ArticleLiterature Review

Advances in the Development of Functional Foods from Buckwheat

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Abstract

Buckwheat originated in North or East Asia and is widely adapted in North America. It has been grown since at least 1000 BC in China. It has very strong adaptability to adverse environments with a very short growing span. Many varieties are growing around the world, but mainly in the north hemisphere. Currently the most common buckwheat spice is Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (common buckwheat or sweet buckwheat), while Fagopyrum tartaricum is also available in some mountainous regions. Many nutraceutical compounds exist in buckwheat seeds and other tissues. Buckwheat has been used and will be better used as an important raw material for functional food production. In this review we focus on works related to the development of functional foods from common buckwheat, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. A lot of research has be conducted in the functionalities and properties of buckwheat proteins, flavonoids, flavones, phytosterols, thiamin-binding proteins, and other rare compounds in buckwheat seeds. Buckwheat proteins have unique amino acid composition with special biological activities of cholesterol-lowering effects, antihypertensition effects, and improving the constipation and obisity conditions by acting similar as to dietary fiber and interrupting the in vivo metabolisms. The trypsin inhibitors isolated from buckwheat seeds are heat stable and can cause poor digestion if they are not suitably cooked before consumption. The allergenic proteins existing in the buckwheat seeds and their derivatives were reviewed with respect to their chemical and biochemical characteristics as well as the physiological reactions after digestion. Some possible mechanisms involved in these effects are discussed in this review. Experiments, both with animal models and with human beings, revealed that buckwheat flour can improve diabetes, obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and constipation. Methods to exploit buckwheat seeds and flour to produce highly effective nutraceuticals are also reviewed.

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... tataricum). Buckwheat is known by various names around the world, Yi people of the Yunnan province called common buckwheat er chi (Li and Zhang, 2001), mite phapar in Nepal, soba in Japan, jawas in Pakistan, tianqiaomai in Mandarin, jare in Bhutan, grecichakul'furnaja in Russia and tatarkagryka or poganka in Poland (Campbell, 1997). ...
... Buckwheat tissues serve as useful resources for high-quality flavonoids, though flavonoid content varies with development and is significantly influenced by the contents of phenylalanine and tyrosine and the activity of kinetin in the issues with other existing forms of N 2 in the soil (Li and Zhang, 2001). The main constituents for antioxidant activity in buckwheat seed are rutin and quercetin. ...
... Proper utilization of buckwheat crop constituents will also promote food industries for the development of new functional foods. The nutraceutical potential of buckwheat, its wide use in food products and possible solutions to overcome its limitation to become a sustainable and staple crop demands the need to further exploit the use of bioactive compounds (Li and Zhang, 2001). Buckwheat flour products as a supplement with milk proteins and cereals may be used as fast consuming food/convenient food (Śmietana et al., 1988). ...
... The sequence of Lys, Leu, Val, Cys, and Trp changed in TBB and the sequence of Leu, Lys, Thu, Ala, and Pro changed in TBF after baking. As described by Li & Zhang [27] , the buckwheat protein consists of globulin, prolamin, albumin, and glutelin, and there was a non-uniform distribution of proteins in buckwheat seeds. Furthermore, a variation in the properties of proteins in different parts of buckwheat seeds was observed. ...
... The coefficients of protein fraction and the distribution of amino acids in the protein fractions were also different, resulting in different nutritional and processing qualities. [27] We also found that the lysine/arginine and methionine/glycine ratios of TBF after baking decreased from 0.79 to 0.73 and 0.22 to 0.18, respectively, whereas, there was almost no change in these ratios of TBB after baking. Several studies have reported that the lysine/arginine and methionine/glycine ratios are critical factors that determine the cholesterol-lowering effects of plant proteins. ...
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In the present study, the contents of amino acids, fatty acids, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and flavonoids were compared in tartary buckwheat bran and flour before and after baking. The results showed that the contents of all the bioactive compounds in raw tartary buckwheat bran were higher than that in raw tartary buckwheat flour, except for polysaccharides. Thermal treatment caused a significant decrease in the contents of fatty acids, polysaccharides, and polyphenols in both tartary buckwheat bran and flour. The contents of amino acids and total flavonoids in tartary buckwheat bran decreased after baking, but their contents increased in baked tartary buckwheat flour. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis results showed that the rutin content decreased in baked tartary buckwheat bran, whereas significantly increased by 68.92% in baked tartary buckwheat flour (p < .01). These results suggest that tartary buckwheat bran and flour should be processed differently according to the target products.
... Marshall, 1982) [10] . This grains contain abundant nutritional compounds (Li, S. and Zhang, 2001) [11] . Especially, they are rich in B vitamins (Fabjan et. ...
... Marshall, 1982) [10] . This grains contain abundant nutritional compounds (Li, S. and Zhang, 2001) [11] . Especially, they are rich in B vitamins (Fabjan et. ...
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Low calorie and high fiber content biscuits have greater demand than other types of biscuits among the biscuit consumers. Therefore, composite biscuits were prepared incorporating different levels of buckwheat flour and constant amount of honeyweed and stevia powder with wheat flour. The influence of partial replacement of wheat flour by above stated ingredients on the nutritional and sensory characteristics of three types of biscuit samples were analyzed. Fat and ash content were found to be increased significantly with the increased amount of buckwheat incorporation but protein content decreased with increased buckwheat incorporation level (p 0.05). However fiber content was also increased gradually with increased level of incorporation. The sensory result revealed that biscuits color and taste scores had decreased significantly with the increased level of buckwheat flour incorporation. Texture score was also decreased with buckwheat incorporation level but not significantly as other parameters. However, on a nine-point sensory scale, the overall acceptability of biscuit samples was above 7, suggesting the noticeable consumer satisfaction.
... buckwheat is a grain grown primarily in Russia and China. Furthermore, in the United States, Canada, and Europe, this product is becoming increasingly popular [4,5]. The most commonly cultivated species are common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) ...
... A second crop of buckwheat can also be grown and ploughed down as green manure when a crop is harvested early in the year [21]. Buckwheat is a short-season crop (3)(4) months) that grows best in a damp, cool temperate climate. Common buckwheat has little frost tolerance and is therefore usually grown at lower altitudes [22]. ...
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The gluten-free pseudocereal Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Silver hull buckwheat) belongs to the Polygonaceae family, which has a long history of both edible and medicinal use. It's a highly nutritious food ingredient that's been shown to have a variety of health benefits. Plasma cholesterol levels are lowered, neuroprotection is given, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects are provided, and hypertension conditions are improved thanks to Silver hull buckwheat. It has also been stated to have prebiotic and antioxidant properties. The aim of this review was to include an up-to-date and detailed study of F. esculentum. Furthermore, the potential for future research was addressed. Flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, hormones, and fatty acids are among the various compounds derived from F. esculentum. The main active ingredients were believed to be flavonoids and phenolic compounds. All of the information presented leads us to believe that Silver hull buckwheat has a strong medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to better understand its bioactive constituents, their structural functions, and molecular mechanisms underlying.
... In the recent past, buckwheat production has increased because of its nutraceutical properties and potential for use in the preparation of functional foods (Li and Zhang, 2001;Bonafaccia et al., 2003a;Bonafaccia et al., 2003b). Buckwheat is rich in nutrients and its seed contains 100-125 mg/g of protein, 650-750 mg/g of starch, 20-25 mg/g of fat, and 20-25 mg/g of mineral (Li and Zhang, 2001). ...
... In the recent past, buckwheat production has increased because of its nutraceutical properties and potential for use in the preparation of functional foods (Li and Zhang, 2001;Bonafaccia et al., 2003a;Bonafaccia et al., 2003b). Buckwheat is rich in nutrients and its seed contains 100-125 mg/g of protein, 650-750 mg/g of starch, 20-25 mg/g of fat, and 20-25 mg/g of mineral (Li and Zhang, 2001). ...
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With the ever-increasing world population, an extra 1.5 billion mouths need to be fed by 2050 with continuously dwindling arable land. Hence, it is imperative that extra food come from the marginal lands that are expected to be unsuitable for growing major staple crops under the adverse climate change scenario. Crop diversity provides right alternatives for marginal environments to improve food, feed, and nutritional security. Well-adapted and climate-resilient crops will be the best fit for such a scenario to produce seed and biomass. The minor millets are known for their high nutritional profile and better resilience for several abiotic stresses that make them the suitable crops for arid and salt-affected soils and poor-quality waters. Finger millet (Eleucine coracana) and foxtail millet (Setaria italica), also considered as orphan crops, are highly tolerant grass crop species that grow well in marginal and degraded lands of Africa and Asia with better nutritional profile. Another category of grains, called pseudo-cereals, is considered as rich foods because of their protein quality and content, high mineral content, and healthy and balance food quality. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), amaranth (Amaranthus sp.), and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) fall under this category. Nevertheless, both minor millets and pseudo-cereals are morphologically different, although similar for micronutrient bioavailability, and their grains are gluten-free. The cultivation of these millets can make dry lands productive and ensure future food as well as nutritional security. Although the natural nutrient profile of these crop plant species is remarkably good, little development has occurred in advances in molecular genetics and breeding efforts to improve the bioavailability of nutrients. Recent advances in NGS have enabled the genome and transcriptome sequencing of these millets and pseudo-cereals for the faster development of molecular markers and application in molecular breeding. Genomic information on finger millet (1,196 Mb with 85,243 genes); S. italica, a model small millet (well-annotated draft genome of 420 Mb with 38,801 protein-coding genes); amaranth (466 Mb genome and 23,059 protein-coding genes); buckwheat (genome size of 1.12 Gb with 35,816 annotated genes); and quinoa (genome size of 1.5 Gb containing 54,438 protein-coding genes) could pave the way for the genetic improvement of these grains. These genomic resources are an important first step toward genetic improvement of these crops. This review highlights the current advances and available resources on genomics to improve nutrient bioavailability in these five suitable crops for the sustained healthy livelihood.
