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Abstract

The effect of emotional disclosure through expressive writing on available working memory (WM) capacity was examined in 2 semester-long experiments. In the first study, 35 freshmen assigned to write about their thoughts and feelings about coming to college demonstrated larger working memory gains 7 weeks later compared with 36 writers assigned to a trivial topic. Increased use of cause and insight words was associated with greater WM improvements. In the second study, students (n = 34) who wrote about a negative personal experience enjoyed greater WM improvements and declines in intrusive thinking compared with students who wrote about a positive experience (n = 33) or a trivial topic (n = 34). The results are discussed in terms of a model grounded in cognitive and social psychological theory in which expressive writing reduces intrusive and avoidant thinking about a stressful experience, thus freeing WM resources.
... In the same research article, Klein and Boals [2001] described a second experimental study they conducted on undergraduate students. In said study, a group of 34 students wrote about a negative personal experience, a second group of 33 students about a positive life experience, and a third group of 34 students about trivial topics. ...
... A cost-effective and efficient alternative has been presented in this article -that of expressive writing and self-authoring workshops. Such workshops are easy to organise and could aid students with the integration of past traumas, which has been shown to significantly lower mental and physical health problems [Pennebaker & Beall 1986;Klein & Boals 2001]. In addition, workshops focusing on the detailed description of goals could aid students in increasing their academic performance and decrease the occurrence of exam-related anxiety [Sheldon & Houser-Marko 2001;Pham & Taylor 1999]. ...
Book
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We present a book entitled Innovation in Organisational Management Under Conditions of Sustainable Development. It is widely accepted that innovation is a key driver of sustainability. Similarly, in the present discourse, no one questions whether innovation is a necessary com- ponent of managerial processes at all organisational levels. Yet in a world where the need for sustainable development has become brutally evident, there are not many truly innovative companies and only a very few truly sustainable companies. Sustainable and innovative companies are as rare as mythical unicorns. One can try to explain this situation by concluding that it is already a challenge in itself to understand the interdependences between the social, economic, and en- vironmental dimensions while running a business. It is even more difficult to apply the so-called Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept, which suggests that equal consid- eration should be given to financial, environmental, and social dimensions when making business and policy decisions. As a result, a question arises concerning the rationale behind attempts to in- troduce such complexity. Would it not be wiser to focus on maximising economic goals and take a passive approach to social and environmental dimensions by con- sidering them to be boundary conditions? Companies can create economic value through the adoption of more sustainable processes and practices; through the design and marketing of products or services which utilise so-called green technologies1 (e.g. electric vehicles); or by providing services which utilise an innovative mix of green and regular technologies in order to solve sustainability issues. Therefore, sustainable development can be promoted either through business practices or a company’s products and services, or both2. Implementing innovations that improve the ability to learn, manage and re- spond to environmental stimuli from dynamic socio-ecological structures makes it possible to move away from unsustainable trajectories. Various theoretical and G. H. Elmo et al. (2020). Sustainability in tourism as an innovation driver: an analysis of family business 1 reality. Sustainability 12(15), pp. 6149. M. Leach, J. Rockström, P. Raskin, I. Scoones, A. C. Stirling, A. Smith ... E. Arond et al. (2012). 2 Transforming innovation for sustainability. Ecology and Society, (17), pp. 11–18. 7 INTRODUCTION practical approaches to sustainability agree that improving it implies change, inno- vation or adaptation to its environment. The aim of sustainability is no longer just a sustainable state; instead, it is a process of constant improvement of the sustain- ability of “artefacts”. A dynamic perspective encourages discussion concerning the identification and handling of constant changes3. The ability to innovate has become necessary for companies and takes the form of incremental or radical innovations. Business model innovation, therefore, rep- resents a potential means of integrating sustainability into a business. Consequently, an innovative and sustainable business model should adapt the company’s profit- ability to the economic and non-economic benefits for society. On the other hand, the ever-changing market requirements gradually force businesses to adapt and change in order to improve quality and become more efficient, flexible, innovative and knowledge-driven. This explains why innovation, as a process by which an in- dividual or a business learns and develops knowledge, contributes even more to sustainability in the organisational context. Based on this premise, the authors