Article

The mechanism underlying the laxative properties of Parsley extract

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Abstract

Parsley has been claimed in folk medicine to possess laxative properties attributed to the presence therein of some volatile oils that are more concentrated in seeds than in stems or leaves. The advocated physiological effect of parsley, does not have, however, any proven scientific background and relies mainly on simple observations and empirical information. This work aims at providing the scientific evidence that would confirm or reject the claimed laxative role of parsley, and at determining its mechanism of action if present. A perfusion technique was used to measure the net fluid absorption from the rat colon. The addition of an aqueous extract of parsley seeds to the perfusion buffer, and the omission of sodium, both reduced significantly net water absorption from the colon, as compared to the control. Parsley, added to a sodium-free buffer did not lead to any further significant change in water absorption as compared to parsley alone inferring that with parsley sodium absorption was already inhibited. Since K+ and Cl- secretion depends on the activity of the NaKCl2 transporter, the latter was inhibited with furosemide which increased significantly net water absorption. When parsley and furosemide were added together, net water absorption was significantly higher than with parsley alone and significantly lower than with furosemide alone. In addition, parsley extract was shown to inhibit the in vitro activity of the Na+-K+ATPase in a colon homogenate and the activity of a partially purified dog kidney ATPase. The results suggest that parsley acts by, inhibiting sodium and consequently water absorption through an inhibition of the Na+-K+ pump, and by stimulating the NaKCl, transporter and increasing electrolyte and water secretion.

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... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... Diets including fruits, fluids, and probiotics are good for constipation. Fruits contain water, melatonin, sorbitol, fructose, fiber, and phytochemicals (69,(70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83).Fruits thought to be useful for treating constipation are pear, oranges, berries, grape, plump, and apple with peel, which are rich in fiber (71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83). Fruits juices are generally helpful for constipation, particularly in young children, whose intestinal function has not fully matured. ...
... The mechanism of action of fiber on constipation includes: 1) Fiber increases stool bulk and accelerates colon transit; 2) fermenting fiber produces short-chain fatty acids (butyrate, propionate, acetate, etc.), which increase osmotic load and accelerate colon transit; 3) short-chain fatty acids change the intraluminal microbiome (mass) directly or indirectly by decreasing luminal pH, which accelerates colon transit; and 4) fiber contains water. All these improve stool consistency and amount (70)(71)(72)(73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81). Milk and Ghee-According to the book, 'The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies,' "taking one or two teaspoons of ghee in a cup of hot milk at bedtime is an effective and gentle means of relieving constipation. ...
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This literature review paper highlights the application of herbal medicine in the treatment of constipation health disorder. Constipation is a common gastrointestinal tract disorder which can result in the infrequent stools, difficult stool passage with pain and stiffness. Constipation refers to a situation where bowel movements are hard or become infrequent or difficult stool passage leading to Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This is essentially a digestive problem and affect people of all the ages. The common cause of constipation might be related to lack of proper diet, lack of adequate fluid, long term use of medications, lack of adequate physical activity, age related, and might due to serious illness. Conventional treatment includes the use of laxatives to remove stools. The regular use of such chemical-based drugs can imbalance body metabolism and affect the digestive system. Natural plant products rich in fiber, melatonin and anthraquinones are important for the prevention and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Ayurveda recommends a holistic approach to treat constipation. The Ayurvedic treatment for constipation requires the use of herbal formulations. Medicinal plants possess a significant laxative potential and support their folklore. In addition to natural laxatives, an Ayurvedic diet, exercise, and massage are key elements of maintaining a healthy digestive system. This literature review paper listed some of the medicinal plants with laxative properties in a single platform as a herbal remedy for the constipation problem.
... Also, it is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat arterial hypertension [25], diabetes, cardiac [25], and renal diseases [26]. Moreover, in experimental studies, it has been reported that this herb has strong diuretic [27], antihyperglycemic [28], antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant [29], antioxidant [30], antimicrobial [31], and laxative activities [32]. Alcoholic extract of parsley has a protective effect against toxicity induced by sodium valproate (SVP) in male rats [33]. ...
... Parsley leaf was used for treatment of constipation, jaundice, colic, flatulence edema, and rheumatism. It was used as an aphrodisiac, improved productive performance in broiler, antimicrobial, antianemia, hemorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, and laxative [32,33]. It was used to treat eczema, knee, ache, impotence, and bleed [34]. ...
... The patients suffer from many diseases in addition to the stone symptoms, about 120 patients from the origin group 150 patients suffer from hypertension while the other not as shown in the following table (15) . Also during the study we found 25 of the patients suffer from diabetes mellitus type 2 while the other not as shown in table (16) There are many factors could calculated in patients with stone in the previous group like smoking , recurrence of disease and symptoms and occupation so they take as attention factors and listed as in tables (17), (18 ) and (19) . After taking all the previous factors in consideration the data of stone in the above 150 patients were as follows in the table (20) and table (21). ...
... The mechanism of action of parsley involve an inhibition of Na+/ K+ pump that will lead to reduction in sodium and potassium re-absorption, thus, to an osmotic water flow in to lumen and diuresis. (18) The mechanism of action of fennel has soothing effect on the muscles and tissue of urinary tract, it promote elimination of waste from urinary tract, it relieve pain, swelling, infection and congestion in the urinary tract. (9), (19) The mechanism of action of CS has diuretic activity due to soothes and relaxes the lining of the urinary tract and bladder, relieving irritation and improve the urine flow and elimination. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections.The study's methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... The patients suffer from many diseases in addition to the stone symptoms, about 120 patients from the origin group 150 patients suffer from hypertension while the other not as shown in the following table (15) . Also during the study we found 25 of the patients suffer from diabetes mellitus type 2 while the other not as shown in table (16) There are many factors could calculated in patients with stone in the previous group like smoking , recurrence of disease and symptoms and occupation so they take as attention factors and listed as in tables (17), (18 ) and (19) . After taking all the previous factors in consideration the data of stone in the above 150 patients were as follows in the table (20) and table (21). ...
... The mechanism of action of parsley involve an inhibition of Na+/ K+ pump that will lead to reduction in sodium and potassium re-absorption, thus, to an osmotic water flow in to lumen and diuresis. (18) The mechanism of action of fennel has soothing effect on the muscles and tissue of urinary tract, it promote elimination of waste from urinary tract, it relieve pain, swelling, infection and congestion in the urinary tract. (9), (19) The mechanism of action of CS has diuretic activity due to soothes and relaxes the lining of the urinary tract and bladder, relieving irritation and improve the urine flow and elimination. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections. The study’s methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling’s reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... A Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, da família da Apiáceas, popularmente conhecida como Salsa ou Salsinha, é uma planta aromática provavelmente originária da região do Mediterrâneo, tornando-se popular na Europa e no restante do mundo como tempero nos mais diversos pratos (KREYDIYYEH et al., 2001). É uma planta anual ou bienal, ereta e perenifólia, que atinge de 0,15 a 0,30 m de altura. ...
... Todas as partes da planta têm sido utilizadas pela população contra problemas digestivos, renais, uterinos (MINIJA;THOPPIL, 2003), como poderoso diurético e agente antiinfeccioso destas vias (OJALA et al., 2000;KREYDIYYEH;USTA 2002). Avanços, relativamente rápidos, têm ocorrido na área de pesquisa de atividade antimicrobiana, na qual novos agentes vêm sendo testados para eventual emprego na terapia de infecções, visto que muitas espécies microbianas, principalmente as bactérias, tornaram-se resistentes a muitos agentes disponíveis atualmente no mercado (BRESOLIN; CECHINEL FILHO, 2003). ...
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!--[if gte mso 9]> Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Introdução: Extratos de ervas que são largamente empregadas na culinária têm se tornado comum em meio à população como opção de cura para as mais diversas doenças. Infusos das partes aéreas, sementes e raízes da Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss, da família das Apiáceas, mais conhecida como salsa ou salsinha, tem sido utilizado popularmente nos últimos tempos como potente diurético, laxativo e agente antiinfeccioso das vias urinárias. Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar, por screening fitoquímico, os principais metabólitos presentes nos extratos aquoso e hidroalcoólico de raízes de P. crispum, determinar o teor de fenólicos totais presentes nesses extratos e avaliar a concentração inibitória mínima dos mesmos frente a Escherichia coli e Staphylococcus aureus por meio de método in vitro. Metodologia: Para tal fim foram utilizadas raízes obtidas na cidade de Guarapuava– PR, coletadas na época do outono, provenientes de sementes de Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss. Resultados: Os resultados da prospecção fitoquímica foram somados ao doseamento dos compostos fenólicos e a atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos foi baseada na presença destes compostos, uma vez que a literatura atribui aos mesmos a capacidade bactericida e/ou bacteriostática dos extratos. Conclusão: Desta forma, os experimentos forneceram dados essenciais para estudo de novos antimicrobianos, uma vez que são necessárias pesquisas neste sentido para que tratamentos inovadores e de baixo custo estejam a disposição da população em geral. <!--[if gte mso 9]> <!--[endif] --
... 19,31,36,48,52,53,56 Probable mechanisms for this character of alkaloids and steroids are shown in Figure 2. 52 Among others, P. crispum and L. sativum, have apiol, saponins and anthraquinones (Ach-like components) that can be involved in the relief of symptoms through laxative effect ( Figure 3). 27,36 There are some possible mechanisms for wound healing. For instance, polysaccharides and lipids (fatty acid) in T. foenum-graecum and C. pepo are effective in wound healing that their possible mechanisms are shown in Figure 4. 54,60 Other mechanisms for wound healing are due to flavonoids and tannins in A. ampeloprasum, O. basilicum, P. oleracea, T. foenum-graecum and A.cepa 19,44,49,53,57 that action mechanisms of them are shown in Figure 4. 58 In addition, there are some vegetables such as M. spicata, A. graveolens, L. albus, L. sativum, Rheum ribes (R. ribes), O. basilicum, P. oleracea, T. foenum-graecum and A. cepa have phenolic compounds as well as volatile oil 31,32,35,36,42,47,49,55,56 that are possilbly responsible for antimicrobial effect ( Figure 5). ...
