Article

Lung Cancer, Myocardial Infarction, and the Grossarth-Maticek Personality Types: A Case-control Study in Fukuoka, Japan.

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Grossarth-Maticek and colleagues have shown, in their prospective studies, a strong relationship of their personality types, Types 1 and 2, to cancer and coronary heart disease (CHD), respectively. Relevant information is limited from replication studies, and little is known about psychosocial factors in relation to cancer or CHD in Japan. Subjects included 95 cases of lung cancer (LC), 94 cases of myocardial infarction (MI) and 596 controls. The controls were men and women who visited a clinic for a health checkup. The Grossarth-Maticek personality types, Types 1 to 6, were assessed using the Short Interpersonal Reactions Inventory. The distributions of the 6 personality types were compared between the case and control groups, adjusting for sex and age class. The relation of each of the 6 types to LC and MI were examined in terms of odds ratio, using a logistic regression model controlling for age, sex, job status, education level, and smoking status. As regards the distribution analysis, Types 1 and 2 in the LC and MI groups each were not more prevalent than the controls, respectively. High score of the Type 1 scale was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in LC risk. MI risk was significantly, positively associated with the Type 2 and 5 scales, and unexpectedly, positively related to the Type 3 scale. The present findings partly supported the Grossarth-Maticek theory, but there remain some conflicting issues to be confirmed in future studies.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide [1] and even subthreshold depressive symptoms, henceforth referred to as depressive mood, are associated with an increased mortality [2-7, but see also [8][9][10][11]. Some personality constructs, such as neuroticism, have been found to be associated with depression [12,13] and others, such as hostility, with mortality [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. Therefore, it is possible that personality (i.e. a person"s characteristic pattern of behaviour, thoughts and feelings) may account for the association between depressive mood and mortality. ...
... Hostility was actually found to predict mortality [14][15][16][17][18], but null findings have also been reported [28]. Evidence supporting the personality-disease theory developed by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck [24] is more limited [19][20][21]. Because most of these personality constructs deal with emotional regulation, we expected that at least some of them would be associated with depressive mood. ...
... In the present study, cognitive hostility was the only personality measure that remained associated with mortality after adjustment for depressive mood and the whole set of covariates. These additional results of our study further challenge previous findings linking health with Type A [25,26] or with the personality types proposed by Grossarth-Maticek & Eysenck [19][20][21]. Future research addressing the links between personality and mortality should include an assessment of depressive mood. ...
Article
Full-text available
Depressive mood is associated with mortality. Because personality has been found to be associated with depression and mortality as well, we aimed to test whether depressive mood could predict mortality when adjusting for several measures of personality. 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies gave consent to enter in the GAZEL cohort in 1989. Questionnaires were mailed in 1993 to assess depressive mood, type A behavior pattern, hostility, and the six personality types proposed by Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck. Vital status and date of death were obtained annually for all participants. The association between psychological variables and mortality was measured by the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) computed through Cox regression. 14,356 members of the GAZEL cohort (10,916 men, mean age: 49 years; 3,965 women, mean age: 46 years) completed the depressive mood scale and at least one personality scale. During a mean follow-up of 14.8 years, 687 participants had died. Depressive mood predicted mortality, even after adjustment for age, sex, education level, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and smoking [RII (95% CI) = 1.56 (1.16-2.11)]. However, this association was dramatically reduced (RII reduction: 78.9%) after further adjustment for cognitive hostility (i.e. hostile thoughts) [RII (95% CI) = 1.12 (0.80-1.57)]. Cognitive hostility was the only personality measure remaining associated with mortality after adjustment for depressive mood [RII (95% CI) = 1.97 (1.39-2.77)]. Cognitive hostility may either confound or mediate the association between depressive mood and mortality.
... For allcause mortality, higher Type 2 (CVD-prone), Type 3 ("Ambivalent") and Type 6 ("Anti-social") scores were associated with higher risk. Previously, a case-control study in Japan (Nagano, Sudo, Kubo & Kono, 2001) with N = 785 used SIRI scores to classify patients (with lung cancer or myocardial infarction) and healthy controls into mutually exclusive groups, with patients assigned to the type for which they scored highest. Risk of myocardial infarction was significantly less in those classified as Type 4 than in all other types combined (Odds Ratio 0.584, 95% CI 0.374-0.913) ...
... Our findings for Type 4 are similar to those of the French study (Nabi et al., 2008), which showed a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with higher Type 4 scores and an increased risk in those with higher Type 2 (CVD-prone) scores, and also to the Japanese study (Nagano et al., 2001). Evidently, the SIRI Type 4 scale measures a "healthy" personality-stress disposition which is negatively related to the long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. ...
