Article

Evaluation of clinical parameters in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and possible correlation with the severity of the disease. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol

Department of Otolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey.
Archiv für Klinische und Experimentelle Ohren- Nasen- und Kehlkopfheilkunde (Impact Factor: 1.55). 12/2001; 258(9):492-5. DOI: 10.1007/s004050100367
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex disease whose etiology is multifactorial and incompletely understood. This article focuses on upper airway anatomy evaluation and the standardization of different physical findings in patients with OSA and on the possible correlation of these physical findings with the severity of the disease. All patients underwent a physical examination and polysomnography. The physical examination included tonsil size, modified Mallampati grade, neck circumference, lateral clinical craniofacial assessment and body mass index (BMI). The study group consisted of 85 patients. A statistically significant correlation between tonsil size and BMI and with the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was detected (P = 0.004 and 0.03 respectively). Also patients with a craniofacial anomaly have a higher RDI level than the patients without this anomaly (P = 0.03). This study has identified some standardized physical findings for predicting the severity of OSA. We aim to benefit from these findings in the selection of a rational treatment modality selection for patients with OSA.

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    ABSTRACT: Schlaf- und nächtliche Atemstörungen sind ein häufiges Symptom bei Kindern mit kraniofazialen Fehlbildungen, da es durch die Mittelgesichtshypoplasie zu einer Einengung der Atemwege kommen kann. Wir haben bei 28 Kindern Polysomnographien vorgenommen, um differenziertere Aussagen über die Art der schlafbezogenen Apnoen, den Zusammenhang mit bestimmten Schlafstadien und Schlafarchitektur und Korrelationen mit der mental-kognitiven Entwicklung sowie der Lebensqualität machen zu können. Diese wurden mittels dreier Fragebögen und psychologischer Testung bestimmt. Bei 5 Patienten fand sich ein schweres, bei 9 ein mäßiges und bei 12 ein mildes obstruktives Schlaf-Apnoe-Syndrom, nur 2 Kinder hatten kein OSAS. Die Kinder mit Crouzon-Syndrom hatten überwiegend (9/14) ein mittel- bis schwergradiges OSAS, während die Kinder mit Apert-Syndrom mehrheitlich von einer leichten Atemstörung betroffen waren. Neben obstruktiven Ereignissen war auch die Zahl der zentralen Apnoen erhöht. Aufgrund der hohen Korrelationen zwischen OSAS-Schweregrad und Entsättigungsindex könnte die Pulsoxymetrie als ambulantes Screeningverfahren eingesetzt werden. Die Schlafarchitektur war nicht wesentlich beeinträchtigt bei einer eindrucksvollen Häufung der respiratorischen Ereignisse im REM-Schlaf (RDI 16,97/h in REM vs 8,2 in NREM) und einem in Abhängigkeit vom Schweregrad des OSAS erhöhten Arousalindex. Insbesondere nasaler CPAP und v. a. BiPAP, aber auch Adenotonsillektomien, führten zu einer deutlichen Besserung der respiratorischen Parameter. Aufgrund der Dynamik der Erkrankung sind engmaschige Kontrollen und ggf. Erweiterungen und Anpassungen der Therapie nötig. Die Lebensqualität lag insgesamt im Normbereich - unabhängig von der OSAS-Schwere - zeigte jedoch im Verlauf einen Zusammenhang mit dieser und der Klinik. Obwohl keine signifikanten Korrelationen zwischen Tagessymptomatik, einzelnen PSG-Parametern und OSAS-Schwere aufzuzeigen war, spiegelte sich in den Fragebögen eine erfolgreiche Therapie wider, so dass ein überarbeiteter Fragebogen als Therapie- und Verlaufskontrolle dienen könnte. The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is quite common in children with craniofacial synostosis. The polysomnography of 28 children with syndromal craniosynostosis showed in 12 children a mild, in 9 children a modest and in 5 children a severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The children with Morbus Crouzon had more obstructive events than those with Morbus Apert. The sleep architecture was hardly affected, wherass the most respiratory events occured during REM-sleep. There was a high correlation between the severitiy of the OSAS and the index of desaturation, so the nocturnal home-pulseoxymetry could be an alternative. Therapy with CPAP and even more with BiPAP resulted in a signifiacant improvement of the respiratory parameters. These were also improved with adenoidectomy, but less pronounced. The health-related quality of life was in normal range, but in the course of the examinations we could not only see a coherence with daytime symptoms and behavior but also an improvement after therapy. There were no significant correlations between impaired behavior or daytime symptoms and severitiy of OSAS.
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep disordered breathing patients usually undergo an ENT clinical examination before any therapeutic decision is taker. This clinical examination should be predictive about the occurrence of OSAS, reproductible and should determine the sites of obstruction in the upper airways. We have evaluated the clinical ENT examination and compared it with the bibliography in order to standardize it. We have done the same clinical ENT examination to 181 patients. 127 had a standar polysomnography. The patient's mean age was 49.6 years, the mean BMI was 29.3 kg/m2. 92.7% had an abnormal palate, 4.5% a tonsilar hipertrophy, 66.5% high Modified Mallampati scores, 60.8% were clasiffied as Fujita IIb type and 39.2% had nasal obstruction. Upper airway examination is important for the assessment of chronic snoring patients. Most of them have anatomical alterations that can be represented in visual scales to make it more reproductible. The obstruction area does not predict the severity of OSAS.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2005 · Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the role of oxygen saturation (SaO2) measurement in identifying apnoeic snorers from non-apnoeic snorers and in the assessment of the severity of obstructive sleep apnoea. Ninety-two patients with clinically suspected obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) were assessed, using overnight polysomnography. The patients were classified as follows: 14 patients were non-apnoeic snorers, 27 patients had mild OSAS, 31 patients had moderate OSAS and 20 patients had severe OSAS. Minimum SaO2 level, mean SaO2, time below 85% of SaO2, the ratio between the time SaO2 and total sleep time and body mass index (BMI) were assessed retrospectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the non-apnoeic group and OSAS patients in Min SaO2 (P = 0.03). Patients who had Min SaO2 above 85% could be evaluated as non-apnoeic snorers; however, SaO2 and BMI were not found to be useful in the assessment of the severity of OSAS.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Clinical Otolaryngology
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