Bohm F, Edge R, Burke M & Truscott TG: Dietary uptake of lycopene protects human cells from singlet oxygen and nitrogen dioxide - ROS components from cigarette smoke. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64, 176-178
There is current interest in the health benefits of dietary carotenoids and the possible deleterious effects on certain sub-populations such as smokers. Here we report in vivo protection of human lymphocytes, conferred by dietary supplementation of lycopene rich foods against the reactive oxygen species, NO(2)(*) radical (by electron transfer) and 1(O)(2) (by energy transfer). It was found that a lycopene rich diet, maintained for 14 days, increased the serum lycopene level 10 fold compared to serum obtained after the same period, where a typical western European diet had been consumed. Relative lymphocyte protection factors of 17.6 and 6.3 against NO(2)(*) radical and 1(O)(2), respectively, were obtained, which re-enforce epidemiological data, showing protection against several chronic diseases by tomato lycopene.
Available from: Borut Poljšak
- "Last et al. (1994)  Kienast et al. (1994)  Vitamin E Guth and Mavis (1986)  Sevanian et al. (1982)  Depletion of antioxidants Kelly and Tetley (1997)  Kelly et al. (1996)  Vitamin C Rietjens et al. (1986)  Mohsenin (1987)  Lipid peroxidation Sevanian et al. (1982)  Khopde et al. (1998)  Lycopene Böhm et al. (2001)  Particulate matter (PM) "
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ABSTRACT: Overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can result from exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ionising and nonionising radiation, ultraviolet radiation, elevated concentrations of ozone, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, cigarette smoke, asbestos, particulate matter, pesticides, dioxins and furans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and many other compounds present in the environment. It appears that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress is often neglected mechanism by which environmental pollutants affect human health. Oxidation of and oxidative damage to cellular components and biomolecules have been suggested to be involved in the aetiology of several chronic diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, age-related macular degeneration, and aging. Several studies have demonstrated that the human body can alleviate oxidative stress using exogenous antioxidants. However, not all dietary antioxidant supplements display protective effects, for example,
-carotene for lung cancer prevention in smokers or tocopherols for photooxidative stress. In this review, we explore the increases in oxidative stress caused by exposure to environmental pollutants and the protective effects of antioxidants.
Available from: Richard T Sayre
- "D g ) , which have been shown to be capable of inducing DNA damage and to be mutagenic ( Di Mascio et al . , 1990 ; Barros et al . , 2001 ; Bohm et al . , 2001 ; Murthy et al . , 2005 ; Sthal et al . , 2006"
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ABSTRACT: Environmental pollution by organic compounds and metals became extensive as mining and industrial activities increased in the 19th century and have intensified since then. Environmental pollutants originating from diverse anthropogenic sources have been known to possess adverse values capable of degrading the ecological integrity of marine environment. The consequences of anthropogenic contamination of marine environments have been ignored or poorly characterized with the possible exception of coastal and estuarine waters close to sewage outlets. Monitoring the impact of pollutants on aquatic life forms is challenging due to the differential sensitivities of organisms to a given pollutant, and the inability to assess the long-term effects of persistent pollutants on the ecosystem as they are bio-accumulated at higher trophic levels. Marine microalgae are particularly promising indicator species for organic and inorganic pollutants since they are typically the most abundant life forms in aquatic environments and occupy the base of the food chain. We review the effects of pollutants on the cellular biochemistry of microalgae and the biochemical mechanisms that microalgae use to detoxify or modify pollutants. In addition, we evaluate the potential uses of microalgae as bioindicator species as an early sentinel in polluted sites.
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- "The human body is unable to synthesize carotenoids, which qualifies diet as the only source of these components in blood and tissues. At least 85% of our dietary lycopene comes from tomato fruit and tomato-based products (Bohm and others 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: Lycopene is the principal pigment of the carotenoids naturally found in tomatoes and is important not only because of the color it imparts but also because of the recognized health benefits associated with its presence. Red tomatoes typically contain about 95% of their lycopene as the all-trans isomer, the most stable form. In tangerine tomatoes, on the other hand, the lycopene is present as tetra-cis-lycopene, a geometric isomer of all-trans lycopene. Lycopene is a major component found in blood serum. This carotenoid has been extensively studied for its antioxidant and cancer-preventing properties. Prevention of heart disease has been shown to be another antioxidant role played by lycopene because it reduces the accumulation of platelets that eventually lead to blood clots, heart attacks, and strokes. In contrast to many other food phytonutrients whose effects have only been studied in animals, lycopene from tomatoes has been repeatedly studied in humans and found to be protective against several cancers, which now include colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancers. This review outlines the background information dealing with lycopene and presents the most comprehensive and current understanding of its potential functional role in human health.
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