Do Leiomyomas of Deep Soft Tissue Exist? an analysis of highly differentiated smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue supporting two distinct subtypes

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
American Journal of Surgical Pathology (Impact Factor: 5.15). 09/2001; 25(9):1134-42.
Source: PubMed


There is a prevailing view that leiomyomas of deep soft tissue are rare or nonexistent, but there are limited data on this subject in the form of large clinical studies with long follow-up information. We reviewed 36 consultation cases that had been diagnosed as leiomyoma or probable leiomyoma based on absence of nuclear atypia, necrosis, and no/minimal mitotic activity. Follow-up information was obtained to determine whether these stringent histologic criteria could identify a biologically benign group of smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue. The tumors occurred in two distinct locations. The first (n = 13) occurred in deep somatic soft tissue of the lower extremity (7), upper extremity (2), trunk (2), axilla (1), and back (1) and affected the sexes equally (7 male, 6 female). Composed of a circumscribed mass of mature smooth muscle cells, they were frequently calcified with a mean mitotic activity of <1 mitosis/50 high power fields (HPF) (range 1-4 mitoses/50 HPF). Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor proteins were negative in the three cases tested. No tumors recurred or metastasized (mean follow-up 58.7 months, range 5-97 months). The second group (n = 23) occurred within the retroperitoneum (20) or abdominal cavity (3) of women (1 male, 22 female). Resembling uterine leiomyomas, they were always distinct from the uterus, occasionally multiple (n = 4), and sometimes occurred up to years after hysterectomy (n = 3). Four cases occurred with synchronous uterine leiomyomas. In the six cases tested, five of six were positive for the estrogen receptor protein and all were positive for progesterone receptor protein. Mean mitotic activity was 1 mitosis/50 HPF (range <1-10 mitoses/50 HPF). None developed metastasis within the follow-up period (mean 42.5 months, range 6-120 months); one tumor with a positive margin recurred at 10 months. We conclude that clinically benign smooth muscle tumors of deep soft tissue are rare but can be identified using stringent histologic criteria. They comprise two distinct subtypes: leiomyomas of somatic soft tissue and retroperitoneal-abdominal leiomyomas. The latter probably arise from hormonally sensitive smooth muscle. Although similar to uterine leiomyomas, they are located at sites removed from the uterus and are likely independent soft tissue primaries rather than parasitic leiomyomas of the uterus. We suggest that these two groups of smooth muscle tumors be diagnostically approached in a site-specific fashion.

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Available from: Steven D Billings
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    • "The few reported cases in the literature most commonly arise in the deep subcutis or skeletal muscle [20] . The most common locations of occurrence were the extremities and the retroperitoneum, with fewer cases in the pelvis [20] [21] . Deep soft tissue leiomyomas usually occur in adults in their fourth to sixth decades. "

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015
    • "There is a prevailing view that leiomyomas of deep soft tissues are rare or non-existent, but there is limited data on this subject in the form of large clinical studies with long-term follow-up. After reviewing 36 consultation cases, Billings et al.,[15] concluded that clinically benign smooth muscle tumors of deep soft-tissues are rare but can be identified using the stringent histologic criteria. They comprise two distinct subtypes: Leiomyomas of somatic soft-tissue and retroperitoneal-abdominal leiomyomas.[15] "
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    ABSTRACT: Leiomyomas are benign tumors arising from smooth muscle, most commonly seen in uterine myometrium, gastrointestinal tract, skin and lower extremities of middle-aged women. Leiomyomas are uncommon in the oral cavity with reported incidence of 0.065%, which accounts for 0.42% of all soft-tissue neoplasms in the oral cavity. Leiomyomas of head and neck region account for less than 1% of all leiomyomas. The most common site of leiomyoma in the head and neck region is the lips (27.46%) followed by tongue (18.30%), cheeks and palate (15.49%), gingiva (8.45%) and mandible (5.63%). The purpose of this article is to present three cases of leiomyoma comprising of an intraoral vascular leiomyoma and two solid leiomyomas in the head and neck region. The clinical features, etiology, differential diagnosis and treatment of leiomyoma are discussed with review of the literature.
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    • "They suggested iatrogenic parasitic myoma formation as the cause of retroperitoneal fibroid. With regard to their pathological origin, it is unclear whether these retroperitoneal lesions represent metastatic or synchronous primary lesions and whether they arise from the hormonally sensitive smooth muscle elements [12] or from the embryonal remnants of mullerian or wolffian duct [13]. Kang et al. [14] suggested primary multifocal origin of retroperitoneal fibroids. "
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    ABSTRACT: . Leiomyoma uteri is one of the most common benign conditions for which women undergo hysterectomy every year. Fibroids found retroperitoneally are a rare entity, especially, primary retroperitoneal fibroid. Case Presentation . We report a case of 42-year-old para 1 who presented to our hospital with recurring retention of urine, lower abdominal and pelvic pain, and dyspareunia . Provisional diagnosis on the basis of examination and imaging was large subserosal fibroid with mild right-sided hydroureteronephrosis, due to pressure effect of the fibroid. Abdominal hysterectomy was done for the patient, and intraoperatively, a bulky uterus was found with multiple small fibroids on anterior and posterior walls, and a large fibroid approx. 10 × 8 cm was found arising from the posterior surface at the level of internal os retroperitoneally, which was confirmed by histopathology as leiomyoma. Conclusion . Retroperitoneal fibroids are rare neoplasms and treatment is surgical removal. Preoperative imaging can only give provisional diagnosis and can be misguiding. Final diagnosis of retroperitoneal fibroid can be made only intraoperatively.
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