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Stanford Presenteeism Scale: Health Status and Employee Productivity

Authors:
  • University of California School of Medicine , San Francisco (UCSF) and University of Arizona School of Medicine

Abstract

Workforce productivity has become a critical factor in the strength and sustainability of a company's overall business performance. Absenteeism affects productivity; however, even when employees are physically present at their jobs, they may experience decreased productivity and below-normal work quality--a concept known as decreased presenteeism. This article describes the creation and testing of a presenteeism scale evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A total of 175 county health employees completed the 34-item Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-34). Using these results, we identified six key items to describe presenteeism, resulting in the SPS-6. The SPS-6 has excellent psychometric characteristics, supporting the feasibility of its use in measuring health and productivity. Further validation of the SPS-6 on actual presenteeism (work loss data) or health status (health risk assessment or utilization data) is needed.
... Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) is a famous scale that measure the presenteeism and it was developed by Koopman et al (2002). Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) is 6 items scale that measures the presenteeism of persons. ...
... In SPS, Stanford Presenteeism Scale, age, gender, ethnicity, years of education, marital status, and employment status were utilized as the items to assess the demographic characteristics of the respondents (Koopman et al., 2002). The relevant six items are mentioned below. ...
Article
Presenteeism is one of the major contemporary issues in Human Resource Management (HRM) as it negatively impacts on worker productivity and ultimately on organizational productivity and goal achievement. Thus, employee presenteeism which refers to attending work while ill needs to be discouraged. A systematic empirical study was carried out with regards to employee presenteeism owing to little research done, contextual gap and intellectual curiosity of authors. Objectives of the study were; (1) to find the degree of presenteeism of Sri Lankan executive and non-executive employees in Colombo District under study; (2) to find the impact of workload on employee presenteeism; (3) to find the impact of co-worker pressure on employee presenteeism; (4) to find the impact of supervisor pressure on employee presenteeism; (4) to find the overall impact of workload, co-worker pressure and supervisor pressure on employee presenteeism; and (5) to investigate whether there is any significant difference between male and female employees under study in terms of presenteeism. The nature of this study was analytical; time horizon was cross sectional; and the unit of analysis was individual. A theoretical framework was formulated based on some empirical evidences in literature review and logical beliefs of the authors. Three different instruments were developed by the authors to measure the workload, co-worker pressure, and supervisor pressure while Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS) was utilized to measure employee presenteeism. Reliability and validity of the instruments are assured. Survey method was utilized and 72 executive and non-executive employees in Colombo district responded to the questionnaire through the sampling technique of convenient sampling technique. Small sample size can be a major limitation of the study and it can be suggested to explore more on the difference between executive and non-executive employees in terms of presenteeism using a larger sample. The empirical findings revealed that the degree of employee presenteeism is between average and high and there is a significant positive impact from workload, co-worker pressure and supervisor pressure on employee presenteeism. Further it was revealed that there is no significant difference between male and female employees under the study in terms of presenteeism. Keywords: Co-worker Pressure, Presenteeism, Supervisor Pressure, Workload
... This is the 6-item instrument (SPS-6) developed by Koopman et al. [27], which evaluates the impact of health problems on individual work performance and overall perceived productivity for knowledge-based activity. This is a tool used for monitoring and measuring interventions and improvement of employee health status and productivity. ...
... Finally, sample six received the 68-item PRIWA along with the Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6) [27]. This was also a convenience sample of 148 workers from various companies (58.4% females and 40.9% males; mean age = 37.9 (11.4) years). ...
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Psychosocial risks constitute one of the major contemporary challenges for occupational health and safety. As early identification is the first step towards psychosocial risk management, the psychometric tool presented in the paper has been constructed in order to measure psychosocial risks as well as their impacts. The Psychosocial Risks and Impacts in the Workplace Assessment Tool (PRIWA) has been developed in Greek during the early years of the economic crisis. The paper presents the tool and the studies that were conducted to evaluate its psychometric characteristics. Six large samples of employees from many different Greek companies were administered the PRIWA and other tools. The results of the exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a seven-factor structure of the PRIWA, which was later confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Analyses were also performed to test internal consistency, item-to-scale homogeneity, and concurrent validity of the PRIWA. The results indicated that PRIWA is a reliable and valid psychometric tool, which gives its users the opportunity to conduct research, develop prevention plans, and/or design customized interventions.