... Among the various under-utilized crops buckwheat is one of the ancient domesticated crops of Asia, Central and Eastern Europe that has been utilized as a staple food for local communities in India, Bhutan, China and Nepal particularly in the mountainous and temperate areas of Europe and East Asia [2]. Currently, Russia is the largest producer of buckwheat followed by China which is the second largest producer of buckwheat with 10.2 million acres cultivation area and contributing about 0.6 to 0.95 million tons [3]. The biggest international market for buckwheat is Japan and China is its biggest supplier. ...
... Reports also revealed that buckwheat constitutes higher content of Cu, Zn and Mn as compared to cereals like maize, rice or wheat [32]. However, their concentration varies among distinct parts such as 2-2.5% in the whole grain of buckwheat, 1.8-2.0% in the kernel, 2.2-3.5% in dehulled grains, 0.9% in buckwheat flour and 3.4-4.2% in hulls [3]. The variation in the contents of mineral elements in buckwheat flours may be usually influenced by some factors such as genetic factors, environmental conditions and processing technique. ...
... quinoa; family Chenopodiaceae) are well-known pseudocereals used expansively worldwide. Due to their high starch content, pseudocereals can be used like other cereals for the preparation of value-added food products (Li and Zhang, 2001;Thakur et al., 2021). Recently, pseudocereals have gained wide popularity among consumers because of their good quality proteins and their appropriateness for celiac patients. ...
... There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference in fiber content of all pseudocereals and values varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 3.83 (amaranth) to 7.55% (buckwheat). Li and Zhang (2001) reported crude fiber in buckwheat as 10.9 g/100 g and Njoki et al. (2014) as 6.6% in amaranth. Ash content varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05) from 1.66 (buckwheat) to 2.32% (amaranth). ...
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Pseudocereals have attracted the attention of nutritionists and food technologists due to their high nutritional value. In addition to their richness in nutritional and bioactive components, these are deficient in gluten and can serve as valuable food for persons suffering from gluten allergies. Processing treatments are considered an effective way to enhance the quality of food grains. Soaking and germination are traditional and most effective treatments for enhancing the nutritional and bioactive potential as well as reducing the anti-nutritional components in food grains. This study reflects the effect of soaking and germination treatments on nutritional, bioactive, and anti-nutritional characteristics of pseudocereals. There was a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in nutritional and bioactive components such as crude fiber, crude protein, phenolic components, antioxidant activity, and mineral content but reduced the anti-nutrients such as tannin and phytic acid. In amaranth, there was a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) of 7.01, 74.67, 126.62, and 87.47% in crude protein, crude fiber, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity but significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of 32.30% and 29.57% in tannin and phytic acid contents, respectively. Similar changes in values of crude proteins, crude fiber, phenolic content, and antioxidant activity were observed in buckwheat and quinoa. While the anti-nutritional components such as tannin and phytic acid decreased by 59.91 and 17.42%, in buckwheat and 27.08% and 47.57%, in quinoa, respectively. Therefore, soaking and germination proved to be excellent techniques to minimize the antinutritional component and enhance the nutritional, bioactive, and antioxidant potential of these underutilized grains.
... . Moreover, buckwheat contains some antioxidants, mainly rutin and quercetin, which was claimed to be effective to strengthen capillary blood vessels and reduce diabetes II (Li & Zhang, 2001;Watanabe, 1998). ...
... Nonetheless, the whole flour buckwheat bread products were found to be bad palatability, digestibility, and baking performances due to buckwheat's content of phytate and tannins, which may decrease the digestibility of buckwheat proteins and confer bitterness to buckwheat products (Li & Zhang, 2001). Therefore, incorporation of buckwheat is considered as a win-win solution for enhancing the overall quality of wheat bread and the palatability of buckwheat bread. ...
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Dough fermentation represents an important developmental stage in the manufacturing process. In this study, volatile and nonvolatile metabolite analysis were carried out to investigate time‐dependent metabolic changes in the course of wheat dough fermentation incorporated with buckwheat based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A total of 70 nonvolatile metabolites were identified, covering a broad spectrum of polar (e.g., amino acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, and acids) and nonpolar (e.g., fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, and sterols) low molecular weight dough constituents. Meanwhile, sixty‐four volatile metabolites comprising aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, organic acids, aromatic compounds, and furans were identified using solid‐phase micro‐extraction combined with GC–MS. Some differences may exist in the volatile composition between fermented and unfermented dough. Statistical assessment of the nonvolatile data via principal component analysis demonstrated that the metabolic changes during the mixed dough fermentation are reflected by time‐dependent shifts of polar nonvolatile metabolites. And some potential nutritional markers, such as amino acids and sugars, could be developed to optimize and control the industrial dough fermentation incorporated with buckwheat. This study analyzed both volatile and non‐volatile compounds of wheat dough fermentation incorporated with buckwheat.
... Buckwheat is grown in many Europe and Asia countries (Popović et al., 2014), as an important functional food crop, the most popular one is called buckwheat noodles, which very popular in Japan, China, Korea and Italy (Akaya and Sun. 1992;Lin and Zhang, 2001). Recently, many researchers have focused on the development of buckwheat as a potential functional food material (Lin and Zhang, 2001), which lead the production areas and average yield have a rising tendency. ...
... 1992;Lin and Zhang, 2001). Recently, many researchers have focused on the development of buckwheat as a potential functional food material (Lin and Zhang, 2001), which lead the production areas and average yield have a rising tendency. Popović et al. (2014) reported that during the year of 2010-2011 about 2.113 million hectares of buckwheat was sown annually worldwide and the average yield was 913 kg ha -1 . ...
... quinoa; family Chenopodiaceae) are the most common pseudocereals used extensively worldwide. Pseudocereals, due to their high content of starch can be used like cereals in the preparation of value-added food products (Li & Zhang, 2001). These grains are evolving as a healthy substitute to gluten-rich grains for the preparation of gluten-free food products. ...
Article
Consumers are becoming more conscious to adopt a healthy lifestyle and demand highly nutritious foods. Pseudocereals have exceptional nutritional as well as a phytochemical profile with good quality proteins. Due to the lack of gluten, these grains can be incorporated in the diet of people suffering from celiac disease. Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disorder affecting the small intestine of people with genetic susceptibility to gluten-containing cereals. Recent studies have concluded that dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, phenolics, and other bioactives existing in pseudocereals have the potential to combat chronic ailments such as cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Due to the presence of bioactives in pseudocereals, these have wide potential to be incorporated in various processed functional foods. Therefore, the commercialization of pseudocereals incorporated functional foods would be helpful not only to celiac patients but also for individuals suffering from numerous lifestyle diseases. Several studies have reported that there is an increasing interest in research and development activities to explore these neglected crops. There is an urgent need to develop a multidisciplinary approach that involves many stakeholders to review and accelerate the domestication of these crops. This review aims at the exploration of nutritional quality, bioactive potential, processing aspects, and health benefits of these underutilized but nutritious grains.
... Currently, there are many buckwheat-based products available on the market, such as buckwheat pillows, protein, chewable tablets, tea, and sprouts [7,8]. Because of its potential health benefits, Tartary buckwheat consumption is increasing on a global scale [9]. However, the most high-quality arable land is used to grow staple food crops (e.g., rice and wheat), resulting in limited cultivation area and relatively low yield of Tartary buckwheat [2,10]. ...
... 2 Although both species have strong adaptability to adverse environmental conditions and can grow in soils of low fertility, only Tartary buckwheat exhibits frost resistance and is mainly cultivated in the mountainous areas. 3 Buckwheat is widely distributed in the world but grows for the most part in the northern hemisphere. The largest producing countries of buckwheat are China, Russian Federation, France, and Ukraine, with annual production of more than 100 000 tons each, followed by Poland, the United States of America, and Kazakhstan which grow more than 80 000 tons of buckwheat per year each. ...
Article
Research groups have put significant emphasis on the evaluation of nutritional, health-promoting, and other biological activities of secondary metabolites from buckwheat. Among these phytochemicals, phenolic and lipophilic antioxidants, particularly, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and tocopherols, have been the focus of the latest studies since antioxidant activity has recently been associated with the possibility of inhibiting fungal growth and mycotoxin biosynthesis. The mycotoxin contamination of cereal and pseudocereal grains caused primarily by Fusarium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus species poses a significant hazard to human health. Therefore, efforts to examine the involvement of plant antioxidants in the biosynthesis of mycotoxins at the transcriptional level have emerged. In addition, hydrophobic interactions of buckwheat phenolics with cell membranes could also explain their capacity to reduce fungal development. Eventually, possibilities of enhancing the biological activity of cereal and pseudocereal phytochemicals have been studied and sourdough fermentation has been proposed as an efficient method to increase antioxidant activities. This effect could result in an increased antifungal effects of sourdough and bakery products. This review reports the main advances in research on buckwheat phenolics and other antioxidant phytochemicals, highlighting possible mechanisms of action and processes that could improve their biological activities.
... Further the bioactive constituents [ Figure 2] such as fagoyrin (naphthodianthrone derivative) and flavonoids viz., rutin, and quercitrin were isolated from the seeds and proved responsible for their pharmacological properties. [16] Pomegranate Fruit (Punica granatum Linn.) ...
... A high level of magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus and a slightly low content of calcium was reported in buckwheat [18,47]. The high ash value (4.23%) observed in medium particle size (BM) can be related to the minerals such as magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus, which are stored in the embryo [48], and thus, BM was expected to have a high ash content. The supplementation of wheat flour with buckwheat flour fractions with high ash content could imply a rise in the mineral amount in the newly formulated flour. ...
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Supplementation of refined wheat flour with buckwheat flour requires a good understanding of the impact of milling fractions, their functionality, and addition level on bread quality. The chemical and functional characteristics of different particle fractions (large, medium, and small) of buckwheat flour on dough Mixolab rheological properties to predict bread quality were investigated. Moisture content, proteins, ash, lipids, and carbohydrates varied irregularly depending on the particle size. The medium particle fraction is the richest in protein, lipid and ash, which are positively correlated with its water and swelling properties and negatively correlated with its volumetric density. The alpha-amylase activity increased with the particle size increase in composite flour. The Mixolab data revealed that the decrease of particle size increased water absorption, dough viscosity during the starch gelatinization and retrogradation stage, while the addition level increased the dough development time and gel stability, and decreased the rate of protein weakening. Following the optimization process and the desirability function approach, it was established that the most appropriate rheological properties are provided by buckwheat flour addition level of 10.75% for medium particle fraction. These results can be helpful for bakery producers to diversify baked products with the desired particle fraction with optimal technological and nutritional properties along with beneficial effects to consumers.
