Article

Reduction of Mental Stress with Lavender Odorant

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Abstract

The effect of the lavender odorant on a Japanese version of Cox and Mackay's stress/arousal adjective checklist for three groups was studied. One group of 14 was placed into a (2 x 2- x 3 m) sound protected room for 20 min without the presentation of an odor, an analogous group of 15 received the odor oil, and one group of 13 received a nonstressful condition. Analysis suggested that lavender odorants were associated with reduced mental stress and increased arousal rate.

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... The searches identified 629 potentially relevant studies, 5 of which met our inclusion criteria (Fig. 1). The key data are summarized in Table 1 [19][20][21][22][23]. A total of 147 participants were included in these trials. ...
... A total of 147 participants were included in these trials. Two RCTs originated from Korea [20,23], and other three studies were conducted in Japan [19,21,22]. All RCTs used aromatherapy as inhalation [19][20][21][22][23] and one of them used aromatherapy with massage in one group [23]. ...
... Two RCTs originated from Korea [20,23], and other three studies were conducted in Japan [19,21,22]. All RCTs used aromatherapy as inhalation [19][20][21][22][23] and one of them used aromatherapy with massage in one group [23]. All of the included studies employed one time intervention and measured the effects on stress reduction. ...
Article
The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effectiveness of aromatherapy for stress management. Seven databases were searched from their inception through April 2014. RCTs testing aromatherapy against any type of controls in healthy human person that assessed stress level and cortisol level were considered. Two reviewers independently performed the selection of the studies, data abstraction and validations. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria, and most of them had high risk of bias. Four RCTs tested the effects of aroma inhalation compared with no treatment, no aroma, and no odour oil. The meta-analysis suggested that aroma inhalation has favourable effects on stress management (n = 80; standard mean difference (SMD), −0.96; 95% CI, −1.44 to −0.48; P < 0.0001; I2 = 0%). Three of included RCTs tested aroma inhalation on saliva or serum cortisol level compared with control and meta-analysis failed to show significant difference between two groups (n = 88, SMDs −0.62; 95% CIs −1.26 to 0.02, P = 0.06, I2 = 42%). In conclusion, there is limited evidence suggesting that aroma inhalation may be effective in controlling stress. However, the number, size and quality of the RCTs are too low to draw firm conclusions.
... For the fragrances stimuli, lavender (L), olibanum (O), palmarosa (P), blended fragrances based on olibanum (O29), and blended fragrances based on palmarosa (P12) were mainly tested in this study. The 'lavender' was selected as a positive control because lavender has already been well studied its anxiolytic, sedative, anti-depressive, and calming properties through previous studies [34][35][36]. Other essential oils were selected by the pre-test. ...
... Then, we observed whether fragrance could restore the symptom-dependent EEG indexes. Our EEG results verified the relaxing effects of fragrances [34,36,[43][44][45][46]. The EEG pattern of Fragrances showed the possibility to alleviate menopausal symptoms [28,30,47,48], reported previously, and showed similar relaxing effects with behavioral or autonomic sympathetic activity in Fig. 3. Interestingly, only EEG results showed that fragrances affect more strongly to mid-life women with severe menopausal symptoms (Fig. 4). ...
... Notably, we confirmed that lavender is an effective fragrance in case of anxiety symptoms in mid-life women using our method. Lavender has already been well characterized in terms of its anxiolytic, sedative, anti-depressive, and calming properties [34][35][36]. Moreover, the anxiolytic effect of lavender is reportedly accompanied by changes in the EEG pattern in humans [43]. ...
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During mid-life, women experienced not only physical but also neurological transition. Because of this, many women suffer from physiological and/or psychological menopausal symptoms. Although hormone therapy (HT) was broadly used to alleviate menopausal symptoms, HT showed inconsistent effects in case of psychological symptoms. Moreover, mid-life women's brains have distinct characteristics than in other periods of life, it is needed to study psychological symptoms in shifted brain network of mid-life women. As an alternative, inhalation of fragrances may alleviate psychological menopausal symptoms. To characterize the alleviation mechanism by fragrances, we tested the effect of fragrances on menopausal symptoms using electroencephalographic (EEG) methods. We hypothesized that fragrance could restore mid-life women's brain response to stressful situations. We tested six fragrance conditions, including no-odor condition (solvent only) in twenty-eight mid-life women (49.75 years±3.49). Our results showed that fragrances increased alpha power and decreased β/α ratio depending on the severity of menopausal symptoms in a stressful situation. Our study would be helpful in psychological menopausal symptom alleviation as well as fragrance screening for well-being in mid-life.
