Molecular cloning and expression of woodchuck granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor

Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, 7 Chung-Shan South Road, Taipei, Taiwan.
Journal of Medical Virology (Impact Factor: 2.35). 11/2001; 65(3):567-75. DOI: 10.1002/jmv.2074
Source: PubMed


Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has immunoregulatory and antiviral effects, and may thus be promising for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. Using woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchuck as an animal model to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF on the therapy of chronic hepatitis B, woodchuck GM-CSF will be required due to the apparent species-specific activity of GM-CSF. The cDNA of woodchuck GM-CSF was cloned using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers deriving from highly conserved regions of GM-CSF genes from other species. The deduced amino acids, including the signal peptide, is 138 in length and its identities to human, murine, canine and bovine GM-CSFs are 63, 49, 63, and 63% respectively. The genomic DNA of woodchuck GM-CSF was also cloned by PCR. Its organization is highly homologous to that of human and murine GM-CSF genes, consisting of four exons and three introns. Cloned woodchuck GM-CSF was expressed transiently in 293T cells. The recombinant protein expressed was found to stimulate the growth and differentiation of woodchuck bone marrow cells, indicating the protein expressed by the cloned gene is functional. These results pave the way for future studies on the potential role of GM-CSF for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B by using this animal model.

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Available from: Pei-Jer Chen, Jun 25, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) are a group of cytokines central to the hematopoiesis of blood cells, the modulation of their functional responses, as well as the maintenance of homeostasis and overall immune competence. This group consists of the macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), granulocyte/macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), and multi-CSF (IL-3). M-CSF and G-CSF are relatively lineage-specific, having a role in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of macrophages, neutrophils, and their precursors. In contrast, GM-CSF and multi-CSF function at earlier stages of lineage commitment regulating the expansion and maturation of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Colony stimulating factor production and degradation are strictly controlled, thus allowing for effective modulation of their biological functions in steady-state conditions as well as under periods of stress. Moreover, the mechanisms behind their expression and that of their cognate receptors ensures that their actions are tightly coordinated, within the context of a network of complex but finely tuned regulatory pathways derived from a variety of local and endocrine hematopoietic regulators. In this review we present some of the most salient information on CSF biology collected over the last three decades. We examine the gene and protein structure of each of the four CSFs and their corresponding receptors, and consider the main determinants behind their biological activities. The components responsible for their functional redundancy as well as the mechanisms that mediate their specificity are also discussed. Although most of available knowledge about CSFs is on human and mouse CSFs, an attempt was made to integrate recent findings in other systems in order to highlight a more widespread role for CSFs throughout evolution.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2004 · Developmental & Comparative Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Woodchucks infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is the best available animal model for testing the immunotherapeutic effects of dendritic cells (DCs) in the setting of a chronic infection, as woodchucks develop a persistent infection resembling that seen in humans infected with the hepatitis B virus. In the present study, DCs were generated from woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (wDCs) in the presence of human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) and human interleukin 4 (hIL-4). After 7 days of culture, cells with morphology similar to DCs were stained positively with a cross-reactive anti-human CD86 antibody. Functional analysis showed that uptake of FITC-dextran by wDCs was very efficient and was partially inhibited after LPS-induced maturation. Furthermore, wDCs stimulated allogenic lymphocytes and induced proliferation. Moreover, wDCs were transduced efficiently with a human adenovirus serotype 5 for the expression of beta-galactosidase. Following transduction and in vivo administration of such DCs into woodchucks, an antigen-specific cellular immune response was induced. These results demonstrate that wDCs can be generated from the peripheral blood. Following transfection with a recombinant adenovirus wDCs can be used as a feasible and effective tool for eliciting WHV-specific T-cell responses indicating their potential to serve as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines.
    No preview · Article · May 2007 · Journal of Medical Virology
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