de- cided to explore the interlinked realms of innovation and sustainability. As the authors realise that sustainable development is a pressing issue that requires immediate action from governments, industries, and society as a whole, we have made an effort to focus on innovations that can transform individuals, organisations, supply chains, and communities, and can move them towards a sustainable future. With the aim of improved sustainability, this book deals with organisational in- novation from a broad perspective, including product and process innovation. The monograph consists of 12 chapters. In chapter 1, Elżbieta Lorek presents the issues of building a green economy based on the principles of sustainable development, focused mainly on the positive economic effects of green transformation. In chapter 2, Izabela Karwala describes how acceleration programmes can serve as a source of innovation for organisations. This is particularly important today, as such programmes now have a well-established position in the business environment. In chapter 3, Dawid Żebrak focuses on the concept of sustainable human re- source management, with a particular focus on the employment of prisoners. In chapter 4, Monika Płońska’s research focuses on the challenges of sustain- able development in the Polish chemical industry in the context of the European Commission’s guidelines on the disclosure of non-financial climate information, especially given that time is running short. In chapter 5, Jakub Stęchły shows an example of a car-sharing company whose business model is based on the principles of the sharing economy. This is an inter- esting example of an attempt to combine sustainability and innovation in various areas. In chapter 6, Karolina Mucha-Kuś explains the benefits of an innovative ap- proach to integrating a public bicycle system in a metropolitan area, and the stake- holders’ approach to this project from the perspective of coopetition. In chapter 7, Grzegorz Kinelski makes an effort to identify the relationship be- tween sustainable development, project management and the digital economy. Conclusions are drawn which could be relevant not only to the energy sector but to all kinds of enterprises. In chapter 8, Grzegorz Kinelski and Wojciech Muras deal with managing invest- ment decisions whilst taking non-financial measures into account. Such measures are essential when introducing sustainable development metrics into the strategic controlling process. In chapter 9, Krzysztof Zamasz depicts how political decisions aimed at ensur- ing the sustainability of energy production affect energy companies. Day-to-day business decisions in energy companies are becoming increasingly complex due to increased volatility and uncertainty as the regulatory regime tries to maintain a bal- ance in the market whilst complying with decarbonisation goals and fulfilling the role of the state in providing energy security. In chapter 10, Maria Schulders addresses concerns regarding the mental health of university students by exploring the applicability of self-authorship in higher education processes. She points out that universities should construct a system- ic framework by which students are aided in the development of core values and self-concordant goals. It can be argued that such an approach is not only a prereq- uisite for students’ mental health and well-being, but also for reaching the full in- novative potential of individuals and educational institutions. INTRODUCTION 9 INTRODUCTION In chapter 11, Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna, Wojciech Muras and Marta Pikiewicz venture into aspects of long-term value creation in IT companies, tak- ing into account the role of shareholders. IT companies constitute the backbone of development of the knowledge economy but are subject to innovative managerial processes themselves, while the conceptualisation and internalisation of the role of shareholders is critical for the long-term sustainability of the organisation. In chapter 12, Michał Gramatyka presents the management of election cam- paigns in light of project management and focuses on finding the answer to the fol- lowing question: are project management practices translatable into the language of politics? We hope that our book will be a source of valuable knowledge for business prac- titioners, academic researchers, and all stakeholders for whom the concepts of sus- tainable development and innovation are important. We have prepared this mono- graph in the hope that readers will find it useful either for the purpose of making their innovative organisations more sustainable or making their sustainable organ- isations more innovative. Katarzyna Szczepańska-Woszczyna Krzysztof Zamasz Grzegorz Kinelski Editors
... Among these, working memory (WM) represents a limited capacity system predisposed to select, organize, and integrate current goal-directed intentions and relevant information (Baddeley, 2003). Due to the crucial role of WM in adaptive daily functioning, many studies have documented that individual differences in WM capacity reflect different levels of vulnerability to stress (Klein & Boals, 2001), state anxiety, depressive symptoms, ruminative coping (Stout & Rokke, 2010), and cognitive and affective facets of subjective well-being (Pe et al., 2013). In studies on individual variability related to well-being, intelligence has been theoretically and empirically hypothesized as playing a role, albeit modest (Di Fabio & Palazzeschi, 2015;Sigelman, 1981;Sternberg & Grigorenko, 2004;Wirthwein & Rost, 2011). ...