... Tartary buckwheat seed contains approximately 100-fold higher rutin content than that of common buckwheat seed Morishita et al. 2007). Li and Zhang (2001) found higher flavonoid content in tartary type buckwheat seeds than that of common type buckwheat seeds. Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn) displays beneficial functions, including anti-atherosclerotic and antioxidant effects than that of common buckwheat due to the presence of high flavonoid contents. ...
Article
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The primary bioactive components of buckwheat seeds, rutin, and quercetin, have health-related benefits such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancerous. In the current study, we characterized the agro-morphological traits of diverse tartary buckwheat germplasm accessions under the spring cultivation and estimated the major flavonoid contents of seeds. The content of rutin and quercetin ranged from 4354.1 to 17,196.01 and 8.9 to 611.7 µg g−1 DW, respectively. The highest content of rutin was found in ‘C9714’ collected from China. The highest and lowest content of quercetin was found in Indian accessions ‘I8345’ and ‘I8622’, respectively. Moreover, we found that accessions with dark-brown seed coat color had a significantly higher mean rutin content than that of accessions with other seed coat color. In the principal component analysis, the first three components (PC1, PC2, and PC3) accounted for 77.14% of the total variation. The number of nodes and branches, number of days to flower, and maturity were the main contributors of variability to PC1. The 1000-seed weight was the main contributor of variability to PC2; whereas, the rutin and quercetin were the main contributors of variation to PC3. We identified nine accessions with the rutin content above 10,000 µg g−1 DW and three accessions with quercetin content above 40 µg g−1 DW. The selected accessions could be used as a nutritional source of health-related bioactive metabolites.
... Buckwheat proteins used as flour reduce cholesterol, high blood pressure, improve constipation and obesity by acting similar to dietary fibers and interrupt in vivo metabolism. [23,24] Dairy foods Containing friendly or probiotic bacteria that promote intestinal health. [25] ...
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There is increasing recognition of the potential role of nutraceuticals and dietary supplements in reducing health risks and improving nano-level health quality. In 1989, Dr Stephen DeFelice first coined the term nutraceutical to offer health and medical benefits, including disease prevention and treatment. Attributable to their safety and potential nutritional values and therapeutic effects, nutraceuticals have established substantial interest. Companies of pharmaceutical and nutritional products are aware of the monetary success of consumers seeking more health and the changing trends leading to an exploration of natural nanomedicines that cover a large number of chronic and fatal diseases, including cancer. Some popular nutraceuticals include ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, aloe-vera gels, ephedra, garlic, ginger, glucosamine, omega-3 eggs, orange juice enriched with calcium, green tea, etc. The majority of them are appealed to have numerous therapeutic benefits. This review aims to understand nutraceuticals as nano better-supplements to alter disease conditions with specific indications and their crucial role in pathophysiological interventions.
... Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is widely consumed in Asia and is becoming more popular in the United States, Canada and Europe. 1 Buckwheat mainly grows in the north hemisphere. 2 It can be cultivated under more adverse environments than rice. 3 There are two main types of cultivated buckwheat in the world: common buckwheat (Fagopyrun esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum). ...
Article
Buckwheat is one of the five main allergenic foods (eggs, milk, wheat, buckwheat, and peanuts). Oleosin is an important type of allergen in some allergic foods. However, although most diagnostic nut and seed extracts are defatted, some patients with food allergies may have false negative diagnostic results of oleosin in vitro. Recently, we found that the serum of buckwheat allergic patients responded strongly to an 18 kDa protein. Mass spectrometry analysis showed it is the oleosin protein family. We further purified and evaluated the allergenicity of this buckwheat oleosin-type allergen, which is involved in the formation of buckwheat oil bodies. The tartary buckwheat oleosin allergen was named Fag t 6, according to the WHO/IUIS Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee criteria. The DNA sequence of tartary buckwheat oleosin was cloned. Dot blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed half of the 20 buckwheat allergic patients' serum had strong reactivity with purified buckwheat Fag t 6. Circular dichroism experiment analysis of its thermal stability showed a Tm of 64.65 ± 0.65 °C. A buckwheat allergy showed possible cross-reaction with a wheat allergy. In summary, this study not only increases our understanding of buckwheat allergies and oil-soluble allergens in general, it may also be used to improve diagnostic tests for buckwheat allergies in the future.
... Herbal stimulants such as ephedrine. caffeine, ma huang-guarana, chitosan and green tea help with weight loss [26]. Buckwheat seed proteins act similarly to the fibers in foods. ...
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Nutraceutical is a term used for segregated products from processed foods, supplements, specialty foods and food products that are used as nutrients in balanced foods. The lifestyles of people around the world have changed over the past century due to increased incomes, declining exercise and preferences for unhealthy foods. Nutraceuticals are very popular because of their safety, nutritional value and treatment. They are used in the treatment and prevention of various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, stroke and Parkinson's disease, as well as obesity. Better understanding "from treatment to prevention" leads to an increase in the demand for nutraceutical. Nutraceutical has lead to in a new era of medicine and health, which has made the food and pharmaceutical industry a business of research interest.
... Buckwheat flour and muskmelon seed flour which are good sources of protein, also contributed to its increase in the gluten free burfi. Buckwheat proteins may show a strong supple-mental effect due to the wellbalanced amino acid composition [20]. ...
Article
This is an Open Access Journal / article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. All rights reserved. Buckwheat flour and muskmelon seed flour are better supplier of nutrients and are rich in protein, carbohydrate, fiber, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants therefore these are used to develop the gluten free food product. This study aimed to explore the nutrient content of gluten free burfi as a functional food and to evaluate sensory attributes of the product. The gluten free burfi were prepared by using composite blends of buckwheat flour (BWF) and muskmelon seed flour(MSF) in different combination such as 50:0 (BWF) sample code T0, 40:20 (MSF 20%) T1, 30:20 (MSF 20%) T2, 20:30 (MSF 30%)T3, and 10:40 (MSF 40%)T4 respectively. The experiment was replicated five times and Data obtained were then analyzed statistically using ANOVA at 5% level of significance by SPSS software version 0.25. Gluten free burfi were determined according to the AOAC methods, and their sensory attributes by using 9-point Hedonic Scale. Sensory properties of the samples revealed that, T4 had highly acceptable to control sample. A proximate test showed that sample T4 gluten free burfi contained protein (18.3%), carbohydrate (22.3%), and fat (36.9%), iron (7.8 mg) and energy value (493.7 Kcal/100g). The gluten free burfi gained acceptability in terms of sensory attributes hence was concluded to be a potential nutritious product for celiac disease with nutrient deficiency as well as for all vulnerable age group. Overall, the study leads to a development of a protocol and an innovative, nutritious sweet delicious product (gluten free burfi) with a view to popularize among other parts of the globe. ABSTRACT RESEARCH ARTICLE
... In relay intercropping systems, a second crop is sown in a standing crop that has nearly reached the end of its production cycle, prior to harvest [13] . In strip intercropping, two or more crops are sown in strips wide enough to accommodate many rows, but close enough to facilitate interactions [14] . ...
... In many countries, such as Nepal, Bhutan, and China, TB is a staple food, particularly in those rural communities. 1,2 Due to its rich bioactive components, such as proteins, starches, vitamins, minerals, and flavonoids, TB presents many health functions such as hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, and antibacterial effects. 3,4 Moreover, it is a source of gluten-free food materials. ...
... All the six flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, vitexin, orientin, isoorientin, and isovitexin) were recognized in the hull of buckwheat grains (S.-q. Li & Zhang, 2001). ...
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Buckwheat is a precious source of various bioactive compounds like phenolics, flavonoids, rutin, and quercetin, etc. This research work was performed to harvest the nutraceutical potential of indigenous buckwheat varieties and their milling fractions (fine flour, coarse flour, bran flour, and husk). Common buckwheat (CBW) and Tartary buckwheat (TBW) were analyzed in terms of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and DPPH scavenging activity. When compared to common buckwheat, Tartary buckwheat had a higher total phenolic content (2101.421 mg GAE/100g), total flavonoid content (1233.990 mg QEQ/100g), and DPPH scavenging activity (44.51%).In the same context, throughout comparisons among milling fractions, the highest TPC and TFC were observed in the husk part of Tartary buckwheat while the lowest was found in common buckwheat. During the comparison of different solvents and their concentrations, it was observed that Ethanol 70% extracted a greater quantity of phytochemicals as compared to the rest of the other solvents and concentrations. This study recognized variability among buckwheat varieties and milling fractions for nutraceutical potential and nutritional qualities that can be used in the treatment of different maladies and food products.`
... In recent years, flavonoids have attracted increasing interests due to their various beneficial pharmacological effects including anti-allergic, anti-viral, anti-cancer and antioxidant properties (Chao et al., 2002;Fotis et al., 1997). Flavonoids are known for their effectiveness in reducing cholesterol levels in blood, keeping the wall of capillaries and arteries strong and flexible, reducing high blood pressure and reducing the risk of arteriosclerosis (Fabjan et al., 2003;Li & Zhang, 2001). Six flavonoids have been isolated from buckwheat grains. ...
... to 16.3, 6.1 to 6.9, 73.3 to 74.7 and 3.5 to 3.9 per cent on dry weight basis, accordingly when the nutritive components of tetraploid buckwheat grains in comparsion to those of diploid seed. The range of variation in respect of these parameters of proximate analysis have also been reported by these investigators; Bonafaccia et al.,1994;Tang, 2007;Bonafaccia et al., 2003;Li and Zhang, 2001;Steadman et al., 2001. Methionine is sulfur containing essential amino acid. ...