... Research on the use of aromatherapy to relieve stress shows that aroma inhalation has a positive effect on stress of healthy adults [26][27][28], and studies where nurses were selected as subjects also have found that aroma inhalation and massage are effective in relieving stress [29,30]. Therefore, aromatherapy essential oils may be effective in reducing bad breath and stress. ...
... The results showed that the subjective reported stress levels were reduced more in the aroma group compared to the saline solution and control groups. These results are consistent with the results of a study with ordinary people [26][27][28], nurses [29], patients with high blood pressure [37,38], and dental patients [39]. The essential oils used in these previous studies were lavender, ylang ylang, bergamot, marjoram, neroli, geranium and peppermint, and when used as an inhalation was effective in relieving stress. ...
Article
Introduction: Stress may increase halitosis. As aromatherapy is known to reduce stress, this study aimed to investigate the effects of aroma mouthwash using peppermint, lemon, tea tree, and ylang ylang oil on stress level, xerostomia, halitosis, and salivary pH of nurses. Methods: One hundred twenty nurses were allocated to one of three groups, aroma gargling (N =40), saline gargling (N =40) or no-treatment (N =40). The aromatic gargle solution was blended by a certified aromatherapist and researcher. Peppermint (Mentha piperita), lemon (Citrus limon), tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were mixed in 1:1:2:1 ratios. For gargling, the nurses who consented to participate in the study used 15-20cm³ of the blended aromatic gargle solutionaccording to the protocol, 3 times a day for 10-15s at a time. Results: The perceived stress in the aroma gargling group was significantly lowered compared with control group and saline group at 10 min (p <. .001) and 30. min (p <. .001). Xerostomia in the aroma group decreased significantly compared with the saline solution and control groups after the treatment (p <. .001). Aroma gargling reduced objective halitosis (p <. .001 after 10. min; p <. .001 after 30 min). Salivary pH in the aroma group significantly increased compared with the control and saline groups (p <. .001 after10. min; p <. .001 after 30. min). Conclusion: The aroma gargle was an effective intervention for relieving stress for the nurses, according to decreasing xerostomia, and reducing objective halitosis. Using an aroma gargle may enhance the quality of life of nurses.
... Application of aromatherapy has shown recent growth as a complementary and alternative medicine for pain alleviation, stress management, relaxation in daily life, and enhancement of meditation in clinical practice [1,2]. Particularly in clinical applications, aromatherapy has been used to reduce pain and accompanying unpleasantness [3][4][5]. ...
... A lavender odor is particularly effective in alleviating pain. The effects of the lavender odor are (1) to improve the quality of sleep; (2) to ease pain and its unpleasantness; and (3) to help body and mind relax. " We also explained that "There are two example studies that show the lavender odor pronouncedly reduces anxiety [4] and pain sensation [5] after surgery. ...
Article
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No previous report has described whether information regarding an odor used in aromatherapy has placebo effects. We investigated whether placebo analgesia was engendered by verbal information regarding the analgesic effects of an odor. Twelve of 24 subjects were provided with the information that a lavender odor would reduce pain (informed), whereas the other 12 subjects were not (not-informed). Concurrent with respiration recording, the subjects were administered a lavender-odor or no-odor treatment during application of painful stimulation to the forefinger. The subjects reported their experience of pain and its unpleasantness on a visual analogue scale after the painful stimulation. The lavender-odor treatment significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with the no-odor treatment in the informed (P < 0.01) and not-informed groups (P < 0.05). The no-odor treatment in the informed group significantly alleviated pain and unpleasantness compared with both the no-odor and lavender-odor treatments in the not-informed group (P < 0.05). Rapid and shallow breathing induced by the painful stimulation became slow and deep during the lavender-odor and no-odor treatments in both groups. Information regarding a lavender odor, the lavender odor itself, and slower breathing contributed to reduced perceptions of pain and unpleasantness during painful stimulation, suggesting that placebo effects significantly contribute to analgesia in aromatherapy.
