Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WL.. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eu J Clin Nutr 55, 908-915

Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.71). 11/2001; 55(10):908-15. DOI: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601234
Source: PubMed


To examine, in free-living adults eating self-selected diets, the effects on plasma cholesterol of substituting saturated fat rich foods with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat rich foods while at the same time adhering to a total fat intake of 30-33% of dietary energy.
Two randomised crossover trials.
General community.
Volunteer sample of healthy free-living nutrition students at the University of Otago. Trial I, n=29; and trial II, n=42.
In trials I and II participants were asked to follow for 2(1/2) weeks a diet high in saturated fat yet with a total fat content that conformed to nutrition recommendations (30-33% energy). During the 2(1/2) week comparison diet, saturated fat rich foods were replaced with foods rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (trial I) whereas in trial II the replacement foods were rich in monounsaturated fats. Participants were asked to maintain a total fat intake of 30-33% of energy on all diets.
Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triglyceride fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol.
When replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated fat or monounsaturated fat, total fat intakes decreased by 2.9% energy and 5.1% energy, respectively. Replacing saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated fat (trial I) lowered plasma total cholesterol by 19% [from 4.87 (0.88) to 3.94 (0.92) mmol/l, mean (s.d.)], low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 22% [from 2.87 (0.75) to 2.24 (0.67) mmol/l], and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 14% [from 1.39 (0.36) to 1.19 (0.34) mmol/l], whereas replacing saturated fat with monounsaturated fat (trial II) decreased total cholesterol by 12%, low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 15%, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 4%, respectively. The change in the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol was similar during trial I and trial II.
Young adults are very responsive to dietary-induced changes in plasma cholesterol even when an isocaloric replacement of saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is not achieved. Replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is equally efficacious at reducing the total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio.
University of Otago, Meadow Lea Ltd.

Download full-text


Available from: Leanne Hodson, Jan 15, 2015
  • Source
    • "Inversely, excessive consumption of SFAs resulted in hypercholesterolemia, confirming the results previously reported in the literature [17]. Like Souza-Mello and colleagues (2007) [20] we did not find any differences in the plasma triglyceride levels of the groups, although foods rich in animal fat are associated with increased triglycerides [21]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim To evaluate the influence of dietary lipid quality on the body mass, carbohydrate metabolism and morphology of the rat ventral prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups: SC (standard chow), HF-S (high-fat diet rich in saturated fatty acids), HF-P (high-fat diet rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids) and HF-SP (high-fat diet rich in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids). We analyzed body mass, fat mass deposits, plasma blood, insulin resistance and the ventral prostate structure. Results Groups that received high-fat diets were heavier and presented larger fat deposits than SC group. The HF-S and HF-SP groups had higher glucose, insulin and total cholesterol serum levels and insulin resistance compared with the SC. The acinar area, epithelium height and area density of the lumen were higher in the HF-SP than in the other groups. The epithelium area density and epithelial cell proliferation were greater in the HF-P and HF-SP than in the SC group. All of the groups that received high-fat diets had greater area density of the stroma, area density of smooth muscle cells and stromal cell proliferation compared with the SC group. Conclusion Diets rich in saturated and/or polyunsaturated fatty acids induced overweight. Independently of insulin resistance, polyunsaturated fatty acids increased prostate stromal and epithelial cell proliferation. Saturated fatty acids influenced only stromal cellular proliferation. These structural and morphometric alterations may be considered risk factors for the development of adverse remodeling process in the rat ventral prostate.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
  • Source
    • "In 22 of the 27 studies, regardless of whether the assessment was between canola oil-based and high-SFA/Western or habitual diets, statistically significant diet-related differences in HDL-C levels were not observed. In contrast, Gustafsson et al.,26 Lichtenstein et al.,27 McDonald et al.,28 and Hodson et al.30 reported reductions in HDL-C concentrations following consumption of canola oil-based diets compared with high-SFA/Western diets. However, the TC/HDL-C ratio did not change significantly.26,30 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Canola oil-based diets have been shown to reduce plasma cholesterol levels in comparison with diets containing higher levels of saturated fatty acids. Consumption of canola oil also influences biological functions that affect various other biomarkers of disease risk. Previous reviews have focused on the health effects of individual components of canola oil. Here, the objective is to address the health effects of intact canola oil, as this has immediate practical implications for consumers, nutritionists, and others deciding which oil to consume or recommend. A literature search was conducted to examine the effects of canola oil consumption on coronary heart disease, insulin sensitivity, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, energy metabolism, and cancer cell growth. Data reveal substantial reductions in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as other positive actions, including increased tocopherol levels and improved insulin sensitivity, compared with consumption of other dietary fat sources. In summary, growing scientific evidence supports the use of canola oil, beyond its beneficial actions on circulating lipid levels, as a health-promoting component of the diet.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Nutrition Reviews
  • Source
    • "Unsaturated fatty acids are widely considered to have a more beneficial biological effect in humans, with many arguing in favour of replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats, rather than carbohydrates , to cause a favourable change in serum lipid profiles (Hodson et al., 2001). However, there is still debate over whether monounsaturated (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fats are a more beneficial option. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nutritional value of Dorper (n=10) and Merino (n=10) by-products were evaluated. Proximate composition differed between organs and breeds with Merino heart (68.9g/100g), spleen (77.2g/100g) and testicles (83.7g/100g) having higher moisture contents than their Dorper counterparts. Dorper brain (10.1g/100g), heart (15.2g/100g), spleen (20.4g/100g) and testicles (12.9g/100g) had higher protein contents than Merino. Dorper organs also tended to have a lower fat content. Amino acid and fatty acid profiles differed between organs and breeds. Few differences were noted in total SFA and MUFA. Dorper heart (1.8%) had significantly lower total PUFA than Merino heart (7.3%). All the organs showed favourable P:S ratios, with the exception of the tongue, heart and stomach. Dorper and Merino brain, lungs and testicles had favourable n-6/n-3 ratios. Cholesterol content differed between both organs and breeds. The value of offal as food is discussed further.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Meat Science
Show more