... rent studies support the efficacy of most of these vegetables due to their laxative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, analgesic, wound healing effects,27,28,36,48,52,58,59 etc. The most main active compounds that are responsible for almost all of the effects of mentioned vegetables on hemorrhoids belong to Phenols, Steroids, Flavonoids and Tannins. ...
Article
Objective: To review the role of vegetables to prevent and treat hemorrhoids in Persian Medicine (PM). Methods: We search main Persian Medicine manuscripts, including the books of Liber Continens, Canon of Medicine, Great Elixir, Akbarie's Medicine, Storehouse of Medicaments and Present for the faithful. Also, it was considered by searching in reference books and published papers with the help of PubMed, Scopus, Google scholar databases. Results: Twelve vegetables, relating to 8 plant families, have been found in PM that their effectiveness involved in laxative, anti- inflammation, antimicrobial, analgesic and wound healing. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that 12 Persian Medicine vegetables can be used to prevent and treat hemorrhoids.
... Among these crops, Apiaceous herbs are widely used, such as (i) parsley, (ii) cumin, (iii) coriander, (iv) fennel, (v) and dill [2], either fresh or dried as seasoning, as well as in the form of seeds [2,4,6,7]. In particular, parsley is widely used in European cookery as a condiment or culinary garnish, whilst in the Middle East it is a major ingredient of the famous "Tabbouleh" salad [8,9]. Parsley is a biennial aromatic herb native to West Asia and the Mediterranean region, treasured for its great biological values [6,10], therefore nowadays it is cultivated and used worldwide [4,6,8,11]. ...
... In particular, parsley is widely used in European cookery as a condiment or culinary garnish, whilst in the Middle East it is a major ingredient of the famous "Tabbouleh" salad [8,9]. Parsley is a biennial aromatic herb native to West Asia and the Mediterranean region, treasured for its great biological values [6,10], therefore nowadays it is cultivated and used worldwide [4,6,8,11]. Parsley's three main varieties in consonance with the commercialized plant organs are plain leaf and curly leaf parsley, and turnip-rooted or "Hamburg" fleshy root parsley [7,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parsley is an aromatic herb native to the Mediterranean region and treasured for its phytochemical profile and bioactive properties. Developmental stage at harvest is a factor that modulates the nutritional quality of vegetables, including young greens. Accordingly, an experiment under strictly controlled conditions was carried out to compare the mineral macronutrient and phytochemical composition as well as the antioxidant activity of plain-leaf parsley (Petroselinum crispum cv. Comune 2) at two different harvest maturity stages, microgreens and baby greens. Macronutrients, carotenoids (lutein and β-carotene) and polyphenols were quantified through ion chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and UHPLCQ-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), respectively. Microgreens accumulated more potassium and phosphorus, whereas baby greens accumulated more calcium and magnesium, and 65.5% less nitrate. In addition, microgreens provided 1.8-fold more lutein and 2.8-fold more β-carotene, whereas baby greens provided 183.6% more total ascorbic acid, 64.2% more total polyphenols and 170.3% higher hydrophilic antioxidant activity. Based on the culinary and phytonutritive scope of the consumers, different harvest maturity stages can be opted for and production schemes designed. Future studies are warranted to appraise the importance of ontogeny as a determinant factor for the composition and bioactive value of additional micro-herb genotypes, including underutilized Mediterranean species.
... The patients suffer from many diseases in addition to the stone symptoms, about 120 patients from the origin group 150 patients suffer from hypertension while the other not as shown in the following table (15) . Also during the study we found 25 of the patients suffer from diabetes mellitus type 2 while the other not as shown in table (16) There are many factors could calculated in patients with stone in the previous group like smoking , recurrence of disease and symptoms and occupation so they take as attention factors and listed as in tables (17), (18 ) and (19) . After taking all the previous factors in consideration the data of stone in the above 150 patients were as follows in the table (20) and table (21). ...
... The mechanism of action of parsley involve an inhibition of Na+/ K+ pump that will lead to reduction in sodium and potassium re-absorption, thus, to an osmotic water flow in to lumen and diuresis. (18) The mechanism of action of fennel has soothing effect on the muscles and tissue of urinary tract, it promote elimination of waste from urinary tract, it relieve pain, swelling, infection and congestion in the urinary tract. (9), (19) The mechanism of action of CS has diuretic activity due to soothes and relaxes the lining of the urinary tract and bladder, relieving irritation and improve the urine flow and elimination. ...
Article
Full-text available
This clinical study aimed for the evaluation of three medicinal plants which are parsley seeds, fennel fruits and corn silk against kidney stone and infections.The study's methods were included preliminary phytochemical investigation of all plant parts used and the study was done by using cold maceration with 90% ethanol. Different reagents were used for testing different active compounds such as alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, Fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The clinical study carried out in an outpatient clinic in Imam Al-Hussein medical city, Karbala, Iraq. The 300 patients divided into two groups, the first group includes 150 patients for urinary tract infection for ten days and the same number of patients for stones. The dosage form of plant extracts in this study was 500 mg as soft gelatin capsules three times a day before meal. Each capsule contained 200 mg of fennel fruit extract, 200 mg of corn silk extract and 100 mg of parsley seed extract. All results analyzed by Spss and compare with T-test value at 0.001 probability. The preliminary investigation revealed that flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugar, and terpenoids were presented in plants extracts which used in this study. The result of urinary tract infection study gives indication that these three plant extracts were very effective in the treatment of infection which caused by bacteria especially E-coli. The treatment of stones also effective, but need more time to get rid of all types of stones.
... Also, it is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat arterial hypertension [25], diabetes, cardiac [25], and renal diseases [26]. Moreover, in experimental studies, it has been reported that this herb has strong diuretic [27], antihyperglycemic [28], antihyperlipidemic, anticoagulant [29], antioxidant [30], antimicrobial [31], and laxative activities [32]. Alcoholic extract of parsley has a protective effect against toxicity induced by sodium valproate (SVP) in male rats [33]. ...
... Parsley leaf was used for treatment of constipation, jaundice, colic, flatulence edema, and rheumatism. It was used as an aphrodisiac, improved productive performance in broiler, antimicrobial, antianemia, hemorrhagic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihepatotoxic, and laxative [32,33]. It was used to treat eczema, knee, ache, impotence, and bleed [34]. ...
... Also, parsley is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat arterial hypertension [33]; diabetes, cardiac [33] and renal diseases [34]. Moreover, in experimental studies, it has been reported that this herb has strong diuretic [35], anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anticoagulant [36], anti-oxidant [32], anti-microbial [37] and laxative activities [38]. It has been reported that parsley alcoholic extract has a protective effect against toxicity induced by sodium valproate in male rats [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice ( Petroselinum crispum ) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.
... Parsley (Petroselinium crispum) is an important culinary herb that is native to the Mediterranean areas and it is used in food, cosmetic, perfume and pharmaceutical industries [3]. Parsley was reported to have many medicinal attributes, like antimicrobial [4], laxative [5] and antioxidant [6]. Parsley had been used to treat nose bleeding, to regulate blood pressure, to treat eczema, knee ache, impotence [7]). ...
... Parsley herb (Petroselinum crispum) has been used in folk medicine for many cases as a laxative [39], diuretic [40], and treatment of urinary tract infections [41]. It also reduces blood glucose [42] and contains a rich source of β-carotene, phenols, flavonoids, vitamins (B, E, C), and minerals [37,43]. ...