Article
Personality-stress subtypes measured via the Short Interpersonal Reactions Inventory (SIRI) have been claimed to predispose to cancer, cardiovascular disease, or overall good health. We examined such associations in a 1993–1996 study on health risk factors in Australians aged over 50 years. 2197 women and 919 men completed the questionnaire, with nine subscores calculated. After a median 23.4 years, protocols were matched against dates/causes of death (1108 out of 3027 respondents with useable SIRI scores had died). Survival analysis tested for associations between subscores and mortality from all causes, mortality from cancers (30% of deaths), cardiovascular disease (23% of deaths), and other known causes (35% of deaths). Type 2 (CHD-prone) and Type 4 (healthy) scores were significantly associated (p < 0.05) with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality but not with any-cancer mortality. Despite criticisms of the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck data, we found empirical support for some SIRI subtypes. In accord with the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck personality-stress model, and consistent with two previous SIRI studies, inverse associations of Type 4 (healthy) scores with all-cause mortality were found and also Type 2 scores predicted CVD mortality. However, no significant relationship was found between Type 1 scores and cancer mortality.
... In the field of psychosomatic medicine the relationship between personality characteristics and diseases is supposed to be an important issue. In this context, research of Grossarth-Maticek (2000) is devoted to diseasesproneness based mainly on Eysenck personality typology (Larsson, 1995; Nagano, 2001). These, so called "health-related personality characteristics", are divided in two main types: healthy and stress-related personalities, the second ones comprising proneness to main psychosomatic diseases (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the field of psychosomatic medicine the relationship between personality characteristics and diseases is supposed to be an important issue. The aim of this article is to present group’s MMPI profiles obtained for patients with different chronic diseases and to discuss about possible specific features of these different groups. We summarized results obtained by psychological testing of following groups of patients: adult patients treated with chronic maintenance dialysis, patients with diabetic retinopathy, general anxiety group, attack panic syndrome, parents of children with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as adolescents with mental anorexia, cystic fibrosis, diabetes mellitus and leukemia. Two control groups comprised adults and adolescents, both without any health problems, selected randomly. As a psychometric test MMPI-201 was used. Statistic 10 package is used for statistical analysis. In our presentation it can be seen some typical personality characteristics for patients with chronic conditions. These findings could be helpful for clinicians concerning treatment planning and followup. In general, the MMPI helps us to obtain a global, factual picture from the self-assessment of the patient, explained in a psycho-technical language. Group’s profile could be used in clinical practice for planning treatment and to suppose the prognosis of the illness.
Article
Chronic psychosocial stress is thought to affect the onset and development of different "lifestyle diseases" via human lifestyle and/or psycho-physiological mechanisms. If psychosocial interventions that alleviate chronic stress could prevent lifestyle diseases and improve disease courses, mind-body medicine would contribute much to the countermeasure of lifestyle diseases, which in turn would lead to the improvement of the social and/or economical environment of medical care/service providers. In this regard, however, it would be necessary for citizens to accept the utility of mind-body medicine in this field, which would require "convincing epidemiologic data". The former part of this paper presents an overview, mainly through recent reviews, of epidemiologic data concerning cancer and heart disease (especially coronary heart disease), which respectively are the first and second causes of death in Japan, in relation to selected psychosocial risk factors and the efficacy of psychosocial interventions. The latter part introduces a series of epidemiologic studies on lifestyle disease and personality carried out by Grossarth-Maticek and colleagues, and presents an overview of studies from home and abroad based on their theory and methods.
Article
Full-text available
In psychosomatic medicine there is recognition that mental states can significantly affect physical health by inhibiting the immune system and/or causing damaging cardiovascular reactions. In this context, research involving personality profiles in healthy people seems to us as a good start. We used as a psychometric instrument Grossard-Maticek personality questionnaire comprising six personality types related to disease-proneness. Evaluated sample in this research includes 120 healthy people, divided in two groups: medical staff and administration. This study showed that healthy people belong to the " healthy " personality profile, but the profiles at risk for cancer and cardiovascular diseases are also present. These groups must be followed in the future for a long time. We did not obtained statistical data that age, gender and profession influence to the personality profiles. The elevated stress is obtained for both genders as well as in the groups of doctors and nurses.
Article
Objective: Evidence for an association between hostility and peptic ulcer mainly relies on cross-sectional studies. Prospective studies are rare and have not used a validated measure of hostility. This prospective study aimed to examine the association between hostility and peptic ulcer in the large-scale French GAZEL cohort. Method: In 1993, 14,674 participants completed the Buss and Durkee Hostility Inventory. Participants were annually followed-up from 1994 to 2011. Diagnosis of peptic ulcer was self-reported. The association between hostility scores and ulcer incidence was measured by hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals computed through Cox regression. Results: Among 13,539 participants free of peptic ulcer history at baseline, 816 reported a peptic ulcer during a mean follow-up of 16.8 years. Adjusting for potential confounders, including smoking, occupational grade, and a proxy for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exposure, ulcer incidence was positively associated with total hostility (HR per SD: 1.23, confidence interval: 1.14-1.31), behavioral hostility (HR per SD: 1.13, confidence interval: 1.05-1.21), cognitive hostility (HR per SD: 1.26, confidence interval: 1.18-1.35), and irritability (HR per SD: 1.20, confidence interval: 1.12-1.29). The risk of peptic ulcer increased from the lowest to the highest quartile for all hostility measures (p for linear trend < .05). Conclusions: Hostility might be associated with an increased risk of peptic ulcer. Should these results be replicated, further studies would be needed to explore the underlying mechanisms.
