factors on dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphorus (DIP) and silicate (DSi). Both nutrient concentrations and forms showed similar and significant seasonal variations over the 3 years, and were closely related to the biomass and species of phytoplankton. Terrestrial inputs had significant effects on the spatial distribution of nutrients throughout the year, especially in the surface water, which showed DIN > DIP>DSi. In summer, shellfish aquaculture and hypoxia jointly affected the spatial distribution of nutrients. The bottom water nutrient concentrations in the aquaculture area were 1.1–2.3 times higher than those outside of the aquaculture area. Seasonal hypoxia can increase the release of DSi and NH4⁺ from the sediment to the water. In summary, anthropogenic activities and physical conditions jointly influenced the nutrient distributions.
... These high temperatures together to the marked vertical haline stratification in the same seasons ) and the occurrence of biotic processes, could be related with the obtaining of significant differences (p<0,05) between the two depth levels for some parameters (salinity, pH, DO and nitrate). The solubility of dissolved oxygen depends on both salinity and temperature (Millero 2006), and the decomposition of allochthonous and autochthonous organic matter leads to a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentration (Boesch et al. 2001). On the other hand, most phytoplankton species are able to use nitrate as the nitrogen source (Raven & Giordano, 2016) and with increasing nitrogen assimilation into amino acid and proteins, the demand to acquire CO2 increases, which leads pH change. ...
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La bahía de Cienfuegos representa uno de los recursos naturales más importantes de la región centro y sur de Cuba. Esta bahía es un ecosistema semicerrado con influencia estuarina debido a la descarga de 4 ríos importantes. El clima en el área de estudio, dividido en dos estaciones (seca y lluviosa) tiene influencia en la calidad del agua de la bahía. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la influencia del período de sequía 2014-2017 en la calidad del agua de la bahía de Cienfuegos y su relación con mareas rojas ocurridas en el mismo período. Para este análisis se consideraron los valores de un Índice de Calidad del Agua (ICA) y de precipitaciones durante 2012-2017. Los resultados físico-químicos mostraron cambios notables durante la estación lluviosa de 2015, los cuales se relacionaron al incremento de salinidad, temperatura, DBO5 y concentraciones de nutrientes. Además, se registraron florecimientos algales nocivos en la bahía durante el período de sequía, los cuales fueron más frecuentes en la estación lluviosa.
... N 2 , N 2 O, NO, NH 3 ), that can readily exchange with the atmosphere. Thus, even though anthropogenic N loading has increased at alarming rates (Erisman et al., 2013;Galloway et al., 2002) and has been shown to be directly implicated in both marine and freshwater eutrophication (Boesch et al., 2001;Conley et al., 2009;Elser et al., 2007;Lewis et al., 2011;Nixon, 1995;Ryther and Dunstan, 1971;Wurtsbaugh et al., 2019), there is an "escape route" via gaseous transformation processes. Furthermore, natural inputs of "new" N via N 2 fixation are generally exceeded by losses due to in-system T denitrification, especially in bloom-prone eutrophic systems (Paerl et al., 2016b;Scott et al., 2019). ...
Billions of years ago, the Earth's waters were dominated by cyanobacteria. These microbes amassed to such formidable numbers, they ushered in a new era—starting with the Great Oxidation Event—fuelled by oxygenic photosynthesis. Throughout the following eon, cyanobacteria ceded portions of their global aerobic power to new photoautotrophs with the rise of eukaryotes (i.e. algae and higher plants), which co‐existed with cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems. Yet while cyanobacteria's ecological success story is one of the most notorious within our planet's biogeochemical history, scientists to this day still seek to unlock the secrets of their triumph. Now, the Anthropocene has ushered in a new era fuelled by excessive nutrient inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, which are again reshaping the Earth's biomes. In response, we are experiencing an increase in global cyanobacterial bloom distribution, duration, and frequency, leading to unbalanced, and in many instances degraded, ecosystems. A critical component of the cyanobacterial resurgence is the freshwater‐marine continuum: which serves to transport blooms, and the toxins they produce, on the premise that “water flows downhill”. Here, we identify drivers contributing to the cyanobacterial comeback and discuss future implications in the context of environmental and human health along the aquatic continuum. This Minireview addresses the overlooked problem of the freshwater to marine continuum and the effects of nutrients and toxic cyanobacterial blooms moving along these waters. Marine and freshwater research have historically been conducted in isolation and independently of one another. Yet, this approach fails to account for the interchangeable transit of nutrients and biology through and between these freshwater and marine systems, a phenomenon that is becoming a major problem around the globe. This Minireview highlights what we know and the challenges that lie ahead.
