Depressive disorders in Europe: Prevalence figures from The ODIN study

University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, University of Cantabria, Avd Valdecilla s/n, Santander 39008, Spain.
The British Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 7.99). 11/2001; 179:308-16. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.179.4.308
Source: PubMed


This is the first report on the epidemiology of depressive disorders from the European Outcome of Depression International Network (ODIN) study.
To assess the prevalence of depressive disorders in randomly selected samples of the general population in five European countries.
The study was designed as a cross-sectional two-phase community study using the Beck Depression inventory during Phase 1, and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry during Phase 2.
An analysis of the combined sample (n=8.764) gave an overall prevalence of depressive disorders of 8.56% (95% CI 7.05-10.37). The figures were 10.05% (95% CI 7.80-12.85) for women and 6.61% (95% CI 4.92-8.83) for men. The centres fall into three categories: high prevalence (urban Ireland and urban UK), low prevalence (urban Spain) and medium prevalence (the remaining sites).
Depressive disorder is a highly prevalent condition in Europe. The major finding is the wide difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders found across the study sites.

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    • "Contents lists available at ScienceDirect journal homepage: Preliminary evidence in Europe has indicated that the magnitude of gender differences in specific mental disorders may widely vary across countries (Ayuso-Mateos et al., 2001; Hopcroft and Bradley, 2007; Immerman and Mackey, 2003; Seedat et al., 2009; Van de Velde et al., 2010), with some studies failing to observe any differences at all (Börsch-Supan et al., 2005; Maier et al., 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: When evaluating gender differences in mental disorders and suicidality, specifically between European countries, studies are sparse and frequently hindered by methodological issues, such as the limited items evaluated and inconsistent sampling designs. Methods: In ten European countries participating in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative, lifetime internalizing and externalizing disorders and suicidality were assessed among 37,289 respondents. Disorders were classified using DMS-IV criteria. Odds ratios (OR) for gender differences were calculated using logistic regression, while trends across age-groups were tested via gender × age interaction. Results: Within countries, prevalence of any lifetime internalizing disorder ranged from 10.8% to 44.5% among women and 5.9% to 26.5% among men, with women having consistently higher odds than men (OR range: 1.52-2.73). Prevalence of any lifetime externalizing disorders ranged from 0.2% to 6.6% among women and 2.2% to 22.4% among men, with women having consistently lower odds than men (OR range: 0.05-0.35). Any lifetime suicide attempt was found in 0.8-5.4% of women and 0.3-2.4% of men, showing inconsistent relative gender-differences across countries (OR range: 0.77-4.72). Significant effects in gender OR across age-groups were not observed for any internalizing disorder or suicide attempt, yet were present for any externalizing disorder in France (p = 0.01), the Netherlands (p = 0.05), and Spain (p = 0.02). Limitations: Mental disorders were assessed with the CIDI 3.0 and not psychiatric evaluations. Suicidality does not fully represent more important clinical events, such as suicide mortality. Conclusions: Consistent across European countries, internalizing disorders are more common among women and externalizing disorders among men, whereas gender differences in suicidality varied.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Affective Disorders
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    • "Twelve-month prevalence rates for depression in the U.S. have been estimated at 6.6% [3], and in Europe 8.5% [4]. In Ireland 12-month prevalence of depression as measured against DSM-IV criteria has been reported to be 10.3% [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Internet-delivered treatments for depression have proved successful, with supported programs offering the potential for improved adherence and outcomes. Internet interventions are particularly interesting in the context of increasing access to interventions, and delivering interventions population-wide. Methods: The study was a randomized controlled trial of an 7-module internet-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) program for adults with depressive symptoms (n = 96) compared to a waiting-list control group (n = 92). Participants received weekly support from a trained supporter. The primary outcome was depressive symptoms as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). The program was made available nationwide from an established and recognized charity for depression. Results: For the treatment group, post-treatment effect sizes reported were large for the primary outcome measure (d = 0.91). The between-group effects were moderate to large and statistically significant for the primary outcomes (d = 0.50) favoring the treatment group. Gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated the efficacy of the internet-delivered Space from Depression treatment. Participants demonstrated reliable and statistically significant changes in symptoms from pre-to post-intervention. The study supports a model for delivering online depression interventions population-wide using trained supporters. Trial registration number: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN03704676.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Psychiatry
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    • "The results showed a high prevalence of D (55.2%) in the female population aged 25–64 years in Russia that was significantly higher than in Europe and the United States (10, 11). In our opinion, such differences were due to well-known events in Russia in 1994, when the population had high levels of stress and psychosocial factors (6, 12, 13). "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies showed that depression was an independent predictor of mortality from cardio-vascular disease in healthy women. To explore the effect of depression (D) on relative risk (RR) of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke for 16 years (1995-2010) in the female population aged 25-64 years from Novosibirsk, Russia. Under the third screening of the WHO "MONICA-psychosocial" (MOPSY) programme, a cohort of women aged 25-64 years (N=560) was surveyed. Women were followed for 16 years for the incidence of MI and stroke (1995-2010). D was measured at the baseline examination by means of test "MOPSY". Participants having stroke, MI, arterial hypertension, coronary artery diseases and diabetes in their medical history at the baseline were excluded from this analysis. The prevalence of D in women aged 25-64 years was 55.2%. With the growth of D levels, positive self-rated health reduced and almost 100% of those women have complaints about their health, but considered the care of their health insufficient. Women with major D significantly extended negative behavioral habits: smoking and unsuccessful attempts to give up, low physical activity, and less likely to follow a diet (healthy food). Major D associated with high job strain and family stress. Relative risk (RR) of MI development in women with D during 16 years of study was higher in 2.53 cases (p<0.05) and risk of stroke was higher in 4.63 cases (p<0.05). The prevalence of D in women aged 25-64 years was >50%. Women with D had a 2.53-fold risk of MI and 4.63-fold risk of stroke during the 16 years of follow-up.
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