Article
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Background: Foods not only aim to satisfy hunger and provide for essential nutritional needs, but they also improve the consumers' general health and prevent diseases related to nutrition. Nowadays, functional foods have seen rapid growth in the market driven by technological innovation and new product development. Our recent study produced a novel processed cheese using vegetables mixture that had a highly physicochemical composition and rheological and sensory characteristics.Methods: This study was conducted to improve the nutritional and functional qualities of processed cheese using several vegetables (flavored-processed cheese, FPC) (mushrooms, dill, leeks, parsley, celery, green peas, green beans, squash, potatoes, and carrots) with ratios of 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10%.Results: Our data on nutritional values for FPC samples contain extra micro and macro-nutrient components, such as vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, amino acids, and unsaturated fatty acids, compared to the control cheese. Adding the vegetable mixture was accepted by the consumers and can contribute to the production and development of a new and safe type of processed cheese that has an excellent nutritional value, functional properties, and overall acceptability. Ratios of 5% and 7.5% were observed as the best samples.Conclusion: We recommend that vegetables should be used as a natural food additive for technological purposes. These are necessary sources of human health-promotion by nutritional and functional food properties of various dairy products.Keywords: Processed cheese, vegetables, nutritional values, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants
... Finally, Petroselinum hortense (parsley) is a Mediterranean member plant of the Apiaceae family (Fejes et al., 1998). The plant is economically important and used in traditional medicine as a diuretic, a stomach, an emmenagogue and an abortifacient (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001). ...
... Parsely plant Petroselinumcrispum, is a herb, bilateral strabismus from umbrella family (Umbelliferae or Apiaceae [11], native to the Mediterranean region and cultivated in various parts of the world in present time [18]. the height was 6-200 cm and the stem standing, rounded and branched with many stalks grow from one root. ...
... Parsely plant Petroselinumcrispum, is a herb, bilateral strabismus from umbrella family (Umbelliferae or Apiaceae [11], native to the Mediterranean region and cultivated in various parts of the world in present time [18]. the height was 6-200 cm and the stem standing, rounded and branched with many stalks grow from one root. ...
... Also, parsley is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat arterial hypertension [33]; diabetes, cardiac [33] and renal diseases [34]. Moreover, in experimental studies, it has been reported that this herb has strong diuretic [35], anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anticoagulant [36], anti-oxidant [32], anti-microbial [37] and laxative activities [38]. It has been reported that parsley alcoholic extract has a protective effect against toxicity induced by sodium valproate in male rats [39]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.
... ) and laxative (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001). It has been used to treat lumbago, as a blood pressure regulator, to treat eczema, knee, ache, impotence and nose bleed (Manderfeld et al., 1997). ...
... The results suggesed that it attenuated hepatic steatosis and improved hepatic pathology, which may serve as a counter regulatory mechanism, to protect the hepatic tissues. Moreover, previous fi ndings with Petroselinum crispum (parsley) extract showed benefi cial effects against high blood pressure (18), anti-coagulant and anti-hyperlipidemic (19), anti-hepatotoxic (20,21), anti-oxidant (14,22), laxative effects (23), and prevented oxidative stress (25). Also Petroselinum crispum (parsley) extract played a crucial role in lipid lowering effect in hypercholesterolemic rats and protective effects in hepatic tissue with atrophy and vaculation of hepatocyte (43), which fall in line with our present data. ...
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Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modifi ed fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modifi ed fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modi-fi ed fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infi ltration of infl ammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal hepatic function tests and liver pathology. These results suggested that a non-nutritive role for Petroselinum crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modifi ed fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43). Text in PDF www.elis.sk. KEY WORDS: Petroselinum crispum, non alcoholic fatty liver disease, non alcoholic steatohepatitis, lipid-hepatic function indicator.
... (6,7) It's used as diuretic (8) and for the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. (9) Phytochemical analysis of parsley plant showed the presence of flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, myristicin, apiole, terpenoids and coumarins, plathalides and tocopherol. (10) Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgre mill.) is a biennial medicinal plant belonging to the family Apiaceae ( umbelliferae ) (11) . ...
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Phytochemical investigation and urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment of parsley seeds, fennel seeds, and corn silk were studied. The aim of this study was conducted to investigation the best method of extraction on total extract, with preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and corn silk (Zea mays L.) to treat urinary tract diseases. The parts of each plant were extracted by two different methods, hot method by using distilled water and cold method was done by maceration with 90% ethanol at room temperature. In both methods the extract was dried under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. Preliminary investigation of phytochemical compounds was done by using alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The qualitative identification was done by TLC. The results showed that the percentage yields of crud extracts by boiling with distilled water were higher than that obtained from cold maceration with 90% ethanol. The percentage of phytochemical components, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugar, terpenoids and alkaloids of water extracts were higher than that in ethanolic extracts. The effect of extracts in the treatment of UTI displayed that the combination of three plants water extracts were stronger than ethanolic extract. Based on our knowledge this is the first study on the effect of extracts from P. sativum, F. vulgare, and Z. mays in the treatment of UTI. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﻁﺮﻳﻘﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻮﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
... The mechanism of action of parsley seems to be mediated through an inhibition of the Na + −K + pump that would lead to a reduction in Na + and K + reabsorption, leading thus to an osmotic water flow into the lumen, and diuresis. Kreydiyyeh et al. (2001) provided scientific evidence to confirm the laxative property of parsley, as claimed in folk medicine, and explained its mechanism of action. A perfusion technique was used to measure net fluid absorption from rat colon. ...
Article
This book (24 chapters) covers the chemistry (chemical composition and structure) of the following spice plants and their products, and provides brief information on the morphology, and postharvest management (storage, packaging and grading) of these crops: black pepper ( Piper nigrum ), small cardamom ( Elettaria cardamomum ), large cardamom ( Amomum subulatum ), ginger, turmeric, cinnamon and cassia ( Cinnamomum spp.), clove, nutmeg and mace, coriander ( Coriandrum sativum ), cumin ( Cuminum cyminum ), fennel, fenugreek, paprika and chilli ( Capsicum spp.), vanilla ( Vanilla spp.), ajowan ( Trachyspermum ammi ), star anise ( Illicium verum ), aniseed ( Pimpinella anisum ), garcinia ( Garcinia spp.), tamarind, parsley, celery, curry leaf ( Murraya koenigii ) and bay leaf ( Laurus nobilis ). This book will be useful to researchers, industrialists and postgraduate students of agriculture, horticulture and phytochemistry, and to spice traders and processors.
... (6,7) It's used as diuretic (8) and for the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. (9) Phytochemical analysis of parsley plant showed the presence of flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, myristicin, apiole, terpenoids and coumarins, plathalides and tocopherol. (10) Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgre mill.) is a biennial medicinal plant belonging to the family Apiaceae ( umbelliferae ) (11) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Phytochemical investigation and urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment of parsley seeds, fennel seeds, and corn silk were studied. The aim of this study was conducted to investigation the best method of extraction on total extract, with preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and corn silk (Zea mays L.) to treat urinary tract diseases. The parts of each plant were extracted by two different methods, hot method by using distilled water and cold method was done by maceration with 90% ethanol at room temperature. In both methods the extract was dried under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. Preliminary investigation of phytochemical compounds was done by using alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The qualitative identification was done by TLC. The results showed that the percentage yields of crud extracts by boiling with distilled water were higher than that obtained from cold maceration with 90% ethanol. The percentage of phytochemical components, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugar, terpenoids and alkaloids of water extracts were higher than that in ethanolic extracts. The effect of extracts in the treatment of UTI displayed that the combination of three plants water extracts were stronger than ethanolic extract. Based on our knowledge this is the first study on the effect of extracts from P. sativum, F. vulgare, and Z. mays in the treatment of UTI. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﻁﺮﻳﻘﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻮﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
... (6,7) It's used as diuretic (8) and for the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. (9) Phytochemical analysis of parsley plant showed the presence of flavonoids, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, myristicin, apiole, terpenoids and coumarins, plathalides and tocopherol. (10) Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgre mill.) is a biennial medicinal plant belonging to the family Apiaceae ( umbelliferae ) (11) . ...
Article
Full-text available
Phytochemical investigation and urinary tract infection (UTI) treatment of parsley seeds, fennel seeds, and corn silk were studied. The aim of this study was conducted to investigation the best method of extraction on total extract, with preliminary screening of phytochemical compounds of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and corn silk (Zea mays L.) to treat urinary tract diseases. The parts of each plant were extracted by two different methods, hot method by using distilled water and cold method was done by maceration with 90% ethanol at room temperature. In both methods the extract was dried under reduced pressure by rotary evaporator. Preliminary investigation of phytochemical compounds was done by using alkaline reagent test for flavonoids, foam test for saponins, terpenoids test for terpenoids, fehling's reagent for reducing sugar and Dragendroff's reagent for alkaloids. The qualitative identification was done by TLC. The results showed that the percentage yields of crud extracts by boiling with distilled water were higher than that obtained from cold maceration with 90% ethanol. The percentage of phytochemical components, flavonoids, saponins, reducing sugar, terpenoids and alkaloids of water extracts were higher than that in ethanolic extracts. The effect of extracts in the treatment of UTI displayed that the combination of three plants water extracts were stronger than ethanolic extract. Based on our knowledge this is the first study on the effect of extracts from P. sativum, F. vulgare, and Z. mays in the treatment of UTI. ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺮﻛﺒﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻻﻭﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﻼﺹ‬ ‫ﻁﺮﻳﻘﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻜﻴﻤﻮﻧﺒﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﻮﻟﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺘﻬﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺝ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬
... Parsley leaf is used for treating various problems such as constipation, colic, edema, rheumatism, and prostate and liver diseases. Parsley is mostly used because of its antimicrobial, anti-anemic, hemorrhagic, antiplatelet, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic and laxative properties [126][127][128][129]. ...
