Resistance profile and cross-resistance of HIV-1 among patients failing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing regimen

ArticleinJournal of Medical Virology 65(3):445-8 · November 2001with4 Reads
Impact Factor: 2.35 · DOI: 10.1002/jmv.2055 · Source: PubMed


    The objectives were to determine the resistance profile and the rate of cross-resistance in HIV-1 infected patients failing an efavirenz or a nevirapine or a nevirapine then efavirenz containing regimens, and to investigate if zidovudine and more generally thymidine analog nucleosides lead to a particular genotypic pattern in nevirapine failing patients. A study was conducted in 104 patients with virological rebound to a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) regimen (efavirenz n = 39, nevirapine n = 46 and nevirapine then efavirenz n = 19). Genotypic resistance testing was carried out of detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA (> 200 copies/ml). Among the 104 patients studied, only two patients failed to respond to the nevirapine regimen without selection of a NNRTI resistance mutation. All patients failing an efavirenz regimen harboured mutations conferring cross-resistance to nevirapine (K103N, Y188L, G190S). Among patients failing the nevirapine regimen and presenting with NNRTI mutations, 35 (80%) harboured mutations conferring cross-resistance to efavirenz (K101E, K103N, Y188L) and 9 (20%) harboured mutations conferring resistance to nevirapine alone (V106A and Y181C). In patients failing nevirapine then efavirenz therapy, all NNRTI resistance profile led to cross-resistance to all available NNRTIs. Among patients receiving nevirapine, the selection of mutations associated with a cross-resistance to efavirenz was more frequent statistically when a thymidine nucleoside analog (zidovudine or stavudine) was used in the regimen (P = 0.02). In conclusion, 100% of patients developed cross-resistance to nevirapine and efavirenz after treatment by efavirenz and 80% after treatment by nevirapine. The use of a thymidine analog concomitantly with nevirapine leads to the preferential selection of cross-resistance NNRTI mutations.