Development of chlorine dioxide-related by-product models for drinking water treatment

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Water Research (Impact Factor: 5.53). 02/2002; 36(1):330-42. DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00194-4
Source: PubMed


Factorial experiments were conducted using source waters from seven drinking water treatment plants in Ontario, Canada to develop statistically based model equations capable of predicting chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite and chlorate formation upon chlorine dioxide application. The equations address raw water quality and operational parameters including pH, temperature, chlorine dioxide concentration, reaction time and water organic content (as described by non-purgeable organic carbon x ultraviolet absorbance measured at 254 nm, NPOC x UV254). Terms describing two-factor interaction effects were also included, improving the accuracy of the predictive equations in fitting measured response concentrations as evaluated through internal and external validations. Nearly 80% of the predictions for chlorine dioxide consumption and chlorite formation were observed to be within 20% of the measured levels. Over 90% of the predicted chlorate levels were within +/- 0.1 mg/L of the measured levels. Chlorine dioxide concentration and NPOC x UV254 were key parameters when developing the predictive models.

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    • "The use of Chlorine dioxide has got a number of advantages over other chemicals and can be used in a wide range of pH to improve water quality (Korn et al., 2002). Chlorine dioxide can effectively inactivate viruses by altering capsid proteins of the viruses and other bacteria and maintain a balanced microbiota in the gut (Tian et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: The potential benefits of a water acidifying agent chlorine dioxide (Dutrion®) were investigated on the production performance, ileal intestinal microflora and gut histomorphology at day-28. One hundred and sixty, day-old, Cobb-500 male broiler birds were randomly assigned to four treatments i.e. DW-0, DW-0.3, DW-0.4 and DW-0.5 that were replicated (n=4) with 10 birds/replicate. Birds in all groups were reared on floor pens in an open sided house and had ad libitum access to feed and water. DW-0 served as control and to DW-0.3, DW-0.4 and DW-0.5 was given 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 ppm of chlorine dioxide in drinking water, respectively. Lower ileum tissue and digesta samples were collected and performance variables were noted. Chlorine dioxide significantly (P<0.05) reduced E. coli and Salmonella count on day 21st and 28th. It was revealed that gut histomorphology, villus height (920.03 μm) and goblet cell count per unit (80.25) of birds in group DW-0.5 was significantly improved. Feed and water intake was not significantly altered however, body weight gain and FCR significantly improved with increasing level of Dutrion®. Carcass (70.39%) and liver (6.08%) yield showed a significant increase in birds of group DW-0.5. No difference (P>0.05) was seen in relative liver and gizzard weight (%) among different treatments. It can be concluded from present findings that addition of chlorine dioxide (Dutrion®) can serve as an effective tool to improve broiler performance by reducing the load of harmful pathogens and improving gut health of birds.
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    • "In fact, it is known that if NOM is present in water, it can react with ClO 2 to form chlorite and chlorate that can have negative effects on human health.[8– 10] The DBP formation is strongly dependent on the ClO 2 consumption as about 68% and 9% of the ClO 2 consumed become, respectively, chlorite and chlorate.[2] [11] However , the DBP formation was not evaluated in this study since it was out of our scope; previous studies on the same water showed that activated carbon reduces the chlorite and chlorate formation by about 20–40%, respectively.[46] "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Chlorine dioxide is one of the most widely employed chemicals in the disinfection process of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP). The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the adsorption process with granular activated carbon (GAC) on the chlorine dioxide consumption in final oxidation/disinfection. A first series of tests were performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter of Cremona (Italy). The adsorption process in batch conditions with seven different types of GAC was studied. A second series of tests were performed on water samples collected at the outlet of four GAC columns installed at the outlet of the DWTP sand filter. The results showed that the best chlorine dioxide demand (ClO2-D) reduction yields are equal to 60-80% and are achieved in the first 30 minutes after the ClO2 addition, during the first 16 days of the column operation using a mineral, coal-based, meso-porous GAC. Therefore, this carbon removes the organic compounds that are more rapidly reactive with ClO2. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the ClO2-D and the UV absorbance at wavelength 254 using mineral carbons; therefore, the use of a mineral meso-porous GAC is an effective solution to control the high ClO2-D in the disinfection stage of a DWTP.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Environmental Technology
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    • "This is due to the high chlorine dioxide initial dose (5 mg/L) applied during ClO 2 -D test that is significantly higher than the concentrations generally applied in the DWTP disinfection process (1.0e1.5 mg/L) (Vigneswaran and Visvanathan, 1995; Crittenden et al., 2005). Moreover, it can be observed that the chlorite and chlorate formation reflects the trend of the ClO 2 -D curve (Fig. 2) since about 68% and 9% of the chlorine dioxide consumed becomes respectively chlorite and chlorate (Korn et al., 2002; Collivignarelli and Sorlini, 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Disinfection is the last treatment stage of a Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) and is carried out to maintain a residual concentration of disinfectant in the water distribution system. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used chemical employed for this purpose. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of several treatments on chlorine dioxide consumption and on chlorite and chlorate formation in the final oxidation/disinfection stage. A number of tests was performed at laboratory scale employing water samples collected from the DWTP of Cremona (Italy). The following processes were studied: oxidation with potassium permanganate, chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite, coagulation/flocculation with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, filtration and adsorption onto activated carbon. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide demand is high if sodium hypochlorite or potassium permanganate are employed in pre-oxidation. On the other hand, chlorine dioxide leads to the highest production of chlorite and chlorate. The coagulation/flocculation process after pre-oxidation shows that chlorine dioxide demand decreases if potassium permanganate is employed as an oxidant, both with ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate. Therefore, the combination of these processes leads to a lower production of chlorite and chlorate. Aluminum sulfate is preferable in terms of the chlorine dioxide demand reduction and minimization of the chlorite and chlorate formation. Activated carbon is the most effective solution as it reduced the chlorine dioxide consumption by about 50% and the DBP formation by about 20-40%.
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