Prevalence of restless legs syndrome among men aged 18–64 years: an association with somatic disease and neuropsychiatric symptoms
Department of Medical Sciences/Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.Movement Disorders (Impact Factor: 5.68). 12/2001; 16(6):1159-63.
Standardized diagnostic criteria determined by the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group were used to investigate the current prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Possible associations between RLS and neuropsychiatric and somatic complaints were also investigated. A random sample of 4,000 men living in central Sweden were sent a questionnaire that included questions about sleep habits, symptoms of sleepiness, and somatic and neuropsychiatric complaints. Four symptom questions accepted as minimal diagnostic criteria for RLS were also included. Odds (OR) ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) for different variables were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression; 5.8% of the men suffered from RLS. The prevalence of RLS increased with age. Sleep-related complaints were more frequent among the RLS sufferers. Complaints of headache at awakening and daytime headache were reported three to five times more frequently among RLS sufferers and there was a tendency toward reported social isolation related to RLS. Subjects with RLS more frequently reported depressed mood (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8-3.8), and complained more often of reduced libido (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.4-3.3). RLS sufferers more frequently reported hypertension (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 0.9-2.4) and heart problems (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.3). Results show that restless legs syndrome is common among men. It is hypothesized that RLS may be associated with several somatic and neuropsychiatric symptoms.
- "RLS is typically an idiopathic disorder (ie, primary RLS); however, secondary forms are not infrequent. In this context, results from several cross-sectional studies suggest an association of RLS with chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular diseases    . Secondary RLS in chronic kidney disease is frequently called " uremic RLS " . "
- "The association between RLS and PLMS and the risk of hypertension, however, is controversial Ohayon and Roth,( 2002); Ulfberg et al. (2001);Winkelman et al. (2008). Sforza et al. (1999) and Siddiqui et al. (2007), have reported that episodes of PLM are associated with significant repetitive sleep time elevations of heart rate plus systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). "
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- "Changes in sleep quantity and/or quality due to RLS has been suggested as being potentially associated with prevalent hypertension . Among 4000 men aged 18e64 y in whom RLS was self-reported in questionnaires; Ulfberg et al. found that after adjustments for age, witnessed apnea, smoking, and alcohol consumption , RLS sufferers were more likely to report hypertension . In a study by Ohayon et al.  including 18 980 individuals from five European countries, 732 met criteria for RLS and presented with a two-fold higher risk for elevated BP (21.8 vs. 11.1% for patients with and without RLS, respectively, for the association between hypertension and RLS after adjustment for confounders). "
ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular autonomic control changes across sleep stages. Thus, blood pressure (BP), heart rate and peripheral vascular resistances progressively decrease in non rapid eye movement sleep. Any deterioration in sleep quality or quantity may be associated with an increase in nocturnal BP which could participate in the development or poor control of hypertension. In the present report, sleep problems/disorders, which impact either the sleep quality or quantity, are reviewed for their interaction with BP regulation and their potential association with prevalent or incident hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, sleep duration/deprivation, insomnia, restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy are successively reviewed. Obstructive sleep apnea is clearly associated with the development of hypertension that is only slightly reduced by continuous positive airway pressure treatment. Shorter and longer sleep durations are associated with prevalent or incident hypertension but age, gender, environmental exposures and ethnic disparities are clear confounders. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration, restless legs syndrome and narcolepsy may impact BP control, needing additional studies to establish their impact in the development of permanent hypertension. Addressing sleep disorders or sleep habits seems a relevant issue when considering the risk of developing hypertension or the control of pre-existent hypertension. Combined sleep problems may have potential synergistic deleterious effects.
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