A comparison of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDS) for monitoring chlorinated trace organic contaminants in Hong Kong coastal waters

Department of Biology and Chemistry, Research Centre for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 01/2002; 45(8):1201-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0045-6535(00)00535-X
Source: PubMed


A comparison of mussels (Perna viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) was carried out at five sites, representing a gradient of contaminant concentrations, in Hong Kong coastal waters. Mussels, originally collected from a "clean" location, were deployed along with SPMDs at each site for 30 days. Analyses for chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) indicated that SPMDs have potential as monitoring tools, and to some extent can overcome the problems associated with mussels, such as natural variability, differing age, sex, and physical condition. However, in most cases, SPMDs failed to rank the sites in the same order as mussels in terms of contaminant concentrations. Nonetheless, in localities where mussels cannot survive--as shown at Kwun Tong in the present experiment--SPMDs may be valuable in providing an indication of potentially bio-available lipophilic pollutants.

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Available from: Bruce J Richardson, Feb 18, 2015
    • "Similarly, P. viridis specimens from less impacted areas on the coast of Hong Kong, after spending 5 days in laboratory acclimation, were taken to more impacted areas, where they remained for 30 days. In this experiment, no increased OCP concentrations in the transplanted animals were observed; the OCP concentrations remained at the same level observed for the organisms from the reference site (Richardson et al. 2001). A bioaccumulation study with M. galloprovincialis and P. viridis in Tokyo and Aburatsubo Bays, Japan, indicated that an equilibrium of OCP concentrations was reached in only 2 weeks in animals transplanted from less impacted areas to more contaminated areas (Ueno et al. 1999). "
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    ABSTRACT: To contribute to the use of the tropical brown mussel Perna perna as a sentinel species for organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the present study reports data on the toxicokinetics of these compounds in P. perna. Specifically, the authors present data on OCP and PCB bioaccumulation for eight sampling months from three bays (SE Brazil) and two transplant experiments (each 1 month long). Although seasonality is observed in the total lipid content of the whole soft tissue, with summer samples showing higher values, no such seasonality is observed in the OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by the mussel P. perna. Because no seasonal effect is observed in the annual OCP and PCB concentrations bioaccumulated by P. perna, the use of this species as a sentinel organism to monitor organochlorinated compounds is encouraged. One month of transplantation is not enough to allow the transplanted specimens to reach the concentrations observed in animals reared at the destination site. Nevertheless, P. perna showed a clear tendency to depurate the DDT metabolites p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE after 1 month of transplantation.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Environmental Science and Pollution Research
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    • "Two SPMD canisters, each containing four SPMDs, were deployed at the five study sites. The SPMDs were individually woven through the prongs of the deployment canister in a pattern which maximises the surface area of the device exposed to seawater (Richardson et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: A distinct lack of historical and current data on the status of organic pollutant contaminants within the South African marine environment is evident. This has highlighted the need for more current organic pollutant assessments. Reference mussels and SPMDs were transplanted at five South African harbour sites to assess organic bioaccumulation in brown mussels (Perna perna) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Spatial patterns of PAH and PCB contaminants were determined by GC-MS and GC-ECD after appropriate sample preparation. Significant (p<0.05) spatial differences were observed between the sites. Results indicate no correlations between the passive device and the transplanted mussels; however the SPMDs provided complementary information on the presence of dioxin-like PCBs within the environment not detected by the mussel. The results indicate that information provided by both the mussels and SPMDs allow for a more in depth scrutiny of environmental conditions as a result of anthropogenic influence.
    Full-text · Article · May 2011 · Marine Pollution Bulletin
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    • "A preliminary study of contaminant concentrations in mussels exposed at ''control " and ''polluted " sites in Hong Kong was conducted using mussels (P. viridis) and semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) in order to determine the environmentally realistic level of target contaminants in the field (see Richardson et al., 2001, 2005; Prest et al., 1995). The level of target contaminants in water was back-calculated using a K ow approach. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCs) are generally present in the marine environment in complex mixtures. The ecotoxicological nature of contaminant interactions, however, is poorly understood, with most scientific observations derived from single contaminant exposure experiments. The objective of this experiment was to examine dose-response relationships between antioxidant parameters and body contaminant levels in mussels exposed to different exposure regimes under laboratory conditions. Accordingly, the green-lipped mussel, Perna viridis, was challenged with a mixture of PAHs (anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene) and OC pesticides (alpha-HCH, aldrin, dieldrin, p,p'-DDT) over a 4 week period. Contaminants were delivered under four different dosing regimes, with all treatments receiving the same total contaminant load by the end of the exposure period. Antioxidant biomarkers were measured after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks, including glutathione (GSH), gluathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and lipid peroxidase (LPO). GST and CAT were induced in hepatic tissues in most of the exposure regimes, with the majority of significant induction occurring in a constant exposure regime and a two-step alternate exposure regime. Significant differences among exposure regimes were detected in the body burden of contaminants after 28 days. Hepatic CAT and GSH are proposed as potentially useful biomarkers as they showed good correlation with target contaminants and were not readily affected by different dosing patterns.
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