Article
The liver has the crucial role in the regulation of various physiological processes and in the excretion of endogenous waste metabolites and xenobiotics. Liver structure impairment can be caused by various factors including microorganisms, autoimmune diseases, chemicals, alcohol and drugs. The plant kingdom is full of liver protective chemicals such as phenols, coumarins, lignans, essential oils, monoterpenes, carotenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, lipids, alkaloids and xanthenes. Apiaceae plants are usually used as a vegetable or as a spice, but their other functional properties are also very important. This review highlights the significance of caraway, dill, cumin, aniseed, fennel, coriander, celery, lovage, angelica, parsley and carrot, which are popular vegetables and spices, but possess hepatoprotective potential. These plants can be used for medicinal applications to patients who suffer from liver damage.
... Also parsley has been claimed in folk medicine to posses laxative properties attributed to the presence of some volatile oil that are more concentrated in seeds than in stems or leaves [6] . Parsley have advocated diuretic effect in folk medicine , and it is mediated through an inhibition of sodium potassium pump that would lead to the reduction in sodium and potassium re absorption leading, thus, to an osmotic water flow in to lumen and diuresis [7] . As a traditional medicine for hyperuricemia and gout, parsley (Petroselinum crispum) has been used in folk medicine. ...
Research
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The aqueous extract of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) were investigated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity at the doses of 2 , 5 , and 10 g/kg, of body weight. The experimental paradigms used were carrageenan, dextran, histamine induced pedal edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma for anti-inflammatory activity, while hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing methods were used to assess analgesic activity. Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to evaluate the antipyretic activity. In acute phase inflammation, a maximum inhibition 50.6% (P < 0.05), 51.1% (P < 0.05) and 52.3% (P < 0.05) were noted at the dose of 10 g/kg after 3 h of treatment with methanol extract of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in carrageenan, dextran and histamine induced pedal edema , respectively. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) , the parsley (10 g/kg) and standard drug (Indomethacin 10 mg/kg) showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 51.8% (P < 0.05) and 56.6% (P < 0.05) , respectively. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.01) analgesic activity in both paradigms. In addition, the aqueous extract of parsley potentiated the morphine and aspirin induced analgesia. A significant (P < 0.01) reduction in hyperpyrexia in rat was also produced by the extract. This study exhibits that methanol extracts of leaves of parsley possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities.
... Also, parsley is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat arterial hypertension [33]; diabetes, cardiac [33] and renal diseases [34]. Moreover, in experimental studies, it has been reported that this herb has strong diuretic [35], anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anticoagulant [36], anti-oxidant [32], anti-microbial [37] and laxative activities [38]. It has been reported that parsley alcoholic extract has a protective effect against toxicity induced by sodium valproate in male rats [39]. ...
Article
Background: Vitamin D levels play a pivotal role in most biological processes and differ according to age. A deficiency of vitamin D in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients has been shown to be linked with the severity of liver fibrosis, but little is known about the mechanism of this association. Objective: In this study, we evaluate the potential interrelation between vitamin D levels, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, based on liver fibrosis in geriatric patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4. Subjects and methods: A total of 120 adult individuals aged 30–68 years were recruited in this study. Of these, 20 healthy subjects (15 men and five women) with a mean age of 48.3±6.1 years were selected as controls, and 100 patients with a mean age of 47.8±4.9 years with chronic HCV (CHC) who had undergone liver biopsy (80 men and 20 women) were included in this study. Based on liver radiographic (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging) and histological Metavir system analyses, the CHC patients were classified into three groups: asymptomatic CHC carriers (n=30), fibrosis (n=25), and cirrhosis (n=45). HCV RNA, HCV genotypes, inflammatory cytokines AFP and TNFα, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels, apoptotic markers single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and soluble Fas (sFas), and oxidative stress markers nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were estimated by using molecular, immunoassay, and colorimetric techniques. Results: Approximately 30% of the study population (n=30) were diagnosed as asymptomatic CHC carriers, and 70% of the study population (n=70) had severe fibrosis; these were classified into fibrosis and cirrhosis. There was a significant reduction in 25(OH)D levels and TAC activity, along with an increase in levels of NO, AFP, TNFα, ssDNA, and sFas in fibrosis and cirrhosis subjects compared with those of asymptomatic CHC carriers and health controls. The deficiency in 25(OH)D levels correlated positively with sFas, ssDNA, AFP, TNFα, NO, and TAC, and negatively with age, sex, liver function, body mass index, homeostatic model assessment – insulin resistance, HCV RNA, and viral load. Significant intercorrelation was reported between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and apoptotic and oxidative markers, which suggested progression of liver pathogenesis and fibrogenesis via oxidative and apoptotic mechanisms. Conclusion: The data showed that vitamin D status was significantly correlated with pathogenesis and fibrogenesis of the liver in geriatric patients infected with HCV genotype 4. The deficiency in 25(OH)D levels was shown to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of liver via apoptotic, oxidative stress, and inflammatory mechanistic pathways. The data point to adequate vitamin D levels being recommended for a good response to treatment strategies, especially in older CHC patients. Keywords: 25(OH)D, HCV, apoptosis, Fas an
... Ethanol leaf extract has beneficial effects on peptic ulcer in rats due to its antisecretory and cytoprotective effect; tannins, flavonoids and triterpenes are responsible for the effects (32). The aqueous extract from parsley seeds exhibited laxative activity in vivo by the inhibition of sodium and water absorption via colon Na + /K + -ATPase (33). ...
Article
Full-text available
Parsley is a biennial aromatic plant from the Apiaceae family, which is characterized by an unbranched root, pinnately divided leaves, umbels and schizocarp. It contains essential oil in all parts, with phenylpropane and terpene compounds as main components. It is rich in flavonoids and other polyphenolic compounds, containing furanocoumarins, carotenoids, polyacetylenes, and its leaves are a source of vitamins and minerals. The chemical composition of parsley depends on a number of factors, so it differs not only in different parts and varieties of the plant but also in different samples of the same parts of one variety. The most important parsley compounds are myristicin, apiol, 1-allyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethoxybenzene, b-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, b-pinene, terpinolene, apiin, oxypeucedanin and falcarinol. Parsley has a long tradition of use in the treatment of urinary tract disorders, and modern in vitro and in vivo studies reveal numerous effects of various parsley preparations such as diuretic, antiurolithiasis, hypouricemic, hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effect. Today, apart from its medical application, parsley is one of the most commonly used culinary herbs.
... Lastly, parsley (Petroselium crispum) is a well-known herbal agent used in folk medicine in various conditions, as a laxative (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001), diuretic (Wright et al., 2007) and urinary tract infections (Nashtar et al., 2018). Also, it has being a source of certain vitamins and minerals, beside to reduce blood glucose in diabetics (Bolkent et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
The food industries have a high demand for new products that meet consumer needs for a healthy lifestyle, where functional food enriched using the plant ingredients plays an important role. So, this study aimed to improve the public healthful characteristics of processed cheese and to examine the impact of fortification with different vegetables powder blend (mushroom, potato, squash, carrot, green bean, green pea, celery, leek, dill and parsley) on processed cheese using four formulations 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10% ratios. Changes in physic-chemical compositional characterizations of formulated processed cheese (FPC) were checked at fresh and during refrigerated storage (5±1 ◦C) for three months to assess their chemical, rheological, textural and organoleptic properties. The obtained results of FPC samples have higher in dry matter, protein, fiber and carbohydrates compared to the control cheese. The addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and can contribute to the development a novel and safe processed cheese types without affecting the overall acceptability, proved to have excellent compositional and functional properties, where the ratios of 5 and 7.5% recorded the best FPC samples.
... Seeds of parsley contain edible oil [2], but also the essential oil [3,4]. The essential oil of parsley has several properties, including antioxidant and laxative [5,6]. The oil displays also insecticidal effects [7] but the phytotoxic effects of parsley oil have not been studied so far. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Essential oils are a rich source of compounds for botanical pesticides. This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of essential oil from parsley seeds and its phytotoxicity against germination and initial growth of wheat and mustard. The main compounds of the oil were α-pinene, β-pinene, and apiol. In a Petri dish experiment, the oil inhibited percentage of germinating seeds of both species. However, the elongation growth of seedlings of both species was more inhibited , especially for wheat. In conclusion, parsley oil displays phytotoxic potential against studied species, which should also be tested in soil conditions and against weeds.