... It entails having the abilities and expertise to comprehend and use medical information, as well as being able to successfully communicate with healthcare specialists. People may struggle to make informed health decisions if they lack the required skills and knowledge to grasp and apply this information [5], [6]. This can result in poor health and even unnecessary deaths. ...
... Automation and digital tools are two ways that technology can improve employee productivity. Automation can assist in streamlining operations and reducing the time and effort necessary to execute activities, resulting in enhanced productivity [5], [22]. Project management software and collaboration platforms, for example, can boost productivity by allowing staff to operate more efficiently and effectively. ...
Article
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The goal of this research was to examine the relationship between health literacy and employee productivity. We surveyed 232 employees and used multiple regression analysis to achieve the study's goal. According to the findings, health literacy has a positive and significant impact on employee productivity. This study also considered other relevant variables that could influence employee productivity. According to the findings, the work environment, technology, employee training, and work-life balance have positive and significant impacts on employee productivity. Employee productivity and health literacy have a complicated and nuanced relationship. Employers can improve their employees' quality of life and productivity by tackling low health literacy, resulting in overall improved business performance. According to the findings of this study, boosting health literacy and increasing staff productivity should be essential priorities for any firm. Providing information and resources on health and healthcare, encouraging preventative care and managing chronic disorders, developing workplace wellness programs, cultivating a culture of health and wellbeing, and facilitating access to healthcare specialists are all steps that can be taken to accomplish these aims. Employers can also maximize the productivity benefits of technology and a happy work environment by carefully assessing the tools and technologies employed and assuring their proper use, as well as taking into account the physical and social conditions under which work is performed. Workplace flexibility, such as telecommuting and flexible scheduling, can also help with work-life balance. Finally, investing in employee training and development can contribute to greater productivity through improving skills and knowledge.
... This research, which examines the relationship between career barrier, presenteeism, and teacher professionalism, was designed in the relational survey model. For this purpose, structural equation modeling (SEM), which is frequently used in relational research, was used as it allows to define predictive relationships between variables and to examine predictive relationships between variables at the same time [42,43,44,45,46]. The hypotheses created within the scope of the research are presented below. ...
... The Stanford Presenteeism Scale (SPS-6), which was developed by Koopman et al. (2002) with the contributions of Mark & Co., Inc., Ardmore, PE, USA, and consists of 6 items in total, was used. The low total score obtained from the scale symbolizes a positive situation. ...
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The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of career barriers and presenteeism behaviors of physical education and sports teachers on teacher professionalism through a structural equation model. The hypotheses presented because of the literature review were tested with the fictional model. The sample of the study consists of a total of 411 physical education and sports teachers, who work in Ankara. As data collection tools, the Teachers' Career Barriers Scale, the Stanford Pres-enteeism Scale and the Teacher Professionalism Scale were used in the research. In the analysis of the data, the theoretically created model was tested through a structural equation model. Considering the findings obtained from the research, it can be stated that the participants are faced with career barriers, that they exhibit their presenteeism behaviors at a reasonable level, and that the professionalism level is above average. On the other hand, it was concluded that male participants encountered more career barriers and displayed more presenteeism behavior, while female participants had a higher professionalism level than that of male participants. In addition, it was determined that administrative barriers affect teacher professionalism, while presenteeism behaviors do not have an impact on professionalism level.
... However, other aspects which can negatively impact productivity are identified, such as presenteeism 3 . This is a phenomenon that is difficult to identify, since people remain physically present apparently performing their duties 2,4 , but show a decrease in cognitive, emotional and behavioral engagement during working hours due to the fact that the employee goes to work when they have a health problem 5 . ...
