Bjorksten B, Sepp E, Julge K, Voor T, Mikelsaar M.. Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108: 516-520

University of Tartu, Dorpat, Tartu, Estonia
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Impact Factor: 11.48). 10/2001; 108(4):516-20. DOI: 10.1067/mai.2001.118130
Source: PubMed


The intestinal microflora is a likely source for the induction of immune deviation in infancy.
The purpose of this study was to prospectively relate the intestinal microflora to allergy development in 2 countries differing with respect to the prevalence of atopic diseases.
Newborn infants were followed prospectively through the first 2 years of life in Estonia (n = 24) and Sweden (n = 20). By that age, 9 Estonian and 9 Swedish infants had developed atopic dermatitis and/or positive skin prick test results. Stool samples were obtained at 5 to 6 days and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and 13 groups of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms were cultivated through use of standard methods.
In comparison with healthy infants, babies who developed allergy were less often colonized with enterococci during the first month of life (72% vs 96%; P <.05) and with bifidobacteria during the first year of life (17% to 39% vs 42% to 69%; P <.05). Furthermore, allergic infants had higher counts of clostridia at 3 months (median value, 10.3 vs 7.2 log(10); P <.05). The prevalence of colonization with Staphylococcus aureus was also higher at 6 months (61% vs 23%; P <.05), whereas the counts of Bacteroides were lower at 12 months (9.9 vs 10.6 log(10); P <.05).
Differences in the composition of the gut flora between infants who will and infants who will not develop allergy are demonstrable before the development of any clinical manifestations of atopy. Because the observations were made in 2 countries with different standards of living, we believe that our findings could indicate a role for the intestinal microflora in the development of and protection from allergy.

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Available from: Tiia Voor, Aug 18, 2014
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    • "However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Whether or not differences in the composition of the microbiota (particularly abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae ) precede the development of atopy, as suggested by other reports (Bjorksten et al., 2001; Kalliomaki et al., 2001a; Penders et al., 2013) is not addressed in the current study, as the first fecal sample was collected after the onset of CMA signs and symptoms. However, as we have recently reviewed, increasing evidence supports a role for the microbiota in sensitization to food allergens, where the use of antibiotics, anti-bacterial agents and disruptions in fecal-associated community structure correlate with an elevated risk of disease (Berni Canani et al., 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary intervention with extensively hydrolyzed casein formula supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (EHCF+LGG) accelerates tolerance acquisition in infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA). We examined whether this effect is attributable, at least in part, to an influence on the gut microbiota. Fecal samples from healthy controls (n=20) and from CMA infants (n=19) before and after treatment with EHCF with (n=12) and without (n=7) supplementation with LGG were compared by 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic unit clustering and oligotyping. Differential feature selection and generalized linear model fitting revealed that the CMA infants have a diverse gut microbial community structure dominated by Lachnospiraceae (20.5±9.7%) and Ruminococcaceae (16.2±9.1%). Blautia, Roseburia and Coprococcus were significantly enriched following treatment with EHCF and LGG, but only one genus, Oscillospira, was significantly different between infants that became tolerant and those that remained allergic. However, most tolerant infants showed a significant increase in fecal butyrate levels, and those taxa that were significantly enriched in these samples, Blautia and Roseburia, exhibited specific strain-level demarcations between tolerant and allergic infants. Our data suggest that EHCF+LGG promotes tolerance in infants with CMA, in part, by influencing the strain-level bacterial community structure of the infant gut.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015 · The ISME Journal
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    • "and Bacteroides spp. has been associated with food allergy and allergic sensitization [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. However, it is not known how the microbiota composition affects the mucosal immune response in food allergy. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alterations in the gut microbiota composition are associated with food allergy. Toll-like receptors (TLR) respond to microbial stimuli. We studied the effects of ligation of TLR on intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) in preventing an allergic effector response. IEC monolayers (T84 cells) were co-cultured with CD3/28-activated PBMC from healthy controls or atopic patients and simultaneously apically exposed to TLR2, TLR4 or TLR9 ligands. The barrier integrity of T84 cell monolayers was significantly reduced upon co-culture with PBMC of food allergic subjects compared to healthy subjects. Apical exposure of IEC to TLR9, ligand prevented PBMC-induced epithelial barrier disruption. Using PBMC from food allergic subjects, apical TLR9 activation on IEC increased the IFN-γ/IL-13 and IL-10/IL-13 ratio, while suppressing pro-inflammatory IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in an IEC-dependent manner. Hence, activation of apical TLR9 on IEC, potentially by microbiota-derived signals, may play an important role in the prevention of allergic inflammation.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014 · Clinical Immunology
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    • "It is likely the intestinal microbial community structures of the two experimental groups differed as a result of differences in their respective environments and pre-weaning diets. Evidence in humans indicates that the neonatal intestinal microbial community regulates systemic immunity [14]. Moreover, pigs raised in environments with different levels of hygiene and intestinal microbial compositions exhibited different mucosal immunity characteristics [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The snatch-farrowed porcine-colostrum-deprived (SF-pCD) pig model, in which neonates are raised on commercially available bovine colostrum, is an alternative model for porcine infectious disease research. It is not known if SF-pCD pigs possess growth performance and immunity comparable to conventional, farm-raised pigs. The current experiment compared growth performance and immune responses of SF-pCD pigs to their farm-raised siblings following Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo) vaccination. Twelve SF-pCD and 13 farm-raised siblings were vaccinated on day 7 (D7) and D26 of age. Body weights were measured once or twice weekly and average daily gain (ADG) was calculated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated on D40. Cytokine secretion from PBMC stimulated with Mhyo antigen or phorbol myristate acetate plus ionomycin (PMA/Iono) was assessed using a multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA). Additionally, interferon gamma (IFN¿) secretion from stimulated PBMC was assessed using ELISPOT. Mhyo IgG titers were measured by an ELISA in D40 sera.ResultsGrowth performance did not differ between groups before weaning, but SF-pCD pigs had higher ADG after weaning. In response to Mhyo stimulation, numbers of IFN¿ secreting PBMC and levels of interleukin 8 (IL8) and IL10 in PBMC supernatants were significantly higher in SF-pCD pigs, as were Mhyo antibody levels in sera, and levels of IL1ß, IL8 and IL12 in supernatants of PMA/Iono stimulated PBMC.Conclusions Under the conditions of this experiment, SF-pCD pigs demonstrated superior growth performance and enhanced humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination. Whether or not this reflects greater resistance or tolerance to infection is unknown but the ability to react positively to the vaccination provides evidence that SF-pCD pigs are a suitable alternative model for swine disease research.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Veterinary Research
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