... The parsley, however has tiny and dark seeds with a volatile glycoside fruit oil content known as apiininin (Lopez, 1999). It has been documented that Parsley has a range of potential medicinal traits, including antimicrobial traits (Wong and Kitts, 2006), antianemic agents, menorrhagic agents (Baytop 1984), anticoagulants, antihyperlipidemic agents, antihepatotoxic agents (Ozturk et al. 1991), antioxidants (Nielsen et al. 1999) and laxative agents (Nielsen et al. 1999) (Kerydiyyeh et al., 2001). It was used to regulate blood pressure for the treatment of lumbago, eczema, knee, ache, impotence, and nose bleeding (Manderfeld et al., 1997). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Tuberculosis has been seen worldwide as a serious disease, one of the most adverse side effects of main anti-tuberculosis drugs is nephrotoxicity. Aim: the purpose of this research was planned To investigate the nephroprotective ability of aqueous parsley extract against Isoniazid® and Rifampicin®-induced nephrotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar albino rats weighted (140-160) and they were divided randomly into four groups: 1) normal rats as a control group, 2) rats administrated with parsley extract (250 mg/kg/day), 3) rats received Isoniazid® and Rifampicin® (50 &100 mg/kg/day), and 4) rats treated with Isoniazid® and Rifampicin® In association with the extract of parsley. Results: The results showed, after six weeks, that parsley extract minimized the Isoniazid® and Rifampicin®- induced renal deterioration; This was shown by a significant decrease in serum levels of urea, creatinine, uric acid, TNF-α, IL-1β and Na+ as well as kidney MDA, nitric oxide and DNA damages. This was coupled with a significant improvement in serum calcium and K+ levels and kidney GSH and SOD activity. In addition, the histopathological results indicated that the extract succeeded in the prevention of Isoniazid® and Rifampicin® induced tissue degenerations. Conclusion: In conclusion, parsley extract may be as promising as nephroprotection against Isoniazid® and Rifampicin® nephrotoxicity through their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities.
... Ethanol extract from Petroselinum crispum leaves executed beneficial effects on different models of peptic ulcer in rats via its anti-secretory and cytoprotective activity [36]. Aqeoues extract from Petroselinum hortence seeds demonstrated laxative activity in rat by significant absorption of sodium and water and also enhancing Na-KCl2 transporter activity in the colon [37]. ...
... It has small and dark seeds with apiin glycoside [15]. It has been reported to have various pharmacological activities viz., antioxidant [16], antihepatotoxic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic [17], antimicrobial [18], antianemic, menorrhagic [19] and laxative [20]. It has been used traditionally to treat eczema, knee ache, impotence, lumbago, as a blood pressure regulator and nose bleeding [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study was to differentiate among four Netherlands' genotypes of parsley (Moskurl 2 Petra, Moskurl 2 KRA USA, Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 and Bravour) grown under Middle Egypt conditions in clay soil for the first time based on vegetative growth and oil composition. Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 genotype is non-curly leafed, while the others are curly-leafed varieties. A field experiment was achieved during the two successive winter seasons of 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. This comparative study included horticultural characteristics (e.g. fresh plant weight (g), total yield of fresh leaves (ton/fed), shoot length (cm), total soluble solids (TSS) and leaves water content in addition to the chemical profile of the essential oil. The Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 genotype showed the highest values of all growth characteristics in the two successive seasons. While, Moskrul 2 Petra gave the highest percentage of myristicin (33.91%) followed by Moskrul 2 KRA USA (33.22%), Bravour (29.30 %) and Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 (28.51%). While, Moskrul 2 KRA USA gave the highest apiole content (3.52%). Myristicin and apiole were estimated because of their importance as cancer chemo-preventive agents as well as improving the quality of parsley, which is produced in Egypt. This could also support the Egyptian income from their exportation as dried herb or essential oil or as food supplement or myristicin production.
... It has small and dark seeds with apiin glycoside [15]. It has been reported to have various pharmacological activities viz., antioxidant [16], antihepatotoxic, anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic [17], antimicrobial [18], antianemic, menorrhagic [19] and laxative [20]. It has been used traditionally to treat eczema, knee ache, impotence, lumbago, as a blood pressure regulator and nose bleeding [21]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main aim of this study was to differentiate among four Netherlands' genotypes of parsley (Moskurl 2 Petra, Moskurl 2 KRA USA, Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 and Bravour) grown under Middle Egypt conditions in clay soil for the first time based on vegetative growth and oil composition. Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 genotype is non-curly leafed, while the others are curly-leafed varieties. A field experiment was achieved during the two successive winter seasons of 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. This comparative study included horticultural characteristics (e.g. fresh plant weight (g), total yield of fresh leaves (ton/fed), shoot length (cm), total soluble solids (TSS) and leaves water content in addition to the chemical profile of the essential oil. The Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 genotype showed the highest values of all growth characteristics in the two successive seasons. While, Moskrul 2 Petra gave the highest percentage of myristicin (33.91%) followed by Moskrul 2 KRA USA (33.22%), Bravour (29.30 %) and Gewone Dai 3 Rial 10 (28.51%). While, Moskrul 2 KRA USA gave the highest apiole content (3.52%). Myristicin and apiole were estimated because of their importance as cancer chemo-preventive agents as well as improving the quality of parsley, which is produced in Egypt. This could also support the Egyptian income from their exportation as dried herb or essential oil or as food supplement or myristicin production.
... The plant consists of many ingredients which have several affect on the live bodies as sex-tonic (PDR, 1998 ).The herb parsley is used for flushing the efferent urinary tract, as a diuretic (Kreydiyyeh and Usta, 2002)and for the prevention and treatment of kidney gravel. In folk medicine of many countries, it is used for gastrointestinal disorders and curejaundice (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001). ...
... It is one of the most used medicinal plants to treat renal diseases [18], diabetes, cardiac diseases, and arterial hypertension [19]. laxative activities [20], antioxidant [21], antihepototoxic, anti-hyperlipidemic, antihyperg lycemic [22], anticoagulant [23], antianemic, menorrhagic, and anti-microbial [24][25][26]. In popular medicine, parsley is used to treat various illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, thrombosis and strokes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background: CCl4 causes disorders in different body organs especially kidneys by generating free radicals. High exposure to CCl4 can cause kidney damage. It produces renal diseases in human. Metabolism of CCl4 involves in the production of free radicals through its activation by drug metabolizing enzymes located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Parsley has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities, and probable immune boosting properties make it relevant in the traditional treatment of urinary tract infection, nephritis, and cystitis. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of oral administration of aqueous extract of parsley against the histopathological and biochemical alterations induced in the kidney by CCl4 of male rats. Materials and methods: 24 male rats were used for this study and divided into 4 groups. The first group was control group injected intraperitoneally with olive oil (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week, the 2nd was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week, the 3rd was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week concurrently with receiving aqueous Parsley leaves extract (5g/kg body wt/day) by gastric intubation’s, the 4th was injected intraperitoneally with CCl4 (1ml/kg of body weight) three time/week concurrently with receiving aqueous Parsley leaves extract (20g/kg body wt/day) by gastric intubation’s, respectively for 4 weeks. The Kidneys were dissected out and specimens were taken and processed for light microscopic examinations. Blood samples were obtained for assessment of serum urea, creatinine, and uric acid. Results: The results showed a significant increase in serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, K+, and Cl- concentrations and a significant decrease in serum Na+ concentration in rats treated with CCl4 compared with controls. Histopathological investigation of rats treated with CCl4 showed degeneration of epithelial lining and disruption of brush borders of the proximal convoluted tubules and presence of epithelial debris inside their lumens. The renal corpuscle appeared with degeneration of the glomerulus and disrupted Bowman's capsule. Extensive perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells and massive interstitial hemorrhage were seen. Co-administration of Parsley with CCl4 significantly dose dependent improvement in the structural changes in the kidney and the serum urea, creatinine, uric acid, K+, and Cl- concentrations were significantly declined and serum Na+ concentration was significantly increased compared with CCl4 treated group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that, carbon tetrachloride has adverse effects on the kidney, it caused a serious pathophysiological changes in the kidney. Parsley aqueous extract was able to protect the kidney against these effects. So, the persons expose to CCl4 should be advised to take parsley aqueous extract. Keywords: CCl4, Parsley, Nephrotoxicity, Nephroprotective, Renal pathophysiological changes, Histopathology
... Показано анальгетическое действие водно-спиртового экстракта семян петрушки на мышах [15]. Водный экстракт семян обладает слабительным действием [16]. ...
Article
Relevance. Evaluation of nutritional value of seeds of agricultural crops is considered to be highly significant for revealing new sources of antioxidants for humans. Material. The aim of the present investigation was antioxidant status and selenium accumulation levels by chicory seeds (13 cultivars) and comparison of the results with antioxidants status of seeds of other root vegetables: celery (5 cultivars), parsley (2 cultivars), parsnip (3 cultivars) and carrot (7 cultivars). Results. Among agricultural crops studied chicory was characterized by 3-4 higher levels of selenium accumulation by seeds and relatively low total antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. Anomalously high protein content in chicory seeds may explain the efficiency of selenium accumulation while relatively low antioxidant activity may be connected with lower levels of essential oil. Direct correlations between polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity were demonstrated for carrot (r=+0.924; P<0.01) and chicory (r= 0.803; P<0.01) seeds.
... Ethanol extract from Petroselinum crispum leaves executed beneficial effects on different models of peptic ulcer in rats via its anti-secretory and cytoprotective activity [29]. Aqeoues extract from Petroselinum hortence seeds demonstrated laxative activity in rat by significant absorption of sodium and water and also enhancing Na-KCl2 transporter activity in the colon [30]. ...