Article
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The present cross-sectional correlational study aimed to investigate a set of cognitive, affective, and personality traits impacting the psychological effects of imprisonment. Ninety-three male inmates filled out a battery including measures of intelligence, working memory, psychopathy, aggressiveness, anxious trait, emotionality, rumination styles, and empathy proneness. Inmates' psychological outcomes were conceptualized in terms of mood, anxiety, depression, and general health. Results showed that inmates with high cognitive abilities, psychopathic impulsivity, proactive aggression, personal distress and fantasy, anxious and negative emotionality are mainly prone to ill-being psychological outcomes. Contrariwise, the fearless dominance trait, positive emotionality and empathic concern ability seem to expose inmates to positive psychological outcomes. Reactive aggression and perspective taking seem to impact both positive and negative moods. Ruminative style was unrelated to psychological outcomes. These preliminary results provide an insight into which factors intervention programs should be based upon in order to enhance well-being and reduce distress among inmates.
... La pandemia por covid-19 es una emergencia de salud pública que ha tenido impactos sin precedentes y alcances internacionales que hoy en día representan un gran desafío para la salud mental, no solo por el malestar psicológico durante el período de cuarentena Qui et al., 2020), sino también por los efectos a largo plazo de esta, ya que las afectaciones derivadas de la crisis pueden implicar un nuevo colapso del sistema de salud, Tabla 3. En nuestro caso, los resultados indican que la supresión emocional influye directamente en la presencia de conductas de autocuidado; un hallazgo que se puede explicar en cuanto la supresión de la emoción -ya sea positiva o negativa-genera una mayor activación fisiológica (Klein & Boals, 2001), y probablemente una manera de modular el impacto de esta activación es a través de actividades como el ejercicio físico, la recreación, o dialogar con colegas, lo cual tiene un efecto de regresar a la calma para continuar con sus objetivos. Además, dichas conductas pueden funcionar como reguladoras de la intensidad y duración de la experiencia difícil, para acercarse más a vivencias placenteras. ...
Article
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Los efectos negativos en la salud mental de la población mundial derivados de la pandemia por coronavirus 2019 (covid-19) han incrementado la demanda de los servicios de atención psicológica. Por ello resulta importante estudiar también el bienestar emocional de este grupo de profesionales. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los procesos de autorregulación emocional y autocuidado como factores protectores frente a la presencia del burnout en un grupo de psicólogas mexicanas. Para esto, se utilizó un diseño cuantitativo transversal con alcance explicativo, en una muestra por voluntarios de 226 psicólogas con trabajo clínico. Los datos se recolectaron en formato electrónico, y para su obtención se aplicó la Escala de Conductas de Autocuidado para Psicólogos Clínicos (APC), el Cuestionario de Regulación Emocional (ERQ) y el Inventario Maslach de Burnout (MBI-HS). Para el análisis, se obtuvieron estadísticos descriptivos para cada una de las escalas y subescalas, se estimaron coeficientes de correlación de Pearson, se ajustaron modelos de regresión lineal simple y múltiple para las subescalas del MBI-HS, y se ajustó un modelo de senderos mediante el método GLS. Los resultados indican un bajo nivel de burnout, que se asocia al autocuidado como factor protector frente al agotamiento emocional, a la realización personal, a un mayor uso de la supresión emocional como estrategia de autorregulación, y a la reevaluación cognitiva como factor protector ante la despersonalización. El estudio subraya la importancia fomentar el uso de conductas de autocuidado para disponer del mayor número de psicólogas en las mejores condiciones posibles para hacer frente a los efectos a largo plazo de la pandemia por covid-19.