During a 2-year study of planktonic nitrogen (N) nutrition, temporal variability of (1) ambient nutrient concentrations; (2) uptake rates of ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3−), nitrite (NO2−), urea, and amino acids (AA) in three size fractions (> GF/F, > 5 μm, and 5–0.2 μm); (3) NH4+ regeneration and NO3− regeneration (nitrification); and (4) an unexpected bloom of Alexandrium monilatum were examined. Dissolved organic N (DON) was the most abundant form of fixed N. High concentrations of NH4+ and NO2− were detected during the late summer and fall, reaching maximums of 9.9 and 7.6 μmol N L−1, respectively. The highest uptake rates were for NH4+ at all stations, size fractions, and seasons sampled and ranged from 34 to 80% of total absolute N uptake. The magnitude of uptake rates in the > GF/F fraction generally followed the pattern of NH4+ > NO3− > urea > AA > NO2− with some exceptions when urea uptake rates were higher than NO3−. Rates of NH4+ regeneration and nitrification often exceeded uptake rates, indicating autochthonous pathways for nutrient loading. Exceptionally high dinoflagellate biomass was found in late summer and corresponded with harmful algal blooms. Kinetic curves measured during an A. monilatum bloom showed high Vmax (33.7 ± 2.7 × 10−3 h−1) and high Ks (7.3 μmol N L−1) for NH4+ suggesting that it can rapidly utilize high concentrations when available but may be outcompeted by other phytoplankton when concentrations of NH4+ are low. However, A. monilatum demonstrated that it is capable of using a diverse suite of N substrates, giving it a potential competitive advantage under diverse nutrient conditions.
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The waters of Mangunharjo, Semarang and Marunda, Jakarta are located in the area of industrial and dense population. There is the activity of industrial, household, urban waste and agricultural in the land or along the river upstream can potentially as a source of pollutants and impacting the aquatic environment. Pollutants get into the water together with a suspension of sediment through river water flow and precipitation in the coastal environment. The study aims to determine the geochemical characteristics of sedimentary phosphor from two different locations. Determination of the phosphate fraction of sediment, using sequential determination extraction (SEDEX). The results showed that the concentration of the inorganic phosphorus sediment fraction has a similar relative distribution of Mangunharjo and Marunda waters i.e. Fe-P Ca-P Ads-P. The concentration of Ads-P, Ca-P, and Fe-P in Mangunharjo water is between 0.20-0.26 μmol g-1, 2.77-3.60 μmol g-1, and 4.60-5.74 μmol g-1 and Marunda water is between 0.28-0.61 μmol g-1, 2.91-4.13 μmol g-1, and 0.92-2.83 μmol g-1, respectively. The grain size of sediments and current patterns affect the distribution of phosphorus fraction. Keywords: Phosphorus fraction, surface sediments, Mangunharjo, Marunda ABSTRAK Perairan Mangunharjo, Semarang dan Marunda, Jakarta berada didaerah kawasan industri dan padat penduduk. Terdapatnya aktivitas industri, rumah tangga, limbah perkotaan dan pertanian di daratan ataupun di sepanjang hulu sungai dapat berpotensi sebagai sumber pencemar dan berdampak bagi lingkungan perairan. Bahan pencemar masuk ke perairan bersama-sama muatan sedimen tersuspensi melalui aliran air sungai dan mengalami pengendapan di lingkungan pantai. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik geokimia sedimen phosphor dari dua lokasi yang berbeda. Penentuan lokasi penelitian menggunakan metode purposive sampling. Penentuan fraksi phosphat sedimen, menggunakan ekstraksi bertingkat (SEDEX). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi dari fraksi inorganic phosphor sedimen memiliki distribusi relatif yang serupa antara Perairan Mangunharjo dan Marunda yaitu Fe-P Ca-P Ads-P. Konsentrasi Ads-P, Ca-P, dan Fe-P di Perairan Mangunharjo adalah antara 0.20 - 0.26 μmol g-1, 2.77 - 3.60 μmol g-1, dan 4.60 - 5.74 μmol g-1 dan Perairan Marunda adalah antara 0.28 - 0.61 μmol g-1, 2.91 - 4.13 μmol g-1, dan 0.92 - 2.83 μmol g-1, secara berurutan. Ukuran butir sedimen dan pola arus mempengaruhi konsentrasi fraksi fosfat pada kedua perairan tersebut. Kata Kunci : Fraksi phosphor, Sedimen permukaan, Mangunharjo, Marunda
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In the United States, extensive investments have been made to restore the ecological function and services of coastal marine habitats. Despite a growing body of science supporting coastal restoration, few studies have addressed the suite of societally enabling conditions that helped facilitate successful restoration and recovery efforts that occurred at meaningful ecological (i.e., ecosystem) scales, and where restoration efforts were sustained for longer (i.e., several years to decades) periods. Here, we examined three case studies involving large-scale and long-term restoration efforts including the seagrass restoration effort in Tampa Bay, Florida, the oyster restoration effort in the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and Virginia, and the tidal marsh restoration effort in San Francisco Bay, California. The ecological systems and the specifics of the ecological restoration were not the focus of our study. Rather, we focused on the underlying social and political contexts of each case study and found common themes of the factors of restoration which appear to be important for maintaining support for large-scale restoration efforts. Four critical elements for sustaining public and/or political support for large-scale restoration include: (1) resources should be invested in building public support prior to significant investments into ecological restoration; (2) building political support provides a level of significance to the recovery planning efforts and creates motivation to set and achieve meaningful recovery goals; (3) recovery plans need to be science-based with clear, measurable goals that resonate with the public; and (4) the accountability of progress toward reaching goals needs to be communicated frequently and in a way that the general public comprehends. These conclusions may help other communities move away from repetitive, single, and seemingly unconnected restoration projects towards more large-scale, bigger impact, and coordinated restoration efforts.
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