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Buckwheat is economically important smaller millet grown primarily for carbohydrates and protein content. In this study, biochemical composition of 14 promising genotypes of buckwheat grown in Sangla region of Himachal Pradesh were analysed. The grain weight, moisture content, crude protein, total soluble protein, crude fat (ether extract), ash, crude fibre, carbohydrates, methionine, tryptophan, in vitro protein digestibility and oxalate in genotypes ranged from 18.8 to 26.8g, 10.2 to 10.9%,10.4 to 15.1%,9.4 to 13.3%,1.7 to 2.8%,1.49 to 2.45%,6.1 to 9.2 %,62.0 to 67.9%,57.9 to 103.4 mg/gN,62.2 to 79.2 mg/gN,66.7 to 79.5% and 98 to 152mg/100g, in that order. Based on cumulative grading of nutritionally desirable qualities, the genotypes VL-27 and PRB-9001 followed by S-B-201 proved superior cultivars.
... contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. grown on a wide range of soils under various climatic conditions (Li and Zhang 2001). It is grown worldwide throughout Asia, Europe, the United States (USA), Brazil, Canada, Australia, and South Africa (Kiprovski et al. 2015), although the main areas of cultivation are in East Asian countries (Wiczkowski et al. 2014). ...
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Buckwheat is an important grain crop known for its nutritional value and content of bioactive compounds, particularly rutin. In this study, we characterized diverse Fagopyrum esculentum Moench germplasm for the diversity of agro-morphological characteristics and the rutin and quercetin content in seeds under the spring cultivation. Of the 251 germplasm accessions assessed, 193 had red stems, 182 had a pale brown seed coat color, and 238 had ovate seeds. The times taken to reach 50% flowering and 80% maturity ranged from 38-45 to 73-95 days, respectively. The 1000-seed weight (TSW) varied from 21 to 42 g. Overall, the content of rutin and quercetin ranged from 7.22-47.86 to 0-1.22 mg/100 g DW, respectively. The number of days to flowering and maturity showed negative correlations with TSW and rutin and quercetin content. However, we found that at 73-80 days after sowing, early-maturing germplasm had significantly higher mean rutin content than either intermediate-or late-maturing germplasm. The TSW weight showed a positive correlation with the content of rutin and quercetin. We identified promising accessions based early maturity (\ 80 days), higher seed weight (C 35 g) and higher content of rutin (C 35 mg/100 g DW) and quercetin (C 1 mg/100 g DW). These accessions will help to enhance grain yield and the rutin and quercetin content in existing buckwheat cultivars for spring cultivation.
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Photosynthesis is the basis for plant productivity, and improvement of photosynthetic efficiency is an important way to improve crop yield. However, the relationship between photosynthetic parameters and the yield of Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) under rainfed conditions is unclear. A two-year field trial was conducted during 2016 and 2017 to assess the photosynthetic capacity of different leaves, dry matter accumulation, and yield of four Tartary buckwheat cultivars from flowering to maturity. The leaves of all cultivars aged gradually after flowering, and the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and soluble protein (SP) contents, net photosynthetic rates (Pn), transpiration rates (Tr), and stomatal conductance (Gs) tended to decline. The Chl, SP, Pn, Tr, and Gs of cultivars (cvs.) XiQiao2 and QianKu3 were significantly higher than those of LiuKu3 and JiuJiang at each sampling time from 18 days after anthesis to maturity, but the intercellular CO2 content (Ci) showed the opposite trend. Cultivars XiQiao2 and QianKu3 produced more total dry matter (mean 17.1% higher), had higher harvest index (HI, mean 16.4% higher), and yield (mean 29.0% higher) than cvs. LiuKu3 and JiuJiang at maturity, and the difference was remarkably consistent. The yield of all the cultivars was positively correlated with leaf Chl, SP, Pn, Tr, and Gs, but negatively correlated with Ci. At late growth stages, the high-yielding cultivars maintained higher Chl, SP contents, Pn, Tr, and Gs, and showed higher dry matter accumulation and lower Ci than the low-yielding cultivars, consistent with their higher leaf photosynthetic capacity. The important factors determining the yield of Tartary buckwheat were maintaining higher leaf Chl and SP content and photosynthetic capacity and delaying aging during the grain formation stage. Enhanced rates of photosynthesis and dry matter accumulation led to higher post-anthesis accumulation of biomass with a positive impact on grain number and higher yield.
Article
Superheated steam (SS) at 170 °C for 5 min was used to inactivate lipase of common buckwheat grains in this study, which effectively retarded lipid hydrolytic rancidity and maintained lipid nutrition of common buckwheat. Higher stabilities based on lower free fatty acid accumulation and lipase activity were observed in SS-treated buckwheat samples during storage. Meanwhile, SS could suppress oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in buckwheat, significantly retard the increase of saturated fatty acids and the decrease of polyunsaturated fatty acids during storage. Moreover, the lipidomics profile results indicated that SS processing could retard the increased hydrolysis and oxidation of sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine and lysophosphatidic acid during storage, while regulate the content of galactolipids. Thus, SS processing could effectively inactivate lipase, suppress UFA oxidation, change glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids subclass metabolism, and consequently retard hydrolytic rancidity and the loss of lipid nutrition in buckwheat during storage. SS processing was proved to effectively protect the quality of buckwheat during storage for the first time.
Article
This study aimed to investigate the protective mechanism of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated with dyslipidemia in mice fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFD). Results showed that oral supplementation of common buckwheat significantly improved physiological indexes and biochemical parameters related to dyslipidemia and NAFLD in mice fed with HFD. Furthermore, the HFD-induced reductions in fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were reversed by common buckwheat intervention, which also increased the fecal bile acids (BAs) abundance compared with HFD-induced hyperlipidemic mice. Liver metabolomics based on UPLC-QTOF/MS demonstrated that common buckwheat supplementation made significant regulatory effects on pentose phosphate pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism, and primary bile acid biosynthesis, etc. The results of high-throughput sequencing revealed that common buckwheat supplementation significantly altered the structure of the intestinal microbiota in mice fed with HFD. The correlations between lipid metabolic parameters and intestinal microbial phylotypes were also revealed by heatmap and network. Additionally, common buckwheat intervention regulated the mRNA expressions of genes responsible for liver lipid metabolism and bile acid homeostasis, thus promoting bile acid synthesis and excretion. These findings confirmed that common buckwheat has the outstanding ability of improving lipid metabolism, and could be used as a potential functional food for the prevention of NAFLD and hyperlipidemia.
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Food fermentation is one of the most ancient processes of food production that has historically been used to extend food shelf life and to enhance its organoleptic properties. However, some research has demonstrated that it can also increase the nutritional value and/or digestibility of food. Firstly, microorganisms, and in particular Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), besides their role in acidification, are able to produce huge amounts of secondary metabolites with excellent health benefits and preservative properties (i.e., antimicrobial activity). Indeed, some microorganisms can increase the levels of several bioactive compounds (e.g., vitamins, antioxidant compounds, peptides, etc.). Secondly, fermented foods contain living organisms that contribute to the modulation of the host’s physiological balance and gut microbiota, enriching, at the same time, the host’s diet with new bioactive molecules. Moreover, recent advances in fermentation are focused on food by-products; in fact, they are a source of potentially bioactive compounds that, after fermentation, could be used as ingredients for nutraceuticals and functional food formulations. Because of this, understanding of benefits of food fermentation is a growing field of research in nutrition and food science. This Special Issue aimed to present current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of fermentation technologies like the sustainable GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) process for food and nutraceutical production, to improve food quality.
Article
The buckwheat is a plant species with a high ability to produce secondary metabolites such as flavonoids. Together with rutin, the dominant flavonoid of the Fagopyrum Mill genus representatives (The Common buckwheat (F. esculentum Moench), the Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum (L.) Gaertn.) and the Perennial buckwheat (F. cymosum Meissn.)), quercetin, vitexin, quercitrin, orientin, anthocyanides, phenolcarbonic acids and other compounds were found in buckwheat plants. Due to their considerable reactivity, flavonoids participate in the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, growth, reproduction and defence against different stresses. The purpose of this article is to overview the processes of flavonoid biosynthesis and accumulation during the growth and development stages of buckwheat plants under the influence of external factors regarding its species diversity. Flavonoids content and induction were examined in vitro culture.
Article
Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) albumin was hydrolyzed by alkaline protease, and three new antioxidant peptides (P1, P2, and P3) were successfully separated from the hydrolysate (TBAH). The sequences of the three antioxidant peptides were Gly-Glu-Val-Pro-Trp (GEVPW), Tyr-Met-Glu-Asn-Phe (YMENF), and Ala-Phe-Tyr-Arg-Trp (AFYRW), and their molecular weights were 586.65, 702.79, and 741.85 Da, respectively. All three peptides have a good antioxidant capacity, and P3 (AFYRW) demonstrates the best antioxidant activity of the three. The IC50 values of AFYRW for scavenging hydroxyl radicals (OH·) and (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) DPPH· free radicals were 0.65 and 0.64 mM, respectively. In addition, AFYRW exhibits the strongest lipid peroxidation inhibition ability and the highest reducing power. The results of this research indicate that the three isolated peptides can be used in the development of various antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
The outer hull or husk of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) kernel comprises about 20-30% of the weight of the buckwheat grain. Since it is inedible it should be removed before processing into flour. While imported and expensive dehulling machines are available in Bhutan, to reduce cost and gain wider adoption by farmers and perform the operation efficiently, the Agriculture Machinery Centre (AMC) has developed a buckwheat dehuller based on the impact and shear principle for efficient dehulling of whole buckwheat with most of the machine's body parts available locally. The present study was carried out to test the machine and to evaluate the best operating impeller speed for efficient dehulling of buckwheat. The machine was tested at five different levels of impeller speed: 1,700, 1,800, 1,900, 2,000 and 2,100 revolutions per minute (rpm). Process performance of dehulling efficiency (DE), and broken percentage (B%) were measured at each rpm. There was a significant difference in DE and (B%) across the five different speeds. The best DE of 88.94 % was observed at 2,100 rpm. However, there was also a high correlation between dehulling efficiency and the proportion of broken kernels, with the highest broken percentage of 43.96% observed at 2,100 rpm.