Article
To examine predictive values for the effect of the "Type 1" (hopeless and emotion-suppressive, cancer prone), "Type 4" (autonomous, healthy), and "Type 5" (rational/antiemotional, cancer prone) personalities proposed by Grossarth-Maticek on the prognosis of lung cancer patients. 68 lung cancer patients were scored on the Types 1, 4, and 5 personality scales of the Short Interpersonal Reactions Inventory and were followed until the date of death or were censored at a maximum of 5.7 years after entry. The stage at diagnosis tended to be higher in patients with a high Type 1 or a low Type 4 score. A univariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that a high tendency toward Type 1 or Type 5 was related to an increased hazard of death. Adjustment for age, performance status, and stage, however, attenuated the relation to Type 1, leaving only Type 5 as a significantly related personality factor. A high Type 5 tendency may predict poor survival in lung cancer patients, whereas Types 1 and 4 may not be independent predictors.
Article
Full-text available
Majority of studies on personality and physical health have focused on one or two isolated personality traits. We aim to test the independent association of 10 personality traits, from three major conceptual models, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the French GAZEL cohort. A total of 14,445 participants, aged 39-54 in 1993, completed the personality questionnaires composed of the Bortner Type-A scale, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (for total, neurotic and reactive hostility) and the Grossarth-Maticek-Eysenck Personality Stress Inventory that assesses six personality types [cancer-prone, coronary heart disease (CHD)-prone, ambivalent, healthy, rational, anti-social]. The association between personality traits and mortality, during a mean follow-up of 12.7 years, was assessed using the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in Cox regression. In models adjusted for age, sex, marital status and education, all-cause and cause-specific mortality were predicted by 'total hostility', its 'neurotic hostility' component as well as by 'CHD-prone', 'ambivalent' 'antisocial', and 'healthy' personality types. After mutually adjusting personality traits for each other, only high 'neurotic hostility' remained a robust predictor of excess mortality from all causes [RII = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.68-4.09] and external causes (RII = 3.24; 95% CI = 1.03-10.18). 'CHD-prone' (RII = 2.23; 95% CI = 0.72-6.95) and 'anti-social' (RII = 2.13; 95% CI 0.61-6.58) personality types were associated with cardiovascular mortality and with mortality from external causes, respectively, but CIs were wider. Adjustment for potential behavioural mediators had only a modest effect on these associations. Neurotic hostility, CHD-prone personality and anti-social personality were all predictive of mortality outcomes. Further research is required to determine the precise mechanisms that contribute to these associations.
Article
Full-text available
The 'indirect-selection' hypothesis proposes that some quality of the individual, a personality characteristic or intelligence, leads to both socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. We aim to quantify the contribution of personality measures to the associations between SEP and mortality. Of the GAZEL cohort, 14 445 participants aged 39-54 years in 1993 and followed-up over 12.7 years, completed the Bortner-Type-A-scale, the Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory and the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck-Personality-Stress-Inventory. Indicators of SEP, such as father's social class, education, occupational grade and income, were assessed at baseline. Relative indices of inequality in Cox regression models were used to estimate associations. In age-adjusted analyses, risk of death was inversely associated with SEP among men and women. Among men, the attenuation in this association depended on the measures of SEP and was 28-29% for 'neurotic-hostility', 13-22% for 'anti-social' and 13-16% for 'CHD-prone' personality. In women, the attenuation was evident only for type-A-behaviour, by 11%. After controlling simultaneously for all personality factors that predicted mortality, associations between SEP and mortality were attenuated in men: by 34% for education, 29% for occupational position and 28% for income; but were only attenuated by 11% for income in women. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding percentages of reduction were 42, 31 and 44% after adjustment for 'CHD-prone' personality in men. Personality measures explained some of the mortality gradients observed for measures of adult socioeconomic position in men, but had little explanatory power in women. Whether personality represents a predictor or an outcome of social circumstances needs further research.
Article
This cross-sectional study examined the association between the severity of chronic hepatitis C and the type 1 personality, which has been shown by Grossarth-Maticek to be strongly related to the incidence of cancer and mortality. Sixty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C completed the Stress Inventory, a self-report questionnaire to measure psychosocial stress and personality, and were classified into three groups according to hepatitis severity: group A, chronic hepatitis C with a normal serum alanine aminotransferase level; group B, chronic hepatitis C with an elevated alanine aminotransferase level; and group C, liver cirrhosis. Each of four scales related to the type 1 personality--low sense of control, object dependence of loss, unfulfilled need for acceptance, and altruism--was significantly and positively associated with hepatitis severity. The type 1 score, calculated as the average of these scales, was also strongly related to hepatitis severity (p<0.0001), and adjustment for age, sex, education level, smoking, drinking, and duration brought no attenuation into the association. Chronic psychosocial stress relevant to the type 1 personality may also influence the course of chronic hepatitis C.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.