... It has been long known that the sense of smell influences how we experience the world around us and ourselves [41,80]. For instance, scents not only regulate approach and avoidance behavior [18] and evoke pleasant or unpleasant experiences [27], but also modulate mood [80], attention [45], stress [57], memories [39], and, as recently demonstrated, body image [12]. The latter has been defined as the way we perceive our own body is not fixed, it changes continuously in response to sensory signals in the environment [76]. ...
... Test [57] in the online survey); ...
Article
Previous research has shown the influence of smell on emotions, memories, and body image. However, most of this work has taken place in laboratory settings and little is known about the influence of smell in real-world environments. In this paper, we present novel insights gained from a field study investigating the emotional effect of smell on memories and body image. Taking inspiration from the cultural design probes approach, we designed QuintEssence, a probe package that includes three scents and materials to complete three tasks over a period of four weeks. Here, we describe the design of QuintEssence and the main findings based on the outcomes of the three tasks and a final individual interview. The findings show similar results between participants based on the scent. For example, with cinnamon, participants experienced feelings of warmth, coziness, happiness, and relaxation; they recalled blurred memories of past moments about themselves and reported a general feeling of being calm and peaceful towards their bodies. Our findings open up new design spaces for multisensory experiences and inspire future qualitative explorations beyond laboratory boundaries.
... Researchers have examined the impact of a variety of aromas. Motomura et al. examined the effects of lavender odorant [1], and their results show that lavender odorants were associated with reduced mental stress and increased arousal rate. Baron & Kalsher examined the role of aroma on driving performance [2]. ...
... A plasma display showed various visual tasks that the subjects were asked to do. A mouse that the subjects clicked to answer the 1 We used "Aromageur [6]", a device that can be used to control the amount of aroma released and how long it is released for. We thus set the aroma in the experimental room at almost the same consistency for all subjects. ...
Article
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In our research, we aim to construct an olfactory delivery system for cars that can be used to keep a driver who is at risk of falling asleep awake. This system releases aromas at a specific time and at a specific place. Furthermore, as this system delivers pleasant aromas, it improves passengers' levels of comfort. Some researches have examined the effect of aromas on levels of alertness. We further assume that the way used to deliver the aroma is also very important because of the rapid adaptation of the human olfactory perception system. We examine whether temporary and spatially located delivery of aromas can wake up sleepy subjects better than when aromas are delivered at a constant rate.
... Among our five senses, smell is the most intimately tied to emotions and connected to the memory, thus explaining the strong evocative power of odors. Actually some essences produce a significant effect on both emotional and psychic balance, able to relieve anxiety, sadness and the harmful effects of stress [6][7][8][9]. ...
... Some particular mood, such as anxiety and fear, can be modulated by the use of specific essences, whose inhalation is able to produce emotional well-being, calm and relaxation [10][11][12]. These include lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), [6] Damascus rose (Rosa Damascena) and sandalwood (Santalum album), but especially bergamot essence (Citrus bergamia), for its regulatory action on blood pressure as well on the heart rate [13][14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Few studies have evaluated interventions to decrease a woman’s anxiety awaiting or undergoing mammography. Focused on Quantum PNEI, this paper reports a review of most common complementary and alternative therapies and their implementation aimed to reduce anxiety in women waiting or undergoing mammography. The goal is lighten the psychological burden of the mammography experience as well make positioning easier. Further considerations are made about the practice of meditation among the medical and paramedical staff to promote awareness.
... [6][7][8] Relevant publications in the literature report that lavender essential oils have shown promising effects on pain, 6,7 comfort, [8][9][10] stress, and anxiety. [11][12][13][14][15][16] The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of inhaler aromatherapy on pain, comfort, anxiety, and cortisol levels when it was applied during trigger point injection in individuals with MPS. ...
... In the literature, studies investigating the effects of aromatherapy on stress and anxiety in different patient groups have been conducted and several other studies have established the positive impact of aromatherapy on the level of anxiety. 15,16,38 Although these results are consistent with our study, a few studies did not show the same effect. 39,40 In this study, inhalation of lavender oil essence had no effect on the saliva cortisol levels of the patients. ...
Article
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The objective of this study was to examine the effects of inhaler aromatherapy on the level of pain, comfort, anxiety, and cortisol during trigger point injection in individuals with myofascial pain syndrome. Lavender oil inhalation was found to reduce pain and anxiety during trigger point injection and to improve patient comfort, but it did not affect the saliva cortisol level.