Preprint
The effects of buckwheat intake on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have not been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively summarise studies in humans and animals evaluating the impact of buckwheat consumption on CVD risk markers and to conduct a meta-analysis of relevant data. Thirteen randomised, controlled human studies, two cross-sectional human studies and twenty-one animal studies were identified. Using random effects models, the weighted mean difference of post-intervention concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased following buckwheat intervention compared with controls [differences in blood glucose: -0.85 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.31, -0.39), total cholesterol: 0.50 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.80, -0.20) and triglycerides: 0.25 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.49, -0.02)]. Responses of a similar magnitude were seen in two cross-sectional studies. For animal studies, nineteen of twenty-one studies showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol of between 12 and 54%, and fourteen of twenty studies showed a significant reduction in triglycerides of between 2 and 74%. All exhibited high unexplained heterogeneity. There was inconsistency in HDL cholesterol outcomes in both human and animal studies. It remains unclear whether increased buckwheat intake significantly benefits other markers of CVD risk, such as weight, blood pressure, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol, and underlying mechanisms responsible for any effects are unclear.
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With aims to better optimize and improve the industrial buckwheat maling process, metabolite analysis was carried out by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to investigate the time-dependent metabolic changes during buckwheat malting. Sixty-four metabolites, which covered a broad spectrum of polar (e.g. amino acids, sugars, acids and phenolic compounds) and non-polar (e.g. fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids, sterols) buckwheat constituents with low molecular weights, were identified and quantified. Results show that content of polar metabolites, such as sugars and amino acids, increased during malting. Meanwhile, levels of most of non-pollar metabolites, including fatty acid methyl esters, free fatty acids and sterols changed very little or kept constant. The statistical assessment of the metabolic data was derived by principal component analysis (PCA). Results demonstrate that the metabolic changes during the buckwheat malting process can be reflected by time-dependent shifts in the PCA loading scores. The analysis of the loadings further showed that polar metabolites, including sugars, amino acids and some of phenolic acid compounds, were the major contributors of the malting time-driven changes during buckwheat malting. The changing rule of these metabolites was explored nutritionally. Free fatty acids were the superior energy supplier during steeping and initial germination phase compared with sugars in the buckwheat malting process. Buckwheat malt is a potential material for the beer brewing industry.
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Tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum) is a widely cultivated edible and medicinal crop with unique nutritional and excellent economic value. Buckwheat is a gluten-free pseudocereal that belongs to the Polygonaceae family. Buckwheat grain is a highly nutritional food component that has been shown to provide a wide range of beneficial effects. In this Research, the Biblical verse dealing with buckwheat is described. Therefore, the Research evaluates the characteristics of buckwheat, its characteristics, the health effects, the adverse reactions, and the contamination. This Research indicate that the Bible gives a precise description of the buckwheat. It can be concluded that buckwheat has been used for nutrition by humans during the long years of our existence. Nevertheless, some adverse reactions to buckwheat can be encountered. In spite of this fact, buckwheat should be on the table of human nutrition.
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Buckwheat has attracted considerable interest amongst the global scientific community due to its nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. It is a low input crop whose cultivation has persisted through centuries of civilization in almost every country where cereals were cultivated. The crop is an important source of rutin, an important flavonoid which is known to have cardioprotective, vasoprotective, antihypertensive, anti-inflammation, cytoprotective and anti-diabetic properties. Grains of buckwheat are a rich source of protein with a balanced amino acid composition, gluten free flour, dietary fibre, vitamins, resistant starch, phytosterols, fagopyrins, fagopyritols and phenolic compounds. Buckwheat is a short season crop which completes its life cycle in 70-90 days and can grow in wide range of environmental conditions including marginal lands and rocky, poorly tilled soils. The protein content in buckwheat flour is higher than in commonly used cereals such as rice, wheat, millet, sorghum and maize. Buckwheat grain protein is rich in lysine and arginine, which are generally limiting in other cereals. Because of a low Lys/ Arg and Met/Gly ratio, buckwheat protein has strong hypolipidemic activity. While Buckwheat is considered as a healthy food because of its nutraceutical properties, low yields due to seed shattering because of pedicel breaking and heterozygosity due to self-incompatibility as a consequence of dimorphic heterostylism have always remained major problems in achieving large scale incorporation of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in the agricultural portfolio. The present review highlights the multicore potential of buckwheat as a super crop to meet the challenges of food and nutritional security
Article
We compared the diversity of endophytes in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) seeds collected from the Dingxi, Datong, and Xizang autonomous region in China. The ITS and 16S rRNA gene sequences of endophytic fungi and bacteria were obtained, respectively. The obtained raw reads were subjected to quality control and then classified to microbial genomes. All effective tags were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the representative sequences were selected for the annotation of taxonomic information. Afterwards, alpha and beta diversity analyses, a taxonomic composition, and differential analyses were performed. A total of 316854 and 942202 clean reads were obtained from all samples for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The diversity of endophytes varied at the three different locations. At the genus level, the top 5 dominant bacteria were Fraxinus excelsior, Escherichia shigella, Pseudomonas, Hymenobacter, and Sphingomonas, while the top 5 dominant fungi belonged to Cryptococcus, Aureobasidium, Botrytis, Acremonium, and Didymella. Pseudomonas, Aureimonas, and Beauveria were also found in the seeds from Xizang, Datong, and Dingxi. The present study for the first time investigated the microbiome from different environments of buckwheat using sequencing technology. The data will help to excavate the potential of biological control of diseases and pests and inoculation of beneficial microbiome to promote crop growth.
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Tartary buckwheat ( Fagopyrum tataricum Gartn.) is a highly functional crop that is poised to be the target of many future breeding efforts. The reliable ex situ conservation of various genetic resources is essential for the modern breeding of tartary buckwheat varieties. We developed PCR-based co-dominant insertion/deletion (InDel) markers to discriminate tartary buckwheat genetic resources. First, we obtained the whole genome from 26 accessions across a superscaffold-scale reference genome of 569.37 Mb for tartary buckwheat cv. “Daegwan 3–7.” Next, 171,926 homogeneous and 53,755 heterogeneous InDels were detected by comparing 26 accessions with the “Daegwan 3–7” reference sequence. Of these, 100 candidate InDels ranging from 5–20 bp in length were chosen for validation, and 50 of them revealed polymorphisms between the 26 accessions and “Daegwan 3–7.” The validated InDels were further tested through the assessment of their likelihood to give rise to a single or a few PCR products in 50 other accessions, covering most tartary buckwheat genome types. The major allele frequencies ranged from 0.5616 at the TB42 locus to 0.9863 at the TB48 locus, with the average PIC value of 0.1532 with a range of 0.0267–0.3712. To create a user-friendly system, the homology of the genotypes between and among the accessions were visualized in both one- (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) barcode types by comparing amplicon polymorphisms with the reference variety, “Daegwan 3–7.” A phylogenetic tree and population structure of the 76 accessions according to amplicon polymorphisms for the 50 InDel markers corresponded to those using non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism variants, indicating that the barcode system based on the 50 InDels was a useful tool to improve the reliability of identification of tartary buckwheat accessions in the germplasm stocks.
Article
Nitrogen (N) affects common buckwheat quality by affecting starch and amino acids (AAs) content, but its molecular mechanism is still unclear. We selected two common buckwheat varieties with high and low starch content, and designed two treatments with 180 and 0 kg N/ha. Application of high-N led to significant increases in starch, amylose and amylopectin content. Of 1337 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) induced by high-N conditions. 472DEPs were significantly upregulated and 176DEPs downregulated for Xinong9976. 239DEPs were significantly upregulated and 126DEPs downregulated for Beizaosheng. The six alpha-glucan phosphorylases, three alpha-amylases, one granule-bound starch synthase 1 and one sucrose synthase exhibited higher expression at the 180 kg N/ha than at the 0 kg N/ha. In addition, high-N application promoted arginine, leucine, isoleucine and valine biosynthesis. This study revealed the effect of N on the starch and AA content of common buckwheat and its mechanism. The crucial proteins identified may develop the quality of common buckwheat.
Chapter
Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) and kañiwa (Chenopodium pallidicaule) are very nutritious crops native to the Andean region of South America. Both grains contain good-quality proteins and micronutrients such as iron, calcium and vitamins. Their fat content is relatively high, making them a source of essential fatty acids and tocopherols. Kañiwa has a particularly high dietary fibre content, thus being beneficial for human health. Quinoa and kañiwa seeds are major sources of flavonoids which consist mainly of glycosides of the flavonols kaempferol and quercetin. Processing Andean grains can lead to changes in the content of beneficial bioactive compounds; precautions must thus be taken to avoid losses. The traditional way to process Andean grains is cooking and roasting. It has been reported that it is possible to maintain the level of phenolic compounds in quinoa after cooking, if the cooking water is not discarded. Heat treatments can cause the release of phenolic compounds from the grain matrix, making them more bioavailable. During the milling of Andean grains, the bran fraction should be collected and used in food products because the majority of bioactive compounds are concentrated in this fraction.
Chapter
Wheat, buckwheat, oat, barley, flaxseed, psyllium, brown rice, millet, sorghum, maize, and rye are the most commonly known functional foods among possible cereal food items. The reason for this is that cereals provide humans with considerable amounts of the dietary fiber, protein, energy, vitamins, antioxidants, and minerals necessary for a healthy life. Epidemiological research has indicated that regularly consuming cereals can be linked to reduction in the risk of developing various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancers. Also, it is possible to process cereals in ways that are both innovative and efficient to develop healthy products. Functional multigrain beverages, baked products, and breakfast cereals can be prepared using cereals. In this chapter, the chemical and health‐supporting properties of common cereals are explored, together with the application of assorted cereals in preparing baked products and beverages within the scope of obtaining cereal‐based functional foods.
