Metabolism of PCBs by the Deepwater Sculpin ( Myoxocephalus thompsoni )
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada Environmental Science and Technology
(Impact Factor: 5.33).
01/2002; 35(24):4747-52. DOI: 10.1021/es015571l
Methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO2-PCBs) are hydrophobic organic contaminants that bioaccumulate in the environment similar to their parent molecules, PCBs. Previously, MeSO2-PCBs have primarily been identified in tissues of birds, humans, and other mammals. However, evidence now supports formation of these metabolites in deepwater sculpin, Myoxocephalus thompsoni, a benthic forage fish predominant in the Great Lakes. The ability of deepwater sculpin to form MeSO2-PCBs is unprecedented for a freshwater fish species and presents a novel biochemical pathway for organochlorine metabolism. Additionally, this appears to be a unique PCB metabolic pathway resulting in a reduction of as much as 10% in the sculpin PCB burden, which is further transformed into another class of organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem.
Available from: Xiao-Jun Luo
- "The average concentration ratios of RMeSO 2 -PCBs/RPCBs in northern snakehead (0.00032) were much lower than those examined in plasma of glaucous gull (0.01 in females and 0.007 in males on average) (Verreault et al. 2005) and whole blood of polar bear (0.19 on average) (Sandala et al. 2004). These results indicated that the bioaccumulation or biotransformation of PCBs in fish was much lower than that in birds or mammals perhaps due to the lower CYP2B- like activity (Stapleton et al. 2001). The chiralities of several chiral PCB congeners were analyzed to gain insight into the enantioselective fate process of PCBs. "
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ABSTRACT: Halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs)—including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polybromobiphenyls (PBBs), dechlorane plus (DP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) as well as PCB metabolites (methylsulfone [MeSO2-]) and hydroxylated (OH-) PCBs and OH-PBDEs—were determined in the serum of mud carp and northern snakehead from an electronic-waste (e-waste) site in South China. The average concentrations (mean ± SD) of ΣPCBs, ΣPBDEs, ΣOCPs, ΣPBBs, ΣTBBPA, ΣHBCDs, and ΣDP were 1410 ± 324, 70 ± 20, 3.0 ± 0.4, 2.8 ± 0.8, 1.6 ± 0.4, 1.0 ± 0.2, and 0.3 ± 0.03 ng/g wet weight (ww) in mud carp and 6430 ± 781, 468 ± 49, 22.4 ± 1.1, 7.0 ± 0.6, 2.9 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.1, and 4.6 ± 0.6 ng/g ww in northern snakehead, respectively. MeSO2-PCBs, OH-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were detected at a total concentration of 0.44 ± 0.03 and 9.7 ± 0.3 ng/g ww in mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively. The congener profiles of PCBs, PBDEs, OH/MeSO2-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were found to be significantly different between the two fish species, possibly as a result of species-specific bioaccumulation and/or metabolism of the HOPs. Chirality of ten PCB congeners and α-HBCD, as well as the f
values of DP in the serum samples, supported the species-specific biotransformation of HOPs. Furthermore, the presence of covaried and counter-varied enantiomeric fractions of PCBs between the two fish species indicated species- and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment of PCBs.
- "PCBs 101, 118, 138, 149, 153, 170 and 180 are high chlorinated congeners, and presented higher contribution for PCB contamination in the three mullet species from the Mondego estuary. High chlorinated congeners are slowly eliminated metabolically (Stapleton et al., 2001; Wu et al., 2008), less volatile and more resistant to microbial degradation (Bazzanti et al., 1997; Zhou et al., 2001), therefore more persistent in the environment. So, once in the organism they tend to bioaccumulate, as they are not readily metabolized and excreted (Borga et al., 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic contaminants that tend to accumulate in organisms. PCBs were detected in Chelon labrosus, Liza aurata and Liza ramada, along different age groups. L. ramada presented the highest concentration, and it increased with age, whereas C. labrosus and L. aurata concentration remained constant. L. ramada high concentration can be attributed to its ecological niche, since this species is able to accumulate PCBs along its different age groups even in low environmental contamination conditions. PCBs 101, 118, 138, 149, 153, 170 and 180 were the congeners that more contributed to these species contamination, being PCB 138 and 153 the congeners with higher concentration. Mullets are edible in many countries, being important in fisheries and aquaculture. L. ramada is the most common mullet for capture and human consumption. All species presented concentrations below the regulation limit establish by the European Union, and therefore safe for human consumption.
- "This can be a concern when comparing food webs with different species of fish. Stapleton and colleagues, for example, have found that sculpin are able to produce methyl-sulfone PCB metabolites, thereby reducing their PCB burden relative to other fish (Stapleton et al. 2001). "
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ABSTRACT: Recent reviews by researchers from academia, industry, and government have revealed that the criteria used by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants under the United Nations Environment Programme are not always able to identify the actual bioaccumulative capacity of some substances, by use of chemical properties such as the octanol-water partitioning coefficient. Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were suggested as a more reliable tool for bioaccumulation assessment of chemicals that have been in commerce long enough to be quantitatively measured in environmental samples. TMFs are increasingly used to quantify biomagnification and represent the average diet-to-consumer transfer of a chemical through food webs. They differ from biomagnification factors, which apply to individual species and can be highly variable between predator-prey combinations. The TMF is calculated from the slope of a regression between the chemical concentration and trophic level of organisms in the food web. The trophic level can be determined from stable N isotope ratios (δ(15) N). In this article, we give the background for the development of TMFs, identify and discuss impacts of ecosystem and ecological variables on their values, and discuss challenges and uncertainties associated with contaminant measurements and the use of δ(15) N for trophic level estimations. Recommendations are provided for experimental design, data treatment, and statistical analyses, including advice for users on reporting and interpreting TMF data. Interspecies intrinsic ecological and organismal properties such as thermoregulation, reproductive status, migration, and age, particularly among species at higher trophic levels with high contaminant concentrations, can influence the TMF (i.e., regression slope). Following recommendations herein for study design, empirical TMFs are likely to be useful for understanding the food web biomagnification potential of chemicals, where the target is to definitively identify if chemicals biomagnify (i.e., TMF > or < 1). TMFs may be less useful in species- and site-specific risk assessments, where the goal is to predict absolute contaminant concentrations in organisms in relation to threshold levels.
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