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Objetivo: identificar a prevalência de presenteísmo em profissionais de saúde e analisar a influência de variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais sobre esse fenômeno, bem como sua influência sobre o índice de capacidade para o trabalho. Método: estudo observacional, transversal com abordagem quantitativa, realizado com 299 profissionais de saúde de um hospital público de ensino. Utilizou-se os instrumentos: Índice de Capacidade para o Trabalho e a Escala de Presenteísmo de Stanford. Aplicaram-se testes de Regressão linear múltipla e de regressão logística. Resultados: a análise de regressão logística revelou que as mulheres tiveram chance 1,88 vezes maior (1,06-3,32 e p=0,03) de apresentar presenteísmo. A regressão linear múltipla mostrou influência dos seguintes preditores na capacidade para o trabalho: presenteísmo (β=-0,35, p<0,001), sexo (β=-0,28, p<0,001) e categoria profissional (β=-0,12, p=0,03). Conclusão: o presenteísmo prevaleceu entre os profissionais de saúde e exerceu influência na sua capacidade para o trabalho.ABSTRACTObjective: to identify the prevalence of presenteeism among health personnel and to examine the influence of sociodemographic and occupational variables on this phenomenon, as well as its influence on the work ability index. Method: this quantitative, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted with 299 health personnel from a public teaching hospital. The Work Ability Index and the Stanford Presenteeism Scale were used. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression tests were applied. Results: logistic regression analysis revealed that women were 1.88 times more likely (1.06-3.32 and p=0.03) to display presenteeism. Multiple linear regression showed following predictors influenced work ability: presenteeism (β ­= ‑0.35, p<0.001), gender (β=‑0.28, p<0.001) and professional category (β=‑0.12, p=0.03). Conclusion: presenteeism was prevalent among health personnel and influenced their ability to work.RESUMENObjetivo: identificar la prevalencia del presentismo entre profesionales de la salud y analizar la influencia de variables sociodemográficas y ocupacionales sobre este fenómeno, así como su influencia en el índice de capacidad para el trabajo. Método: estudio observacional transversal con enfoque cuantitativo, realizado con 299 profesionales de la salud de un hospital público de enseñanza. Se utilizaron los siguientes instrumentos: Índice de Capacidad para el Trabajo y la Escala de Presentismo de Stanford. Se aplicaron pruebas de regresión lineal múltiple y regresión logística. Resultados: El análisis de regresión logística reveló que las mujeres tenían 1,88 veces más probabilidades (1,06-3,32 y p=0,03) de presentismo. La regresión lineal múltiple mostró la influencia de los siguientes predictores sobre la capacidad laboral: presentismo (β=-0.35, p<0.001), género (β=-0.28, p<0.001) y categoría profesional (β=-0,12, p=0.03). Conclusión: el presentismo prevaleció entre los profesionales de la salud e influyó en su capacidad de trabajo.
Chapter
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Çalışmada presenteeism (işte var olamama) kavramının ilk öncelikle tanımı yapılacaktır. Daha sonra kavramın önemi üzerinde durulacaktır. Bu kavramın örgütlere maliyeti hakkında bilgi verilecektir. Presenteeismin nedenleri ve sonuçları açıklanacak ve mücadele yöntemleri hakkında bilgi aktarılacaktır.
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There is a broad understanding that a relationship exists between leaders' behavior and employees' reaction, particularly in the sense of presenteeism, which ensures the good health of employees. However, we agree that much less is understood about potential mediating processes that underline the links between supervisory support, presenteeism and employees' support. in this study, the indicators of employee performance are linked with presenteeism, while supervisor support plays a mediating factor. We linked social learning theory, where individuals value observable behaviors. The findings of the study revealed a positive relationship between presenteeism and employee performance in Erzincan state of Turkey. The study found positive mediation of supervisory support between presenteeism and employee performance. The relationship of the research model was tested with the help of implementation of adopted questionnaires from 280 individuals who responded as potential participants. The analysis explored positive remarks of the hypothesis (accepted). The findings of the study, contributes to both the academic and non-academic arenas, leading to potential understanding as to the importance of both presenteeism and supervisory support. JEL: M0, E2, Q10
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In recent years, presenteeism has been mentioned in the organizational behavior literature as compulsory citizenship behavior, absenteeism, etc. It has become a prominent concept with the beginning of the examination of negative organizational behavior issues. In general terms, presenteeism is the situation where an individual is physically present at the workplace but cannot be there mentally due to physiological or psychological disorders. There are many articles, papers, books, postgraduate theses in the literature about presenteeism. In this direction, the aim of the study is to examine the postgraduate articles in the YÖK Thesis Database on presenteeism in terms of research methods. As a result of the findings obtained from the research, it was seen that the quantitative research method and the survey data collection method were preferred in the graduate theses in the YÖK Thesis Database and in the articles produced from these theses. In addition, the most preferred sampling method is convenience sampling and Koopman et al. (2002) Stanford Preenteeism Scale was preferred. In addition, it has been observed that the majority of the articles produced from these theses were published in international peer-reviewed journals. Keywords: Social Sciences, Research Methods, Quantitative Research Methods, Survey, Presenteeism
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