... So these actions may allow the use of essential oil in memory disorders and apathy that are very common in severe psychiatric disorders including Parkinson"s disease, catatonic schizophrenia. [31][32][33][34][35][36] Pharmacokinetics ...
Article
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Aromatherapy is most commonly used therapy for the relaxation purpose to overcome the symptoms associated with psychiatric disorders. Essential oils are most commonly used substances for this purpose. These are obtained from various plant species including lavender, rosemary, sage, and salvia. The objective of this study was to evaluate aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. A computer-based search of Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Cinahl, PsycINFO, AMED, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. Trials were included if they were potential human trials assessing aromatherapy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders and utilized validated instruments to assess participant eligibility and clinical endpoints. Selection criteria of the study was decided and taken into consideration. Trials were identified that met all eligibility requirements. Individual trials investigating botanical sources and clinical effects of essential oils used in aromatherapy. Results of the trials are discussed to form the basis of a recommendation. No good quality evidence were identified on which to base a recommendation. However, no serious side effects were reported in any of the study on use of aromatherapy. Further studies are recommended to reach at any conclusion.
... [119] 7. Lavender Lavender odorants were associated with reduced mental stress and increased arousal rate. [122] 8. Peppermint Enhanced physical performance and generating more push-ups and running faster. [135] 9. Isovaleric acid, thiophenol, pyridine, L-menthol, isoamyl acetate, and 1,8-cineole ...
Article
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The influence of fragrances such as perfumes and room fresheners on the psychophysiological activities of humans has been known for a long time, and its significance is gradually increasing in the medicinal and cosmetic industries. A fragrance consists of volatile chemicals with a molecular weight of less than 300 Da that humans perceive through the olfactory system. In humans, about 300 active olfactory receptor genes are devoted to detecting thousands of different fragrance molecules through a large family of olfactory receptors of a diverse protein sequence. The sense of smell plays an important role in the physiological effects of mood, stress, and working capacity. Electrophysiological studies have revealed that various fragrances affected spontaneous brain activities and cognitive functions, which are measured by an electroencephalograph (EEG). The EEG is a good temporal measure of responses in the central nervous system and it provides information about the physiological state of the brain both in health and disease. The EEG power spectrum is classified into different frequency bands such as delta (0.5–4 Hz), theta (4–8 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz) and gamma (30–50 Hz), and each band is correlated with different features of brain states. A quantitative EEG uses computer software to provide the topographic mapping of the brain activity in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital brain regions. It is well known that decreases of alpha and beta activities and increases of delta and theta activities are associated with brain pathology and general cognitive decline. In the last few decades, many scientific studies were conducted to investigate the effect of inhalation of aroma on human brain functions. The studies have suggested a significant role for olfactory stimulation in the alteration of cognition, mood, and social behavior. This review aims to evaluate the available literature regarding the influence of fragrances on the psychophysiological activities of humans with special reference to EEG changes.
... In order for an odor to be therapeutically effective it must be both associated to, and perceived as, possessing specific positive emotional qualities. That is, the scent of lavender may induce positive feelings of relaxation [69,70], but only if lavender scent is known to be and associated to pleasant calming emotions for a given individual. If a certain scent is not known to be "lavender", if it is disliked, or if it believed to be stimulating it may instead increase physiological indices of arousal. ...
Article
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This article discusses the special features of odor-evoked memory and the current state-of-the-art in odor-evoked memory research to show how these unique experiences may be able to influence and benefit psychological and physiological health. A review of the literature leads to the conclusion that odors that evoke positive autobiographical memories have the potential to increase positive emotions, decrease negative mood states, disrupt cravings, and reduce physiological indices of stress, including systemic markers of inflammation. Olfactory perception factors and individual difference characteristics that would need to be considered in therapeutic applications of odor-evoked-memory are also discussed. This article illustrates how through the experimentally validated mechanisms of odor-associative learning and the privileged neuroanatomical relationship that exists between olfaction and the neural substrates of emotion, odors can be harnessed to induce emotional and physiological responses that can improve human health and wellbeing.
... Aroma oils can be inhaled or massaged over the skin; the applied oil vaporizes and stimulates the olfactory system [157]. L. angustifolia aroma oil reduces mental stress and increases arousal [158]. Likewise, Yuzu essential oil (Citrus junos Sieb. ...