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Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a biennial herb belongs to the carrot family (Apiaceae). It has been cultivated throughout the world and used for thousands of years for food flavoring, essential oil applications and in traditional medicines. Mostly parsley contains apiole, myristicin, α-pinene, β-pinene and elemicin contents. The extent of each of these chemical constituents varies depending on the type of species or cultivars as well as cultivation conditions such as soil type, weather, irrigation, pruning and other horticultural practices. Parsley is an essential component of several industrial applications that range from food to cosmetics to pharmaceutical products. More uses and applications of parsley by-products are continuously added. Further research on maximizing yield per hectare and optimum preservation and oil extraction methods are needed, particularly in the developing world where parsley leaf and flower harvesting and post-harvesting processing methods are much traditional.
... Parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae family) is an important medicinal plant cultivated for its herb and essential oil. Parsley has pharmacological activities such as hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic activity, anti-diabetic, analgesic, spasmolytic, immunosuppressant, anti-platelet, gastroprotective, laxative, estrogenic, diuretic, antihyperlipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties (Fejes et al. 2000;Kreydiyyeh et al. 2001;Al-Howiriny et al. 2003;Ozsoy-Sacan et al. 2006;Wong and Kitts 2006), that have been attributed to its wide array of essential oils, fixed oil, flavonoids, coumarins, furanocoumarins, oleoresins, tannins, glycosides, vitamins and minerals (Lopez, Sancheze-Medoza, and Ochoa-Alejo 1999;Tunali et al. 1999;D ıaz-Maroto, P erez-Coello, and Cabezudo 2002). ...
Article
A field experiment was conducted on three cultivars (Italian Giant, Italian Plain, and Local) of parsley to compare plant growth, herb fresh weight, and essential oil (EO) content, yield and composition at three harvest times (Day 1, 47, and 91) in response to phosphorus (P) application rates (0, 12, 24, and 36 kg ha�1). Repeated measures analysis revealed that the ideal P rate for the growth of parsley and its EO yield is 24 kg ha�1; whereas the second harvest gives the highest height and weight; and the third harvest gives the highest EO content and yield. At all harvests, the highest EO content was obtained from Italian Giant fertilized with 36 kg ha�1 P. b-myrcene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, b-phellandrene, and myristcin were the major compounds in all three cultivars, but their ideal P fertilization and harvest time varied with cultivar. This study showed biomass, EO content and yield, and the accumulation of EO constituents of parsley cultivars are influenced by P application and harvest date in different ways.
... Parsley has been reported to have a number of possible medicinal attributes including, antimicrobial, (14) antianemic, menorrhagic, (15) anticoagulant, antihyperlipidemic, antihep-atotoxic, (16) antioxidant. (17) and laxative (18). It has been used to treat lumbago, as a blood pressure regulator, to treat eczema, knee, ache, impotence and nose bleed (19). ...
... Parsley belongs to the edible vegetables with ever-increasing usage all year around in the world. It can also act as a medicinal plant with laxative properties and anti-urolithiatic effect (Kreydiyyeh et al., 2001;Al-Yousofy et al., 2017). The parsley extracts contain large amounts of flavonoid compounds with electron-rich aromatic rings and heterogeneous oxygen atoms in their structure, which is in favor of bonding with the empty orbital of metal. ...
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The parsley extract (PLE) was prepared using absolute ethyl alcohol. The PLE and synergistic iodide were firstly utilized as efficacious corrosion inhibitors to slow down the corrosion rate of carbon steel-Q235 in 0.5 mol/L H 2 SO 4 solution. The anti-corrosion performance was researched by weight loss method, electrochemical tests, surface analysis and quantum chemistry calculation. Results of electrochemical and weight loss tests show that the synergetic PLE and I ⁻ exhibit the optimal corrosion inhibition efficiency 99%. The combined inhibitor displays the favorable long-term corrosion inhibition effect, and the inhibition efficiency can maintain more than 90% after 144 h immersion. The introduction of I ⁻ makes carbon steel surface with higher negative charge amount, which could be beneficial to the interaction between corrosion inhibitor and Fe atoms. The adsorption behavior obeys the Langmuir isotherm adsorption, and involves chemical and physical adsorption. On the basis of electrochemical consequences and theoretical calculation, the adsorption process and anti-corrosion mechanisms are further explored.
Article
To design the planting, separating, threshing, sizing and packing machines for agricultural products, physical and mechanical properties of the products should be known. In this work some physical properties of parsley seeds were studied. Dimensional parameters including three principle dimensions, geometric mean diameter, equivalent diameter, arithmetic mean diameter, sphericity, volume, surface area, projected area, flakiness ratio and elongation ratio were measured using image processing technique. Also length, width and thickness distributions of parsley seeds were modeled using Gamma, Generalized Extreme Value and Weibull distributions. Gravimetrical properties including mass of single seed, thousand seed mass, bulk density, true density and porosity were measured. Effect of the container volume and fall height on bulk density and porosity were studied. Frictional properties of parsley seeds (static coefficient of friction on various surfaces and repose angle of based on bypouring, Hele-Shaw, empting and filling methods) were measured. Results showed that length, width and thickness of the seeds ranged (0.660 - 0.883mm), (0.524 - 0.752mm) and (0.490 - 0.744 mm), respectively. With increasing the container volume from 150 to 550 mL, bulk density of the seeds increased; but from 550 to 750 mL, it was decreased. True density and thousand seed mass of the seeds were 884.658 kg/m3 and 1.390 g. The values of friction coefficient on plywood, rubber, iron and galvanized surfaces were 27.35ᵒ, 24.17ᵒ, 19.31ᵒ and 14.77ᵒ, respectively. The values of filling and empting repose angles were 32.64ᵒ and 40.16ᵒ. © 2015, Int. Comm. of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. All rights reserved.
Article
Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties of an ethanolic extract of Parsley 'Petroselinum crispum' leaves. Materials and methods: An ethanolic extract of Parsley was subjected for evaluation of anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities against inflammation induced by carrageenan and cotton pellet granuloma and hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride, respectively in rats. Apart from enzymes, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups were also estimated in liver. Histopathological test on liver was carried out and phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time in mice was also measured in different groups. Results: The phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, sterols and or triterpenes. The extract exhibited significant protection against carrageenan-induced inflammation, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and CCl 4-induced hepatic damage. Conclusion: Petroselinum crispum exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and anti-hepatotoxic activities which merits further detailed investigations.
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This study was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding diets containing different levels of parsley on hematological traits of local Iraqi geese. A total of twenty four local geese, one year old, were used in this experiment. The birds were allocated for four treatment groups consisted of six geese each. Treatment groups were: Control diet (C) (free from parsley), T1: Control diet + 80 g/d parsley, T2: Control diet + 160 g/d parsley; T3: Control diet + 240 g/d parsley. At the end of experiment, blood samples were obtained from all geese from brachial vein by venipuncture. Hematological traits included in this study were red blood cells count (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), thrombocytes count, white blood cells count (WBC) and percentages of heterophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils and eiosinophils and heterophils/lymphocytes (H/L) ratio. Results revealed that supplementing the diet of geese with different levels of parsley (T1, T2 and T3) resulted in significant (P<0.05) increase in Hb, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC, thrombocytes, WBC and lymphocytes and significant (P<0.05) decrease in H / L ratio and eiosinophils in comparison to C group. Whereas, there were no significant (P>0.05) differences among all experimental groups as regards heterophils, monocytes and basophils. However, T3 group surpass other treatment groups (C, T1 and T2) concerning RBC count, while there were no significant differences among C, T1, T2 groups with respect to RBC count. In conclusion, supplementing the ration of geese with parsley resulted in significant improvement in most of blood traits involved in this study.
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The food industries have a high demand for new products that meet consumer needs for a healthy lifestyle, where functional food enriched using the plant ingredients plays an important role. So, this study aimed to improve the public healthful characteristics of processed cheese and to examine the impact of fortification with different vegetables powder blend (mushroom, potato, squash, carrot, green bean, green pea, celery, leek, dill and parsley) on processed cheese using four formulations 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 % ratios. Changes in physic-chemical compositional characterizations of formulated processed cheese (FPC) were checked at fresh and during refrigerated storage (5±1°C) for three months to assess their chemical, rheological, textural and organoleptic properties. The obtained results of FPC samples have higher in dry matter, protein, fiber and carbohydrates compared to the control cheese. The addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and can contribute to the development a novel and safe processed cheese types without affecting the overall acceptability, proved to have excellent compositional and functional properties, where the ratios of 5 and 7.5% recorded the best FPC samples.
