Questioning CDC's "Select Agent" Criteria
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, California, United States Science
(Impact Factor: 33.61).
02/2002; 295(5552):43. DOI: 10.1126/science.295.5552.43b
Available from: rapporter.ffi.no
- "The biological threat agents may be disseminated by food, water, insect vectors, as aerosols or by direct contact, but their ability to cause contagiousness and infectivity vary, as well as their incubation period and their effectiveness to medical treatment (Table 1) (for extensive reading see Franz et al., 1997, Mandell et al., 2005). Human pathogenic fungi are not listed as potential biological threat agents in CDC's select agent list, except for the Coccidioidis spp., in contrast to mycotoxins that are fungal products (Fierer et al., 2002, Casadevall and Pirofski, 2006). "
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ABSTRACT: Coccidioidomycosis is caused by the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii. One of the endemic mycoses, this organism has been found solely in the semiarid to arid life zones of the southwestern United States, Mexico, and parts of Central America and South America. Clinical manifestations of disease vary greatly between patients and are largely dependent upon both the extent of exposure and the immune status of the host. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis continues to rise within the United States. Primary coccidioidal pneumonia accounts for close to 25% of all community-acquired pneumonia within endemic regions, reflecting the substantial burden of disease and health care costs associated with this infection. Although most patients with coccidioidomycosis resolve their initial infection without long-term complications, a minority of patients develop complications of disease ranging from asymptomatic pulmonary nodules to life-threatening disease such as meningitis. This review focuses on the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, spectrum of disease, and treatment options currently available for coccidioidomycosis.
Available from: Chiung-Yu Hung
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ABSTRACT: Coccidioides is a fungal pathogen of humans which can cause a life-threatening respiratory disease in immunocompetent individuals. Recurrent epidemics of coccidioidal infections in Southwestern United States has raised the specter of awareness of this soil-borne microbe, particularly among residents of Arizona and Southern California, and has galvanized research efforts to develop a human vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. In this review, we discuss the rationale for such a vaccine, examine the features of host innate and acquired immune response to Coccidioides infection, describe strategies used to identify and evaluate vaccine candidates, and provide an update on progress toward development of a vaccine against this endemic pathogen.
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