... Cognition ability is linked to re-structure and understand the emotional experience. Previous studies suggests that an increasing use of cognitive words are linked to health improvement with repeated writing and cognition ability may be essential to adaptation to traumatic or stressful experiences (Klein and Boals 2001). This is also consistent with our annotated dataset. ...
Preprint
The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted the lives of minorities, such as members of the LGBTQ community (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer) due to pre-existing social disadvantages and health disparities. Although extensive research has been carried out on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on different aspects of the general population's lives, few studies are focused on the LGBTQ population. In this paper, we identify a group of Twitter users who self-disclose to belong to the LGBTQ community. We develop and evaluate two sets of machine learning classifiers using a pre-pandemic and a during pandemic dataset to identify Twitter posts exhibiting minority stress, which is a unique pressure faced by the members of the LGBTQ population due to their sexual and gender identities. For this task, we collect a set of 20,593,823 posts by 7,241 self-disclosed LGBTQ users and annotate a randomly selected subset of 2800 posts. We demonstrate that our best pre-pandemic and during pandemic models show strong and stable performance for detecting posts that contain minority stress. We investigate the linguistic differences in minority stress posts across pre- and during-pandemic periods. We find that anger words are strongly associated with minority stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. We explore the impact of the pandemic on the emotional states of the LGBTQ population by conducting controlled comparisons with the general population. We adopt propensity score-based matching to perform a causal analysis. The results show that the LBGTQ population have a greater increase in the usage of cognitive words and worsened observable attribute in the usage of positive emotion words than the group of the general population with similar pre-pandemic behavioral attributes.
... Diaries capture people's innermost thoughts, reflections and memories that they document without the gaze of social judgment. Writing personal diaries described as a "technology of the self " (Foucault, 1982) is a time-honored and culturally sanctioned way of animating personal values and innermost feelings (Klein & Boals, 2001), and embodying experiences through self-talk. Indeed, diary writing is an established tradition and practice across different cultural backgrounds dating back to famous examples such as the so called "Pillow book" by the court lady Sei Shanoagon to Empress Consort Tieshi during the 990s and early 1000s in Japan. ...
Chapter
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Societal grand challenges have moved from a marginal concern to a mainstream issue within organization and management theory. How diverse forms of organizing help tackle – or reinforce – grand challenges has become centrally important. In this introductory paper, we take stock of the contributions to the volume on Organizing for Societal Grand Challenges and identify three characteristics of grand challenges that require further scholarly attention: their interconnectedness, fluidity, and paradoxical nature. We also emphasize the need to expand our methodological repertoire and reflect upon our practices as a scholarly community. © 2022 Ali Aslan Gümüsay, Emilio Marti, Hannah Trittin-Ulbrich and Christopher Wickert. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited.
... Diaries capture people's innermost thoughts, reflections and memories that they document without the gaze of social judgment. Writing personal diaries described as a "technology of the self " (Foucault, 1982) is a time-honored and culturally sanctioned way of animating personal values and innermost feelings (Klein & Boals, 2001), and embodying experiences through self-talk. Indeed, diary writing is an established tradition and practice across different cultural backgrounds dating back to famous examples such as the so called "Pillow book" by the court lady Sei Shanoagon to Empress Consort Tieshi during the 990s and early 1000s in Japan. ...