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The production of various bakery and non-bakery products based on buckwheat with components that positively affect health (fiber, antioxidants, and/or minerals), the optimization of recipes and technological process parameters, as well as giving character to final products in terms of their sensory acceptability and potential functional properties, gained significant interest last few years. Therefore, buckwheat products such as bread, biscuits, snacks, noodles, and cakes are commercialized and increasingly consumed. In addition, the use of non-bakery buckwheat products, such as tea, sprouts, honey, and other products, is becoming more common. In order to obtain potentially functional food with buckwheat of high nutritional quality, it is important to understand the effect of processing on bioactive components. The baking process, inevitable in the production of bakery products, is especially important. It is also important to understand the effect of storage on bioactive components. To this end, in the light of available literature, this chapter will provide an overview of bioactive components in buckwheat and discuss their stability in buckwheat and its products during processing and storage.
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The present study was aimed to enhance the storage stability of oil–in–water Pickering emulsion using esterified buckwheat starch. The starch esterified with 0.5–3% octenyl succinic anhydride (OSA) showed degree of substitution between 0.0032 ± 0.001 to 0.0229 ± 0.003, respectively. The esterification increased the particle size (7.44 ± 0.03–7.60 ± 0.03 μm), changed the smooth surface morphology to rough and converted the sharp-edged granules to irregular shapes. Major structural changes were occurred in the amorphous region, confirmed by X-ray diffraction as crystallinity decreased (25.6–20.9%) after modification. FTIR showed a peak at 1750 cm⁻¹ and Nuclear magnetic spectra showed specific peaks at 0.80–0.89 and 1.2–2.7 ppm, which confirmed OSA modification. The amphiphilic granules with improved structure and morphology were utilized to stabilize oil–in–water Pickering emulsion prepared by ultrasonication with 30 and 40% amplitude for 2 and 4 min. The stable Pickering emulsion with 3.43–86.86 μm droplet diameters was observed to be formed with 3% OSA starch particle, treated with 40% amplitude for 4 min. However, the emulsions prepared at higher amplitude (40%) showed better results for all modified starch. The study confirms the potential of buckwheat starch for non-conventional applications (Pickering emulsion) using novel technologies like ultrasonication.
Conference Paper
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Article
Superheated steam (SS) was used to improve the milling characteristics of common buckwheat grains during storage. The changes in milling characteristics, pasting properties, micro-mechanical behavior and protein-starch interactions of buckwheat during storage were investigated. Results showed that the average particle size, color and pasting viscosities of untreated buckwheat decreased during storage, while the damaged starch content increased significantly. SS slowed down these deteriorations of milling characteristics by alleviating intracellular cleavage of starch during the process of buckwheat milling. SS also kept pasting properties of starch stable during the continuous heating and shearing process. X-ray diffraction showed less variation in crystallinity and stable structure of starch induced by SS. The results from SDS-PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that these stabilizations were associated with the disulfide bonds of protein and its interaction with starch granules. It meant SS processing retarded the quality deterioration during storage and protected buckwheat starch against mechanical damage by promoting protein aggregation and letting the starch to be wrapped tightly by the protein, so as to protect the swollen starch granules from disintegration. Therefore, SS processing was potentially applicable for improving milling characteristics of buckwheat.
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Protein bodies were isolated from cotyledons of dry buckwheat seeds by homogenization in acetone with subsequent purification in a 1.26 g cm−3 to 1.53 g cm−3 linear density gradient of a mixture of acetone with CCI4. The purified fraction of protein bodies with globoids (PB I) had a buoyant density of 1.48–1.51 g cm−3 and was intact according to microscopic data. Localization of hydrolytic enzymes and proteinase inhibitors in the PB I fraction and in the fraction of the cytoplasm and membrane material (CMM) was studied. It was shown that acid hydrolytic enzymes, such as aspartic proteinase, carboxypeptidase, acid phosphatase, α-D-mannosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, as well as chymotrypsin and trypsin inhibitors were predominantly localized in the PB I. BAPAase and SH-activated caseinase activities were equally distributed between the PB I and CMM fraction. The activities of leucine aminopeptidase and SH-independent caseinase were noticeably predominant in the CMM fraction.
Article
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To investigate the physiological function of buckwheat protein, we produced buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) from a buckwheat flour by using alkaline extraction and isoelectric precipitation. The obtained BWPE contained 61.9% protein, 11.3% lipid, 11.3% non-fiber carbohydrate and 10.1 % moisture, and was concentrated to about 5-fold compared with the buckwheat flour. The yield of BWPE was 12% of the buckwheat flour, accounting for 59% of the protein. The amino acid composition of BWPE was characterized by higher arginine content than that of soybean protein isolate (SPI) or casein. The rat feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effects of BWPE on cholesterol metabolism. Rats were fed a cholesterol-rich semipurified diet supplemented with BWPE, SPI or casein as protein source for 3 weeks. Normal growth was observed in all rats fed the three diets. In rats fed BWPE, plasma cholesterol level was significantly decreased compared with rats fed SPI or casein, and hepatic cholesterol level was also decreased. These results suggest that BWPE has excellent nutritional value as protein source and expect to be a functional food useful for lowering blood cholesterol
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Samples of buckwheat from four cultivars grown at three locations in western Canada for 4 years were used to study the effect of cultivar, location, and growing season on the flavonoid content and antioxidative activities of the seed. Buckwheat contained an average of 387 and 1314 mg/100 g of flavonoid and 47 and 77 mg/100 g of rutin in the seed and hull, respectively. Location was the main source of variation for flavonoid and rutin contents of the seed, while growing season had significant influence on the flavonoid content of the hulls. Variation in antioxidative activities was mainly due to a cultivar × environment effect. Antioxidative activities expressed as AOX (Δ log A470/min), AA (% inhibition relative to control), and ORR (oxidation rate ratio) ranged from 0.42, 114, and 0.16 to 1.63, 48, and 0.59, respectively. Flavonoid content in buckwheat was strongly correlated with rutin content and weakly associated with antioxidative activities, while rutin content was not related to antioxidative activities. Keywords: Buckwheat; flavonoid; rutin; antioxidant; cultivar effects; seasonal variations; Fagopyrum esculentum
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Female rats fed a 1.2% cholesterol diet with animal proteins (casein) develop a significant hypercholesterolemia, with a marked increase of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated cholesterol. Substitution of soy proteins for casein in the diet counteracts the increase of both total and VLDL cholesterol. Studies of liver receptor activity were carried out with both casein and soybean-cholesterol diets, to define the site of action of soy proteins. Binding of a cholesterol-rich lipoprotein fraction (beta-VLDL) to hepatic membranes is normal when a soybean-cholesterol diet is administered, and markedly reduced with casein-cholesterol. The activity of receptor-linked enzymes, HMG-CoA reductase, cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase (ACATase), is differently affected by the two diets. HMG-CoA reductase activity is reduced by both diets with, however, significantly higher enzyme activities in the soybean-cholesterol-fed group. Both 7 alpha-hydroxylase and ACATase activity levels are significantly raised by casein-cholesterol but are in a normal range with soybean-cholesterol. These findings suggest that the hepatic receptor regulation of cholesterol metabolism is differently affected by animal and vegetable proteins in the diet.
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The proteins in buckwheat seed are superior to other cereal proteins in composition of essential amino acids.1)Few works on the proteins, however, have been reported, except on the amino acid compositions of some protein fractions2) and on the dissociation and association of the globulinfraction.3) In this work, the compositions and molecular weights of proteins in the albumin fraction were studied. The albumin fraction was prepared from buckwheat flour of autumn seeds reaped in northern Iwate prefecture. The flour was extracted with four fold volumes of water at 5°C or room temperature for one hour, and the extract was centrifuged at 12,000 x g for 30 min. The supernatant was filtered on a Buchner funnel, and the filtrate was 90% saturated with ammonium sulfate. The precipitate was dissolved in deionized water, and exhaustively dialyzed against deionized water in a cold room. After centrifugation the supernatant was filtered through a 1.2 it Milipore filter, lyophilized and used as sample of albumin fraction. © 1978, Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry. All rights reserved.
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This paper presents evidence for the occurrence of a trypsin inhibitor in buckwheat grain. Trypsin inhibitor activity distributed uniformly in the whole buckwheat grain. The inhibitor, prepared from aqueous extracts of buckwheat grain by the combined procedures of heat treatment, salting-out and gel filtration, appeared to be a protein-like substance. The inhibitor exhibited significant inhibitory capacity against trypsin and α-chymotrypsin, but less against pepsin, papain, ficin and Nagarse. The inhibitor was relatively thermostable, and highly resistant to acid; susceptibility to pepsin action was so limited to such an extent as to lose about half of its original inhibitory activity. The trypsin inhibitor in buckwheat grain disappeared substantially during germination.
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Three kinds of proteins (BA-1, BA-2 and BA-3) allergenic to the IgE antibody of allergenic individuals were isolated from buckwheat seeds. These three proteins were essentially homogeneous as judged by both polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The amino acid composition of BA-1 and BA-2 was very similar, and the molecular weight of each allergenic protein was between 8000-9000 by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. One of them was a trypsin inhibitor, and their immunoreactivity was quite stable to heating at 100°C for 60 min.
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Buckwheat is considered to be one of the useful sources of rutin in food. To analyze the varietal differences and heritability for the rutin content in seed and leaf in common buckwheat, twenty seven cultivars and strains introduced from the major countries where buckwheat is cultivated were tested. Plant materials were grown in 1992 and 1993 in a randomized block design with two replications each year in the Experimental Field of Shinshu University. Rutin content in seed and leaf was determined by high performance liquid chromatography, and the main characters were also observed. The mean values of the rutin content showed a wide range of variation. The seed rutin content of the tetraploid cultivars of Japan was higher than that of the diploid ones. However, there was no significant difference between the ploidy level for leaf.
