Alterations in Muc2 biosynthesis and secretion during dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Erasmus Medical Center, Dr Molewaterplein 30, 3015 GE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.8). 03/2002; 282(2):G382-9. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00229.2001
Source: PubMed


To gain insight into mucin 2 (Muc2) synthesis and secretion during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, rats were treated with DSS for 7 days. Colonic segments were excised on days 0 (control), 2 (onset of disease), 7 (active disease), and 14 (regenerative phase) for histological evaluation. Explants were metabolically labeled with (35)S-labeled amino acids or [(35)S]sulfate followed by chase incubation. Homogenates were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and (35)S-labeled Muc2 was quantified. Also, total Muc2 protein and mRNA were quantified. DSS-induced crypt loss, ulcerations, and concomitant goblet cell loss were most pronounced in the distal colon. Muc2 precursor synthesis increased progressively in the proximal colon but was unaltered in the distal colon during onset and active disease. During the regenerative phase, Muc2 precursor synthesis levels normalized in the proximal colon but increased in the distal colon. Total Muc2 levels paralleled the changes seen in Muc2 precursor synthesis levels. During each disease phase, total Muc2 secretion was unaltered in the proximal and distal colon. [(35)S]sulfate incorporation into Muc2 only decreased in the proximal colon during active disease and the regenerative phase, whereas secretion of [(35)S]sulfate-labeled Muc2 increased. During the regenerative phase, Muc2 mRNA levels were downregulated in both colonic segments. In conclusion, DSS-induced loss of goblet cells was accompanied by an increase or maintenance of Muc2 precursor synthesis, total Muc2 levels, and Muc2 secretion. In the proximal colon, Muc2 became undersulfated, whereas sulfated Muc2 was preferentially secreted. Collectively, these data suggest specific adaptations of the mucus layer to maintain the protective capacities during DSS-induced colitis.

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Available from: Jan Dekker, Jan 21, 2014
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    • "These results explain why an increase in mucus production in colitis may occur even in the presence of mucus cell depletion. Further, Renes et al [30] found reduced number of goblet cells during active DSS-induced colitis accompanied by maintained Muc2 precursor synthesis and total level of secreted Muc2 in the distal colon. These results indicate an increased Muc2 synthesis per goblet cell. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS mediated increase.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · PLoS ONE
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    • "One of the most comprehensively illustrated models of experimental colitis is Dextran Sodium Sulphate (DSS) induced colitis which mimics the clinical and histological features of human UC as the colonic lesions exhibits high homogeneity and reproducibility [3]. Acute and chronic colitis induced by DSS has been used to study changes in metabolically labeled and tissue mucin content [4] and/or changes in epithelial permeability, MPO and pro-inflammatory cytokines [4]. However, the inflammatory mediators that play a role in disease onset and progression of colitis are poorly defined. "
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    ABSTRACT: The sequential events and the inflammatory mediators that characterize disease onset and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC) are not well known. In this study, we evaluated the early pathologic events in the pathogenesis of colonic ulcers in rats treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Following a lag phase, day 5 of DSS treatment was found clinically most critical as disease activity index (DAI) exhibited an exponential rise with severe weight loss and rectal bleeding. Surprisingly, on days 1-2, colonic TNF-α expression (70-80-fold) and tissue protein (50-fold) were increased, whereas IL-1β only increased on days 7-9 (60-90-fold). Days 3-6 of DSS treatment were characterized by a prominent down regulation in the expression of regulatory cytokines (40-fold for IL-10 and TGFβ) and mucin genes (15-18 fold for Muc2 and Muc3) concomitant with depletion of goblet cell and adherent mucin. Remarkably, treatment with TNF-α neutralizing antibody markedly altered DSS injury with reduced DAI, restoration of the adherent and goblet cell mucin and IL-1β and mucin gene expression. We conclude that early onset colitis is dependent on TNF-α that preceded depletion of adherent and goblet cell mucin prior to epithelial cell damage and these biomarkers can be used as therapeutic targets for UC.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2011 · PLoS ONE
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    • "These include mouse strains with manipulated innate and adaptive immune systems, but still some of these models require DSS challenge [17]. Typically animals are given a 3–5% solution of DSS in their drinking water, which induces inflammation and bloody diarrhea after 4–7 days [18]. How DSS initiates the colonic inflammation is not well understood despite its wide use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Protection of the large intestine with its enormous amount of commensal bacteria is a challenge that became easier to understand when we recently could describe that colon has an inner attached mucus layer devoid of bacteria (Johansson et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 15064-15069). The bacteria are thus kept at a distance from the epithelial cells and lack of this layer, as in Muc2-null mice, allow bacteria to contact the epithelium. This causes colitis and later on colon cancer, similar to the human disease Ulcerative Colitis, a disease that still lacks a pathogenetic explanation. Dextran Sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water is the most widely used animal model for experimental colitis. In this model, the inflammation is observed after 3-5 days, but early events explaining why DSS causes this has not been described. When mucus formed on top of colon explant cultures were exposed to 3% DSS, the thickness of the inner mucus layer decreased and became permeable to 2 microm fluorescent beads after 15 min. Both DSS and Dextran readily penetrated the mucus, but Dextran had no effect on thickness or permeability. When DSS was given in the drinking water to mice and the colon was stained for bacteria and the Muc2 mucin, bacteria were shown to penetrate the inner mucus layer and reach the epithelial cells already within 12 hours, long before any infiltration of inflammatory cells. DSS thus causes quick alterations in the inner colon mucus layer that makes it permeable to bacteria. The bacteria that reach the epithelial cells probably trigger an inflammatory reaction. These observations suggest that altered properties or lack of the inner colon mucus layer may be an initial event in the development of colitis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · PLoS ONE
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