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The present study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary additive with parsley on some meat traits of the breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks, at eight-day old, chicks will be divided equally on floor pens into 5 groups, each group contained 3 replicates (8 chicks/ each). Treatments are dividing as (T1), using basal diet free from parsley as control (T2), using basal diet plus 3 gm. parsley/Kg of diet (T3), using basal diet plus 6 gm. parsley/Kg of diet (T4), using basal diet plus 9 gm. parsley/Kg of diet (T5), using basal diet plus 12 gm. parsley/Kg of diet. In the end of this experiment all after the slaughtering the broiler, the sample will be taken from breast and thigh. Adding parsley to feed of chicks effect significantly (p<0.01) on chemical composition in breast and thigh meat, and high percentages recorded in meat from broiler chicks fed on parsley, adding of parsley as feed additive promote significantly (p<0.01) physical traits, TBA, TVN.B values, Met- myoglobin and Myoglobin value of breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks, using parsley effect significantly on some amino acids percentages in breast and thigh meat of broiler chicks, adding parsley effect significantly in Chromium, Copper, Nickel and Zinc concentrations in thigh meat, also effect on Iron concentrations in breast meat.
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A number of liver diseases are known to be caused by oxidative stress. Petroselinum sativum (P. sativum; parsley) is popular for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. However, till date the hepatoprotective potential of chloroform extract of P. sativum (PSA) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in human liver (HepG2) cells have not been studied. Therefore, this study was framed to evaluate whether the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells could be diminished by pretreating the cells with PSA. MTT assay, NRU assay, morphological alterations, glutathione (GSH) depletion, lipid peroxidation (LPO), ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by using non-cytotoxic concentrations (5, 10 and 25 μg/mL) of PSA against H2O2 (0.25 mM) induced damage in HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that pretreatment of HepG2 cells with PSA offered protective properties by lowering the LPO and ROS generation and elevating the cell viability, GSH and MMP levels. Together, these results suggest that PSA has the hepatoprotective effect on H2O2 induced cell death in HepG2 cells.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Morning glory seed (MGS), has been widely used in treating constipation especially towards children. Clinically, people usually take fried MGS (MGSF) in formulas to reduce its side effect. However, the safety of MGSF other than MGS has yet to be explored. Objective: The study aimed to reveal the potential mechanisms of using MGSF instead of MGS basing on chemistry, pharmacodynamics and toxicology. Methods: The chemical compositions of the extracts of MGS and MGSF were compared using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS method. Simultaneously, to prove the availability and safety of MGSF, we investigated the laxative effect and subchronic toxicity of MGS and MGSF and addressed the mechanism of laxative effect of them. Results: In this study, less phenolic acids and more fatty acids were detected in MGSF compared with the compounds in MGS. Moreover, we found that MGS group had stronger laxative effect than MGSF group via downregulating the expression of AQP3 protein. As for subchronic toxicity test, the body weights of MGS group were lower than MGSF group. In serum biochemistry and histopathological examinations, MGS group could cause more serious toxicity in liver, kidney and colon than MGSF group with higher values of BUN, Cr, AST and ALP. Conclusion: Based on the findings in this study, MGSF with varied compounds contents could still keep the laxative effect while retain less subchronic toxicity, which emphasized the necessity of processing and provided an insight into the rational use of MGSF in clinical practice.
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Dioxin is a very toxic environmental pollutant that affect on human health. Its effects include carcinogenicity, hepatotoxicity, endocrine and metabolic changes. The effect of phytochemical extract, Petroselinum crispum (Pc) (2g/ kg B.wt) or Eruca sativa (Es) (500 mg/kg B.wt) for five weeks on 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induced reproductive system abnormalities was assessed in male albino rats. The administration of dioxin at a dose 100 ng/kg B.wt for five weeks significantly increase testicular lipid peroxidation products (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC) content and nitric oxide (NO) level in concomitantly with decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as decline in reduced glutathione (GSH) level, DNA and RNA contents. Also, TCDD increased the frequency of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF?1) and Fas receptor known as cluster of differentiation 95 (CD95) percent relative to control rat. Pc or Es alcoholic extract has the possibility to suppress the adverse effects of TCDD due to their antioxidant constituents and the role of their fiber in preventing dioxin absorption. Es alcoholic extract is better and more effective than Pc under the condition of this experiment.
Chapter
The herbs that grew in abundance in the Mediterranean area were used from the early years not only in foods to add flavor, but also in drinks to give taste, and in general to add “spice” to the everyday life of people. Herbs and their derivatives together with spices from trees and bushes were collected and used when in season or they were dried to be used as and when needed.
Chapter
In recent years, a substantial increase in the use of aromatic herbs and essential oils has progressively been observed. The Mediterranean area represents a particular environment in which many constraint factors (high light, temperature, drought, salinity, air pollution, etc.) induce a wide range of secondary metabolites in plants. These compounds can be usefully utilized by humans for different applications: antibiotics, antimycotics, animal nutrition, cosmetics, food additives, biorepellents, etc. This chapter reviews the literature on recent agro-industrial applications of Mediterranean plant species and medicinal plants used for the treatment of infectious diseases. The review includes accounts of extracts, essential oils and other active principles isolated from plants that have been used by folk medicine as antimicrobial agents. The names and parts of the plants studied, the spectrum of activity, the types of active compounds and the methods used are discussed, as well as their mechanisms of action.
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Confluent T84 monolayers grown on permeable supports and mounted in a modified Ussing chamber secrete chloride (Cl-) in response to prostaglandin E1. The threshold stimulation was observed at 10(-9) M and a maximal effect at 10(-6) M. Unidirectional flux studies showed an increase in both serosal to mucosal and mucosal to serosal Cl- fluxes with 10(-6) M prostaglandin E1; the increase in serosal to mucosal Cl- flux exceeded the increase in mucosal to serosal flux, resulting in net Cl- secretion. Na+ transport was not affected in either direction and the changes in net Cl- flux correlated well with the changes in short circuit current. To identify the electrolyte transport pathways involved in the Cl- secretory process, the effect of prostaglandin E1 on ion fluxes was tested in the presence of putative inhibitors. Bumetanide was used as an inhibitor for the basolaterally localized Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport system whose existence and bumetanide sensitivity have been verified in earlier studies (Dharmsathaphorn et al. 1984. J. Clin. Invest. 75:462-471). Barium was used as an inhibitor for the K+ efflux pathway on the basolateral membrane whose existence and barium sensitivity were demonstrated in this study by preloading the monolayers with 86Rb+ (as a tracer for K+) and simultaneously measuring 86Rb+ efflux into both serosal and mucosal reservoirs. Both bumetanide and barium inhibited the net chloride secretion induced by prostaglandin E1 suggesting the involvement of the Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport and a K+ efflux pathways on the basolateral membrane in the Cl- secretory process. The activation of another Cl- transport pathway on the apical membrane by prostaglandin E1 was suggested by Cl- uptake studies. Our findings indicate that the prostaglandin E1-stimulated Cl- secretion, which is associated with an increase in cyclic AMP level, intimately involves (a) a bumetanide-sensitive Na+,K+,Cl- cotransport pathway that serves as a Cl- uptake step across the basolateral membrane, (b) the stimulation of a barium-sensitive K+ efflux mechanism on the basolateral membrane that most likely acts to recycle K+, and (c) the activation of a Cl- transport pathway on the apical membrane that serves as a Cl- exit pathway.
Article
A Practical, Authoritative CompendiumThis handbook catalogs 365 species of herbs having medicinal or folk medicinal uses, presenting whatever useful information has been documented on their toxicity and utility in humans and ani-mals. Plants from all over the world - from common cultivars to rare species - are included in these 700 pages. The toxicity of these species varies, but the safety of each has been formally or informally questioned by the Food and Drug Administration, National Cancer Institute, Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administra-tion, or Herb Trade Association. Easy-to-Locate Facts and FiguresDesigned to enable fast access to important information, this hand-book presents information in both catalog and tabular forms. In the catalog section, plants are presented alphabetically by scientific name. (The index permits you to locate an herb by its common name.) A detailed sketch of the chief identifying features accompa-nies most catalog entries. For each species the following information, as available, is presented and referenced: Family and colloquial namesChemical contentUses and applications - present and historicalProcessing, distribution, and economic potentialToxicological agents and degree of toxicityPoison symptoms in humans and animalsTreatment and antidotes References to original literature Five Tables of Accessible DataGiven a plant species, you can easily determine its toxins; or, given a toxin, you can discover which plants contain it. These and other data are presented in convenient tabular formats as appendixes to the handbook. Other information contained in these tables include toxicity ranking and other toxicity data (as applicable), such as mode of contact, organs affected, and lethal dose; and proximate analyses of selected foods. These tables are titled: Medicinal Herbs: Toxicity Ranking and PricelistToxins: Their Toxicity and Distribution in Plant GeneraHigh Plant Genera and Their ToxinsPharmacologically Active PhytochemicalsProximate Analyses of Conventional Plant Foods
Article
The role of apical and basolateral membranes in aldosterone-induced active potassium (K) secretion in rat distal colon was investigated by measuring mucosal-to-serosal (Jms) and serosal-to-mucosal (Jsm) 42K fluxes (mueq.h-1.cm-2) across isolated stripped mucosa under short-circuit conditions in normal and secondary-hyperaldosterone animals. In normal colons mucosal tetraethylammonium (TEA; 30 mM) or barium (Ba; 5 mM), but not cesium (Cs; 15 mM), reduced Jsm without affecting Jms. In aldosterone animals (a) net K secretion (-0.54 +/- 0.11) was converted to net K absorption (0.63 +/- 0.15) by mucosal TEA, which produced a marked reduction in Jsm (0.82 +/- 0.07) and an increase in Jms (0.35 +/- 0.07). In contrast mucosal Ba resulted in a relatively smaller reduction in JK(sm) without altering JK(ms), whereas mucosal Cs was ineffective; (b) serosal bumetanide or the removal of serosal Na or Cl markedly inhibited JK(sm and abolished net K secretion; and (c) serosal ouabain (1 mM) produced qualitatively similar effects to those of serosal bumetanide. These results demonstrate that (a) normal rat distal colon contains apical TEA- and Ba-sensitive K channels; (b) aldosterone induces TEA-sensitive and Ba-sensitive apical K channels; (c) aldosterone-induced K secretion requires both the Na,K-pump and Na-K-2Cl cotransport for K uptake across the basolateral membrane; and (d) alteration of any of these processes results in inhibition of aldosterone-induced active K secretion simultaneously with stimulation of K absorption.