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This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the amino acid composition of dietary proteins and the plasma cholesterol concentration and to examine whether the alteration of hepatic phospholipid metabolism participates in the effect of dietary proteins in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma total cholesterol concentration and the plasma concentration of methionine and valine and the hepatic concentration of valine and alanine in rats fed seven types of proteins. In contrast, the plasma cholesterol concentration exhibited a significant negative correlation with the hepatic-free ethanolamine concentration. As far as methionine and ethanolamine, their positive and negative correlation with the plasma cholesterol concentration was consistent with their known hyper- and hypocholesterolemic effects, respectively. The phospholipid profile as represented by the ratio of phosphatidylcholine (PC) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in liver microsomes, but not in other tissues tested, was largely influenced by the type of dietary proteins; the PCPE ratio exhibited a significant positive correlation with the plasma total cholesterol concentration. There was a significant correlation between the methionine content of dietary proteins and several biochemical variables including plasma cholesterol and liver microsomal PCPE ratio. A significantly lower concentration of hepatic S-adenosylmethionine was observed with soybean protein diet than with casein diet suggesting a decrease in the PC biosynthesis via the PE N-methylation pathway in rats fed soybean protein. From these results, it is suggested that the plasma cholesterol concentration might be influenced by the methionine content of dietary proteins at least in part through an alteration of hepatic phospholipid metabolism.
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Two proteolytic enzymes, a cysteine proteinase and a carboxypeptidase, responsible for breakdown of the main storage protein, 13S globulin, were purified from buckwheat seedlings (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) by (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, gel-filtration on Sephadex G-150, ionexchange chromatography on DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M and chromatofocusing. The cysteine proteinase was purified 74-fold. It has a pH optimum of 5.5, a pI of 4.5 and an apparent molecular mass (Mr) of 71000. The carboxypeptidase was purified 128-fold. It has a pH optimum of 5.3, a pI of 5.8 and a Mr of 78500. Cysteine proteinase hydrolyzed the modified 13S globulin only if the reaction products were eliminated from the incubation mixture by dialysis. Storage protein degradation by the proteinase increased in the presence of carboxypeptidase. We suggest that the two enzymes complete the digestion of 13S globulin after its preliminary hydrolysis by the earlier described enzyme, metalloproteinase, present in dry buckwheat seeds.
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Out of the twenty one medicinal plants evaluated for their virus inhibitoryactivity against tobamoviruses on their test hosts reacting hypersensitively, extracts of Lawsonia alba, Artemisia annua and Cornus capitata showed high virus inhibitory activity. The virus inhibitory agent (s) occurring in A. annus plant was isolated by conventional methods and identified as sterols. The sterols were characterized by spectral methods as sitosterol and stigmaterol.
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Hairy roots culture of Fagopyrum esculentum were established by infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Faster growth (four-fold higher than normal roots culture) in B5 liquid medium was observed and the synthesis of five flavanols obtained:(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-O-gallate, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B2-3'-O-gallate also present in normal roots culture with a common prominency of epicatechin-3-O-gallate synthesis and inversion in the contents rates of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. The highest content of procyanidin B2-3'-O-gallate was obtained in hairy roots which can be considered as a better production source for flavanols, especially of the two galloylated derivatives.
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The plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of dietary glycine was investigated in relation to its influence on the free amino acid profiles in the liver and plasma and on the composition of phospholipids in liver microsomes of rats fed on a cholesterol-free diet. The plasma total and HDL cholesterol levels were significantly decreased by dietary supplementation with glycine and ethanolamine, but not with serine and threonine. The hepatic free ethanolamine concentration was enhanced by dietary supplementation with glycine as well as with ethanolamine, and there existed a significant Correlation between the hepatic free ethanolamine concentration and plasma total or HDL cholesterol level. Dietary supplementation with glycine significantly increased the content and proportion of phosphatidylethanolamine in liver microsomes and inversely decreased the proportion of phosphatidylcholine. The phospholipid composition of liver microsomes changed prior to the plasma total cholesterol level in response to glycine supplementation, suggesting that the alteration of phospholipid composition was not the result of an alteration of the plasma cholesterol level. From these results, it is suggested that the plasma cholesterol-lowering effect of dietary glycine might be associated with the alteration of microsomal phospholipid composition.
Article
Fagopyrum esculentum (aesculentum) Moench. commonly called buckwheat, belongs to the family Polygonaceae and was formerly named Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib. or Polygonum fagopyrum L. (Wallis 1960). Other common names include beechwheat, French wheat, Saracen corn and green manure crop (Grieve 1974; Morton 1977), and it has also been called Japanese buckwheat, differentiating it from Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn., the Tartary buckwheat (Wilson 1948; Griffith et al. 1955).
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Crude protein and 17 amino acids were determined in ten samples of genetically diverse buckwheats, in buckwheat fractions from a commercial mill, and in the germ and degermed groats. The buck-wheat proteins were particularly rich in lysine (6.1 %), and contained less glutamic acid and proline and more arginine and aspartic acid than cereal proteins. About 56% of glutamic and aspartic acids were in the form of amides. Whereas correlations among basic or neutral and acidic amino acids were positive, correlations between basic and acidic or neutral amino acids were negative. Dark flour and feed fractions contained more protein than the whole kernel or the groat, but the amino acid patterns differed little. Distribution of amino acids in buckwheat tissues differed significantly from distribution in tissues of cereal grains. The pattern of essential amino acids in buckwheat is compared to that of cereal grains and egg reference patterns. Chemical analyses of the buckwheat hydrolyzates indicated that the amino acid composition was nutritionally superior to that of cereal grains.
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The protein enzymatic hydrolysate (PEH) of buckwheat was prepared by the seven proteases, such as pronase, pepsin, papain, trypsin, subtilisin, thennolysin and a -chymotrypsin, and their angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities were evaluated. The buckwheat globulin (Bglo) prepared by the isoelectric precipitation method was hydrolyzed gradually by all present proteases, especially the rapid proteolysis was found with pronase, meanwhile the reaction rate with thennolysin was slow. All the PEH of Bglo (Bpeh) potently inhibited the ACE activity, especially subtilisin and thennolysin were more superior in the creation of ACE inhibitory Bpeh than other enzymes, and their IC so values were estimated as 58 mg-protein / I and 43 mg / l. While, those Bpeh didn't inhibit the bacterial collagenase except pepsin hydrolysate, therefore, they were expected to be available for ACE specific inhibitor. Further, studies on the flavor and taste exhibitions with Bpeh were conducted with the sensory tests. From the results, almost all these Bpeh had slightly bitterness and weakly stank of sulfur. Nevertheless the pepsin hydrolysate may be the most favorable for food additive from the view point offunctional food.
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Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) plants produce a low grain yield because of a low incidence of seed set. As part of a study of seed set and abortion, sterols and fatty acids were extracted from developing embryo and endosperm tissues 6-20 days after pollination (DAP) and analyzed by gas chromatography. The most abundant sterol was beta-sitosterol, which made up 70% of the total sterols. Other sterols were campesterol, an unknown, and traces of stigmasterol. Total sterols in embryos were 2.1 +/- 0.05 g/kg of dry weight and in endosperm tissues were 0.55 +/- 0.02 g/kg at 20 DAP; total fatty acids in embryo and endosperm lipids were 123 +/- 8 and 22 +/- 3 g/kg, respectively. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic accounted for 88% of the total fatty acids at 20 DAP. At 6-10 DAP, 60-80% of the total fatty acids were saturated, mostly palmitic acid, but at 12-20 DAP, 65-80% were unsaturated, mostly linoleic and oleic. The rapid transition at 10-12 DAP was associated with rapid embryo growth and a 10-fold increase in storage lipids. Palmitic was 3-5 times more abundant than any other fatty acid at 6 DAP when myristic acid concentration was highest. Long-chain fatty acids (C20:0, C22:0, and C20:1) accumulated late in development to less than 7% of the total fatty acids.
Article
The inhibitory potency of dietary fiber sources, tannins, phytate, and a protein protease inhibitor on the in vitro pepsin-pancreatin digestibility of protein was compared. The protein inhibitor exhibited the highest inhibitory capacity among the substances examined; and phytate the lowest. Our findings suggest that the inhibition of the digestion of dietary sources of plant proteins by such factors as fiber and tannins, in addition to the protein protease inhibitors, may also be taken into account.
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Thiamine-binding protein, isolated from buckwheat seeds, was chemically modified in an attempt to identify amino acid residues involved in protein-thiamine interaction. No evidence was found in support of specific roles of arginine residues, sulfhydryl groups, amino groups and tyrosine residues. Under carefully controlled reaction conditions (Tris pH 5–6), the modification with I-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide caused a complete loss of thiamine-binding capacity. Thus, the carboxyl groups seemed to be essential for binding, possibly for ionic interaction with protein-bound thiamine cation. A selective modification of histidine residues using diethylpyrocarbonate correlated with a loss of thiamine-binding capacity; the modification and the loss of binding capacity could be reversed with hydroxylamine; some ligand-protection against modification was observed. From Tsou analysis of diethylpyrocarbonate modification and resulting loss of thiamine-binding it was suggested that 1–2 of 20 histidine residues of the protein were essential for thiamine binding. The essential histidine(s) might be present in the binding site and possibly were involved in hydrogen bonding(s) with protein-bound thiamine molecule.
Article
To investigate the effects of buckwheat protein on cholesterol metabolism, we prepared an enriched protein extract from buckwheat flour. The rats were fed a cholesterol-rich semipurified diet containing the buckwheat protein extract, soybean protein or casein as protein source for 3 wks. There was no significant difference in food consumption and growth rate among the rats fed three protein sources. Plasma cholesterol levels were decreased in the rats fed the buckwheat protein extract diet compared to the rats fed the soybean protein or casein diet. Concentrations of hepatic cholesterol were also significantly decreased in the rats fed the buckwheat protein extract diet as compared to the rats fed other protein diets. These results suggest that buckwheat protein is one of the dietary factors available for improvement of cholesterol metabolism.
