Structural analysis of the GLUT1 facilitative glucose transporter (review)
Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA. Molecular Membrane Biology
(Impact Factor: 1.69).
The structure of the human erythrocyte facilitative glucose transporter (GLUT1) has been intensively investigated using a wide array of chemical and biophysical approaches. Despite the lack of a crystal structure for any of the facilitative monosaccharide transport proteins, detailed information regarding primary and secondary structure, membrane topology, transport kinetics, and functionally important residues has allowed the construction of a sophisticated working model for GLUT1 tertiary structure. The existing data support the formation of a central aqueous channel formed by the juxtaposition of several amphipathic transmembrane-spanning alpha-helices. The results of extensive mutational analysis of GLUT1 have elucidated many of the structural determinants of the glucose permeation pathway. Continued application of currently available technologies will allow further refinement of this working model. In addition to providing insights into the molecular basis of both normal and disordered glucose homeostasis, this detailed understanding of structure/function relationships within GLUT1 can provide a basis for understanding transport carried out by other members of the major facilitator superfamily.
Available from: Yanrong Qian
- "Cancer cells are " addicted " to glucose and are more sensitive to changes in glucose transport and glucose supply than normal cells  . At least 12 glucose transporters (GLUTs) have been identified      . "
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ABSTRACT: Metabolic reprogramming and altered bioenergetics have become emerged as a hallmark of cancer and an area of active basic and translational cancer research. Drastically upregulated glucose transport and metabolism in most cancers regardless the oxygen supply, a phenomenon called the Warburg effect, is one of major focuses of the research. Warburg speculated that cancer cells, due to defective mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), switch to glycolysis for ATP synthesis, even in the presence of oxygen. Studies in the recent decade indicated that while glycolysis is indeed drastically upregulated in almost all cancer cells, mitochondrial respiration continues to operate normally at rates proportional to oxygen supply. There is no OXPHOS-to-glycolysis switch but rather upregulation of glycolysis. Furthermore, upregulated glycolysis appears to be for synthesis of biomass and reducing equivalents in addition to ATP production. The new finding that a significant amount of glycolytic intermediates are diverted to the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) for production of NADPH has profound implications in how cancer cells use the Warburg effect to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and oxidative stress, opening the door for anti-cancer interventions taking advantage of this. Recent findings in the Warburg effect and its relationship with ROS and oxidative stress controls will be reviewed. Cancer treatment strategies based on these new findings will be presented and discussed.
Available from: Claudio Alejandro Pereira
- "GLUT1 is a glucose transporter family that is broadly distributed across Eukarya and Bacteria . The structure of these facilitative hexose permeases is supported exclusively by twelve transmembrane spans, which are connected by extracellular and intracellular loops , . Because the transport activity of these proteins relies on their transmembrane regions, we hypothesize here that the connecting loops have fewer constraints with regard to amino acid substitution during evolution. "
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ABSTRACT: Glucose, an almost universally used energy and carbon source, is processed through several well-known metabolic pathways, primarily glycolysis. Glucose uptake is considered to be the first step in glycolysis. In kinetoplastids, a protozoan group that includes relevant human pathogens, the importance of glucose uptake in different phases of the life cycles is well established, and hexose transporters have been proposed as targets for therapeutic drugs. However, little is known about the evolutionary history of these hexose transporters. Hexose transporters contain an intracellular N- and C- termini, and 12 transmembrane spans connected by alternate intracellular and extracellular loops. In the present work we tested the hypothesis that the evolutionary rate of the transmembrane span is different from that of the whole sequence and that it is possible to define evolutionary units inside the sequence. The phylogeny of whole molecules was compared to that of their transmembrane spans and the loops connecting the transmembrane spans. We show that the evolutionary units in these proteins primarily consist of clustered rather than individual transmembrane spans. These analyses demonstrate that there are evolutionary constraints on the organization of these proteins; more specifically, the order of the transmembrane spans along the protein is highly conserved. Finally, we defined a signature sequence for the identification of kinetoplastid hexose transporters.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Val165, which is positioned one helical turn distant from Glu161, is accessible to aqueous sulfhydryl reagents and appears to lie near the exofacial substrate binding site based on mutagenesis and inhibitor studies . An aromatic side-chain at position 412 within helix 11 appears to be essential for transport activity . Additionally, hydrogen exchange studies demonstrate that 30% of peptide hydrogen atoms are exposed to water in purified, reconstituted Glut1, consistent with their role in the formation of an aqueous cleft in the membrane . "
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ABSTRACT: The relative orientation and proximity of the pseudo-symmetrical inner transmembrane helical pairs 5/8 and 2/11 of Glut1 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking of di-cysteine mutants. Thirteen functional di-cysteine mutants were created from a C-less Glut1 reporter construct containing cysteine substitutions in helices 5 and 8 or helices 2 and 11. The mutants were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the sensitivity of each mutant to intramolecular cross-linking by two homobifunctional thiol-specific reagents was ascertained by protease cleavage followed by immunoblot analysis. Five of 9 mutants with cysteine residues predicted to lie in close proximity to each other were susceptible to cross-linking by one or both reagents. None of 4 mutants with cysteine substitutions predicted to lie on opposite faces of their respective helices was susceptible to cross-linking. Additionally, the cross-linking of a di-cysteine pair (A70C/M420C, helices 2/11) predicted to lie near the exoplasmic face of the membrane was stimulated by ethylidene glucose, a non-transported glucose analog that preferentially binds to the exofacial substrate-binding site, suggesting that the binding of this ligand stimulates the closure of helices at the exoplasmic face of the membrane. In contrast, the cross-linking of a second di-cysteine pair (T158C/L325, helices 5/8), predicted to lie near the cytoplasmic face of the membrane, was stimulated by cytochalasin B, a glucose transport inhibitor that competitively inhibits substrate efflux, suggesting that this compound recruits the transporter to a conformational state in which closure of inner helices occurs at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane. This observation provides a structural explanation for the competitive inhibition of substrate efflux by cytochalasin B. These data indicate that the binding of competitive inhibitors of glucose efflux or influx induce occluded states in the transporter in which substrate is excluded from the exofacial or endofacial binding site.
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