Article
Alterations in arterial acid-base variables have important effects on colonic electrolyte transport in vivo. To confirm the relative effects of these variables and to characterize the transport processes involved, we measured unidirectional 22Na and 36Cl fluxes across short-circuited, distal colonic mucosa of Sprague-Dawley rats. Stripped tissues were studied in Hepes buffer and in Ringer's solutions at HCO3 concentrations of 11, 21, and 39 mM, and CO2 tensions between 0 and 69.6 mmHg. Increases in PCO2, but not in either pH or HCO3 concentration, caused similar increases in JNanet and JClnet (net flux of sodium and chloride, respectively) from -0.2 +/- 0.3 and -1.5 +/- 0.4 mu eq/cm2 per h at PCO2 = 0 to 6.8 +/- 0.6 and 7.6 +/- 0.7 mu eq/cm2 per h, respectively, at PCO2 = 69.6 mmHg. These increases were accounted for by changes in Jms and were accompanied by small decreases in Isc. 1 mM acetazolamide decreased both JNanet and JClnet and their responses to increases in CO2. 0.75 mM luminal amiloride prevented the increase in sodium absorption, but did not affect the CO2-induced increase in chloride absorption. In the presence of amiloride, CO2 increased JR (residual flux). 0.1 mM luminal furosemide did not affect the CO2-induced increases in JNanet in the absence or presence of amiloride. Changes in HCO3 concentration did not alter JR. We conclude that ambient CO2 effects active, electroneutral sodium absorption in the rat distal colon. The process stimulated by CO2 is dependent on mucosal carbonic anhydrase activity and most likely represents Na/H and Cl/HCO3 ion exchange.
Article
This investigation was designed to establish the mechanism of sodium and chloride transport in the rat distal colon by determining ion fluxes across isolated mucosa under voltage clamp conditions. The net rates of sodium and chloride absorption in the distal colon of the rat were approximately equal (5.8 +/- 0.3 and 6.9 +/- 0.5 microEq/h X cm2, respectively) and significantly greater than the short circuit current (0.9 +/- 0.1 microEq/h X cm2). Net sodium absorption and net chloride absorption were markedly reduced by the removal of chloride and sodium, respectively, but were not affected by the absence of potassium from the mucosal bathing solution. Both net sodium absorption and net chloride absorption were also significantly inhibited by 1.0 mM amiloride and by 0.1 mM acetazolamide. In contrast, 0.1 mM amiloride and 1.0 mM furosemide did not inhibit either sodium or chloride absorption. These results confirm that electroneutral sodium chloride absorption is the predominant mechanism of sodium and chloride absorption and suggest that parallel ion (Na-H and Cl-HCO3) exchanges, rather than independent electrogenic sodium and chloride transport, coupled sodium-chloride cotransport, or coupled Na-K-2Cl cotransport, are most likely responsible for sodium chloride absorption in this epithelium.
Article
Extracts of tea were examined for inhibitors of the sodium-potassium pump by investigating the effect of the extracts on 1) isolated preparations of (Na+-K+)-ATPase from hog brain and human blood cells; 2) the displacement of radioactive ouabain from its specific receptor on red blood cells, and 3) the uptake of radioactive rubidium in intact red blood cells. It has been found that extracts of tea were potent inhibitors of the purified hog brain (Na+-K+)-ATPase. However, the inhibition was not specific for the (Na+-K+)-ATPase and the extract of tea did not displace 3H-ouabain in a specific ouabain-receptor assay. Additionally, the tea extracts displayed only a small inhibitory effect on the uptake of 86Rb in intact red blood cells. These observations suggest that the material is not like digitalis and that, unlike cardiac glycosides, it may inhibit the activity of the (Na+-K+)-ATPase by interacting with the enzyme at intracellular sites.
Article
Serotonin, a calcium-dependent intestinal secretagogue, inhibits sodium chloride absorption in the rabbit ileum, but unlike cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent secretagogues, does not stimulate chloride secretion. Because bethanechol, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist that acts as a calcium-dependent, noncyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated secretagogue, both inhibits sodium chloride absorption and stimulates active chloride secretion in the rat colon, experiments were performed with serotonin to determine the effect of serotonin on colonic ion transport. In luminal perfusion studies, intravenous infusion of serotonin significantly decreased net water and net sodium transport. In in vitro studies of sodium and chloride transport performed under short circuit conditions, serotonin decreased both net sodium and net chloride absorption and increased short circuit current (1.7 +/- 0.4, 4.0 +/- 0.6, and 2.3 +/- 0.3 mu Eq/h X cm2, respectively). The decrease in net chloride transport was significantly greater than that in net sodium absorption and the difference between these changes was equivalent to the change in short circuit current. Removal of serosal calcium inhibited all of the effects of serotonin on electrolyte transport. Tetrodotoxin, an inhibitor of neurotransmission, had no effect on serotonin-induced changes in electrolyte transport. These results demonstrate that serotonin both inhibits neutral sodium chloride absorption and stimulates active chloride secretion by a calcium-dependent process in the rat colon.
Article
Inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activates Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter activity in cultured ciliary epithelium. Am. J. Physiol. 266 (Cell Physiol. 35): C198-C205, 1994.--86Rb uptake experiments were conducted to measure Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter activity in a cell line derived from rabbit nonpigmented ciliary epithelium. The presence of a Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter was supported by the observation of a bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb uptake component that was dependent on the extracellular concentration of both sodium and chloride. Potassium influx mediated by the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase accounted for approximately 46 and 33% of total potassium uptake, respectively, whereas both ouabain- and bumetanide-resistant uptake accounted for 9%. Inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase had a stimulatory effect on Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter activity, which was dependent on the extent and duration of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition. Ouabain treatment stimulated the potassium (86Rb) efflux rate and reduced intracellular potassium ([K]i). Potassium channel blockers suppressed the ouabain-activated potassium efflux and inhibited the ouabain-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter. We conclude that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase inhibition leads to the opening of potassium channels, which exacerbates the depletion of cellular potassium; Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl- cotransporter stimulation caused by the fall of [K]i overrides the tendency of increased cellular sodium to inhibit the cotransporter.
Herbal Drugs and Phytotherapeuticals
  • N G Bisset
Bisset N.G. Herbal Drugs and Phytotherapeuticals. Medpharm Scientific Publishers, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London Tokyo, 369-370, 1994.
A Ion Transport Across the Large Intestine In: Handbook of Physiology. Gastrointestinal System. Intestinal Absorption and Secretion Bethesda MD
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  • R Frizzel
Halm D.R., Frizzel R.A Ion Transport Across the Large Intestine In: Handbook of Physiology. Gastrointestinal System. Intestinal Absorption and Secretion Bethesda MD Am. J. Physiol. soc. 4: 257-274, 1991.
Tylers' Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals
  • J E Robbers
  • V E Tyler
Robbers J.E., Tyler V.E. Tylers' Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals. New York: Haworth Herbal Press, p92, 1999.
Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-induced Secretion by a Colonic Epithelial Cell Line
  • K Dharmsathaphorn
  • K G Mandel
  • H Masui
  • J A Mcroberts
Dharmsathaphorn K., Mandel K.G., Masui H. and McRoberts J.A. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-induced Secretion by a Colonic Epithelial Cell Line, J Clin Invest; 75: 462-471, 1988.
American University of Beirut, Publications of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences , Natural Science series
  • G E Post
  • Flora
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Post G.E. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai. American University of Beirut, Publications of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Natural Science series, number 1 2 nd ed. Vol I. p516, 1932.
The Honest Herbalist
  • V E Tyler
Tyler V.E.: The Honest Herbalist. 3ird ed. New York, London, Norwood:Pharmaceutical Products Press, 235–236, 1993.
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  • Sinai. American University
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Post G.E. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai. American University of Beirut, Publications of the Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Natural Science series, number 1 2 nd ed. Vol I. p516, 1932.
Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals
  • J E Robbers
  • V E Tyler
  • Tylers
Robbers J.E., Tyler V.E. Tylers' Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals. New York: Haworth Herbal Press, p92, 1999.