Article
A single topical application of 1 microgram of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol- 13-acetate (TPA) to the ears of mice was shown to induce edema, and this TPA-induced inflammation was inhibited by 4-methylsterol and triterpene derivatives. The ED50 of these compounds against TPA-induced inflammation was 0.1-3 mumol. Phytosterols had only slight inhibitory effects. Furthermore, application of 5 micrograms TPA to mouse skin rapidly caused accumulation of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Similarly, sitosterol and lupane-type triterpene derivatives markedly inhibited this TPA-induced ODC accumulation. In addition, 5 mumol betulinic acid markedly inhibited the promoting effect of 2.5 micrograms TPA applied twice weekly on skin tumor formation in mice initiated with 50 micrograms of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, and 5 mumol of sitosterol caused slight suppression. Thus, the inhibitory effects of sterol and triterpene derivatives on TPA-induced inflammation roughly parallelled their inhibitory activities against tumor promotion.
Article
The effects of dietary supplementation of methionine to a 20% soybean protein isolate diet on serum lipoprotein profiles and secretion rate of VLDL in rats receiving polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were investigated. Serum cholesterol levels were higher in rats fed PCB or a methionine supplement than in controls. The effects of PCB and methionine were synergistic. The feeding of PCB resulted in more cholesterol in all fractions of serum lipoproteins tested, especially HDL (HDL1 and HDL2). Dietary supplementation of methionine primarily increased HDL cholesterol. The elevation of serum lipoprotein cholesterol due to PCB and/or methionine was significant in HDL1, which showed alpha-mobility. These results showed that methionine and PCB significantly influenced HDL metabolism. The secretion rate of VLDL was higher in rats fed PCB than in controls, but the addition of methionine to diets did not affect the secretion rate of VLDL cholesterol. This implies that PCB increased serum cholesterol partly through the stimulation of VLDL cholesterol secretion.
Article
The effects of two different plant sterols on intestinal cholesterol absorption were compared in normal volunteers by an intestinal perfusion study during a control period followed by high dose infusion of sitosterol or sitostanol (3.6 mumol/min), to which subjects were allocated in a randomized manner. Cholesterol absorption during the control period was similar in the two groups, averaging 0.88 +/- 0.48 mumol/min (32 +/- 11%) for group I (sitosterol) and 0.68 +/- 0.33 mumol/min (29 +/- 9%) for group II (sitostanol). The infusion of a high dose of sitosterol resulted in a significant reduction of cholesterol absorption to 0.47 mumol/min (16%). Following the same dose of sitostanol, cholesterol absorption diminished significantly to 0.15 +/- 0.11 mumol/min (5.1 +/- 2.9%). Overall cholesterol absorption declined during sitosterol infusion by almost 50%, whereas sitostanol infusion caused a reduction of cholesterol absorption by almost 85%. These findings of a more effective inhibition of cholesterol absorption by sitostanol might confirm the observation recorded by others that an increase in hydrophobicity of a plant sterol results in a higher affinity but lower capacity to mixed micells. This may cause an effective displacement of cholesterol from micellar binding and therefore diminished cholesterol absorption.
Article
The present paper shows a series of experiments carried out to elucidate the possible mechanism by which soybean protein isolate (SPI) produces a lower level of plasma cholesterol than casein in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. When the plasma cholesterol level was in a steady state characteristic of casein and SPI, SPI in the diet was substituted for casein and vice versa. Within 3 days after substitution of dietary protein, the plasma cholesterol level in each group reached a steady state level similar to that in its previous counterpart. The inherent responses of plasma cholesterol to casein and SPI were not changed by the resection of the jejunum or the ileum and the administration of cholestyramine or beta-sitosterol. The rates of the sterol synthesis in vivo of the liver and the small intestine were significantly higher in SPI-fed rats than in casein-fed rats. The hypocholesterolemic effect of SPI disappeared when Met was supplemented at a level equivalent to casein. The effects of casein and SPI were reproduced by their equivalent amino acid mixtures. The ratio of the postprandial increment of Met concentration to that of Gly concentration in the portal plasma was significantly higher when casein and its amino acid mixture were fed than when SPI and its amino acid mixture were fed. The casein-induced increase in the level of plasma cholesterol was attributed to an increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol concentration showed the positive correlation with the lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
The contribution of enterohepatic circulation of cholesterol and bile acids in the hypocholesterolemic activity of soybean protein isolate (SPI) was compared with the activity of casein. Intact, sham-operated, jejunectomized or ileectomized adult rats were fed a cholesterol-free, purified diet containing either 20% casein or 20% SPI for 7 or 10 d. For the subsequent 7 d the diets were reversed. In intact rats the plasma cholesterol concentration (p-chol) was significantly higher when the casein diet was fed than when the SPI diet was fed. Within 3 d after the diet crossover, p-chol in each group of intact rats reached rapidly the same level as that in its previous counterpart. These rapid inherent responses of p-chol to the casein and SPI diets remained unchanged even when the jejunum or the ileum was resected, and p-chol in jejunectomized or ileectomized rats was similar to that found in sham-operated rats. The extent of the change in p-chol induced by exchanging dietary proteins was almost the same among intact, sham-operated, jejunectomized and ileectomized rats. These findings indicate that the interruption of enterohepatic circulation of cholesterol and bile acids is not the major factor involved in the differential effects of dietary proteins on p-chol.
Article
In this report 9 cases with the buckwheat allergose treated and observed in our allergy clinic are summarized. The following is to be specially mentioned as the most distinguishing traits of the buckwheat allergose. 1) Among such hypersensitive manifestations with buckwheat as asthmatic attacks, urticaria eruption, gastrointestinal disorders, nasal symptoms or congestion of conjunctiva, the boundary line cannot be drawn. 2) The manifestation develops both when the allergen substance invades into the body through mouth and when through air way. 3) Judging from the results of various kinds of allergic examination, the hypersensitive manifestations are attributed to the allergic mechanism based on the antigen-antibody reaction in the strict sense of the word. And the buckwheat allergose is considered to be the model of the type 1 allergy (that is immediate type allergy) proposed by Coombs and Gell. 4) The antigenity of buckwheat is extremely strong, and the hyposensitization treatment with buckwheat must not easily be applied for fear of a severe and dangerous reaction due to the injection of the buckwheat extract.
Article
Serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in platelet-rich plasma were determined in serial samples obtained before and up to 6 h after food-challenge in 7 patients showing inflammation of the joints after ingestion of certain foods. Exacerbation of arthritis was associated with a fall in serotonin levels and a subsequent increase in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These data suggest that serotonin may be released from platelets during food challenges and that platelet serotonin release may contribute to joint inflammation.
Article
This is a review of production and cultivation methods of the accepted types and varieties of buckwheat. A brief description of seed characteristics and structure is followed by a detailed review of seed composition (carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, and miscellaneous compounds) in mature and maturing buckwheat. A major part of the review deals with buckwheat uses as food, feed, honey, and rutin. Mechanical processing, thermal treatment, specific food uses, standard specifications, and changes during storage are covered. The review ends with a projection into the future and research needs.
Article
A thiamine-binding protein was purified from the extract of rice bran acetone powder by conventional procedures of acid precipitation, a series of column chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and DEAE-cellulose, and gel filtration of Sephadex G-200. The purified thiamine-binding protein was nearly homogeneous as judged by disc gel electrophoresis and the molecular weight was estimated to be 94,000 by gel filtration on Sephadex Gn-200 and 50,000 by sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) gel electrophoresis, suggesting that the protein is composed of two identical subunits. The apparent Kd and Bmax of the binding for [14C]thiamine was 0.44 +/- 0.05 microM and 17.2 +/- 0.7 nmol/mg of protein, respectively. The optimal pH for the binding is between 8.0 and 9.0. From the competition experiment using several thiamine derivatives, high binding specificity of the protein for thiamine was presumed.
Article
We have studied the effect of amino acid supplementation on the hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis caused by cholesterol-free casein-containing diets in rabbits, and on the hypercholesterolaemia caused in rats by diets containing casein plus added cholesterol.Five groups of rabbits each received for 48 weeks semi-purified diets containing casein as a protein source. In one group the animals received additional arginine and alanine, and in three other groups the diets were supplemented with arginine, alanine and three different levels of glycine. These supplementations were chosen so as to bring the amino acid composition of the diets closer to that of commercial rabbit pellets.Average body weights at the end of the experiment were 3400 g in the casein group and 3800–3900 g in the four amino-acid-supplemented groups. Average serum cholesterol levels over the last 10 weeks were 15.7 mmol/l for the casein group, 12.0 for the casein-arginine-alanine group and 8.5, 8.8 and 8.1 for the three groups receiving arginine, alanine and increasing amounts of glycine. Serum cholesterol concentrations in the combined glycine-receiving groups were significantly lower than in the unsupplemented casein group. At the end of the experiment aortas were dissected from all rabbits and the sudanophilic surface area was quantitated. The extent of aortic sudanophilia was less in the amino-acid-supplemented groups than in the casein group. There was a strongly significant correlation between the proportion of aortic surface covered by sudanophilic plaques and the serum cholesterol concentration per animal. The effect of dietary glycine was not limited to rabbits: when we fed rats semi-purified diets containing cholesterol, and casein, casein plus glycine, or soy isolate, we obtained mean serum cholesterol levels of 10.4 mmol/l in the casein group, 4.9 in the casein-plus-glycine group and 3.5 in the soy group.We conclude that casein-induced hypercholesterolaemia and its sequelae are partly relieved by addition of glycine to the diet, while supplementation of casein-based rations with arginine and/or alanine may be necessary for rabbits. However, the beneficial effects of these amino acids could just as well be explained by the presence of an excess of other amino acids in casein (amino acid imbalance) as by an absolute shortage of glycine, arginine or alanine.
Article
Sixty-two sera from children under investigation for gastrointestinal disease were tested for IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies to gliadin by two different methods: an immunofluorescent (IF) test, and a mixed reverse (solid-phase) passive antiglobulin haemadsorption (MRSPAH) test. There was good agreement between the tests. Both tests detected gliadin antibodies of IgG and IgA class in sera from children with active coeliac disease, which tended to disappear when a strict gluten-free diet was instituted. Serum antibodies to gliadin of IgA class were associated with severe small intestinal villous atrophy and were found almost exclusively in coeliac disease. Gliadin antibodies of IgG class were less disease-specific and were occasionally detected in sera from children with gastrointestinal disease other than coeliac disease--notably in sera from children with transient gluten intolerance.