Chapter
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We illustrate the potential of diaries for advancing scholarship on organization studies and grand challenges. Writing personal diaries is a time-honored and culturally sanctioned way of animating innermost thoughts and feelings, and embodying experiences through self-talk with famous examples, such as the diaries written by Anne Frank, Andy Warhol, or Thomas Mann. However, the use of diaries has long been neglected in organization studies, despite their historical and societal importance. We illustrate how different forms of analyzing diaries enable a “deep analysis of individuals’ internal processes and practices” (Radcliffe, 2018) which cannot be gleaned from other sources of data such as interviews and observations. Diaries exist in different forms, such as “unsolicited diaries” and “solicited diaries” and have different purposes. We evaluate how analyzing diaries can be a valuable source to illuminate the innermost thoughts and feelings of people at the forefront of grand challenges. To exemplify our arguments, we draw on diaries written by medical professionals working for Doctors Without Borders as part of our empirical research project conducted in extreme contexts. We show the value of unsolicited diaries in revealing people’s thought world that is not apprehensible from other modes of communication, and offer a set of practical guidelines on working with data from diaries. Diaries serve to enrich our methodological toolkit by capturing what people think and feel behind the scenes but may not express nor display in public. © 2022 Madeleine Rauch and Shahzad (Shaz) Ansari. Published by Emerald Publishing Limited.
... p = 0.001) after 4 weeks of expressive writing. This result may be attributed to the study increase in working memory capacity as the program progresses [16]. Clout did not make any significant difference from week 1 to 4. Authenticity had decreased. ...
Conference Paper
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The abrupt changes in the way how students learn was greatly affected by the covid-19 pandemic. Increasing number of reports on excessive worrying came from students. They had trouble sleeping and expressing their thoughts because of depression, stress, and anxiety. This action research was designed to reduce anxiety of students related to chemistry and taking test in an online learning through expressive writing. A total of twenty-six participants collaborated for a 4-week expressive writing program. Participants baseline measurements of their anxieties were recorded before they undergone a 20-minute writing task every week for the entire duration of the intervention. Data gathered revealed a significant reduction in the anxieties of the participants with medium effect for both chemistry and testing. It has been found out that female participants were significantly more anxious than male for both areas. Interview data revealed that participants’ anxieties were cause by self-doubt and overthinking, experience of failure, lack of prior knowledge and time. However, expressive writing provided sense of achievement, student’s empowerment, opportunity to control emotion, and feeling of relief.
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Familial emotional word usage has long been implicated in symptom progression in schizophrenia. However, few studies have examined caregiver emotional word usage prior to the onset of psychosis, among those with a clinical high-risk (CHR) syndrome. The current study examined emotional word usage in a sample of caregivers of CHR individuals (N = 37) and caregivers of healthy controls (N = 40) and links with clinical symptoms in CHR individuals. Caregivers completed a speech sample task in which they were asked to speak about the participant; speech samples were then transcribed and analyzed for general positive (e.g. good) and negative (e.g., worthless) emotional words as well as words expressing three specific negative emotions (i.e., anxiety, anger, and sadness) using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). Findings indicated that (1) CHR caregivers used more negative and anxiety words compared to control caregivers; and (2) less positive word usage among CHR caregivers were related to more positive symptomatology among CHR individuals. These findings point toward the utility of automated language analysis in assessing the intersections between caregiver emotional language use and psychopathology.
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Chapter
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On the basis of laboratory research indicating that accessible attitudes ease decision making, we hypothesized that freshmen who enter college knowing their likes and dislikes regarding academically relevant issues may experience better health in this new life setting. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a prospective study in which students completed self-report inventories of negative life events and mental and physical health at two points in time. The accessibility of attitudes toward academically relevant issues was assessed in the initial session. Regression analyses revealed three-way interactions between attitude accessibility, stress (as indexed by the number of negative life events), and initial health status when predicting health scores at Time 2. For students with relatively good initial health, the generally positive relation between stress and illness was buffered by the possession of accessible attitudes. For students with relatively poor initial health, recovery was generally greater among those experiencing less stress, especially as attitude accessibility increased.