Article
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Chemical compounds from plants have been used as a medicinal source for various diseases. Aromachology is a unique field that studies the olfactory effects after inhaling aromatic compounds. Aromatherapy is a complementary treatment methodology involving the use of essential oils containing phytoncides and other volatile organic compounds for various physical and mental illnesses. Phytoncides possess an inherent medicinal property. Their health benefits range from treating stress, immunosuppression, blood pressure, respiratory diseases, anxiety, and pain to anti-microbial, anti-larvicidal, antiseptic , anti-cancer effects, etc. Recent advancements in aromatherapy include forest bathing or forest therapy. The inhalation of phytoncide-rich forest air has been proven to reduce stress-induced immunosuppression, normalize immune function and neuroendocrine hormone levels, and, thus, restore physiological and psychological health. The intricate mechanisms related to how aroma converts into olfactory signals and how the olfactory signals relieve physical and mental illness still pose enormous questions and are the subject of ongoing research. Aroma-therapy using the aroma of essential oils/phytoncides could be more innovative and attractive to patients. Moreover, with fewer side effects, this field might be recognized as a new field of complementary medicine in alleviating some forms of physical and mental distress. Essential oils are important assets in aromatherapy, cosmetics, and food preservatives. The use of essential oils as an aromatherapeutic agent is widespread. Detailed reports on the effects of EOs in aromatherapy and their pharmacological effects are required to uncover its complete biological mechanism. This review is about the evolution of research related to phytoncides containing EOs in treating various ailments and provides comprehensive details from complementary medicine.
... Many studies have been performed to analyze sleep quality in the presence of different odors. For example, Polysomnographic measurements have been performed to examine the effects of peppermint [17,28,29], lavender [30,31], jasmine, and lavender [15] odors on sleep; sleep patterns; relaxation effects; alertness; cognitive performance; and mood. ...
Chapter
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In this study, the volatile compounds of white mother chrysanthemum flower were analyzed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and gas chromatography–olfactometry (GC–O) analysis approaches. To investigate the effect of white mother chrysanthemum odor on sleep quality, polysomnography sleep tests and subjective evaluations were performed. A skin-lightening test was performed to investigate the effects of the newly developed night cosmetic cream. During the polysomnography sleep test, 20 female subjects were tested on two separate days: one with fragranced cream and the other with fragrance-free cream. The skin-lightening test was composed of two groups: 10 subjects applied fragrance-free night cream and other 10 subjects applied fragranced night cream. They applied the cosmetic cream to their faces once a day before sleep for 4 weeks. The results show that sleep efficiency was significantly affected by the mother chrysanthemum odor but found that the reconstituted fragrance of white mother chrysanthemum flowers had a skin-lightening effect through sound sleep.
... The criticisms raised by the previous reviews were addressed by evaluating stress-reducing properties of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil in a more rigorous study. Lavender, popular for relaxation and stress reduction [6], has been previously shown to improve cognition [7] and decrease agitation [8,9], stress [10][11][12][13], and anxiety [14][15][16][17]. However, some studies demonstrated no specific lavender effects concluding that the changes after aromatherapy exposure occur solely due to expectancy of improvement [18,19] and considered aromatherapy an "ineffective treatment but an effective placebo" [20]. ...
Article
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Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention.
... Both oils arephototoxic -avoid exposure to the sun following their use. 32,33 • Cypress: Is powerful astringent, being used locally for circulatory problemssuch as fluid retention, cramp and varicose veins. Its locally-constrictingaction on capillaries makes it invaluable for treating haemorrhoids. ...
Article
Aromatherapy is categorized as a form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and has been steadily gaining popularity in today’s society. The word aromatherapy is used to describe the use of essential oils for aromatic inhalation, compresses and topical application through massage. The inhaled aroma from these "essential" oils is widely believed to stimulate brain function. Essential oils can also be absorbed through the skin, where they travel through the bloodstream and can promote whole-body healing. There are a wide number of essential oils available, each with its own healing properties. The present review focus on scenario of aromatherapy, modes of application, mechanism of action, types and health benefits.
... Lavender oil has been used curatively for centuries because of its soothing, sleep-inducing ------*Corresponding author: * and anxiolytic effects 14 . Lavender essential oils are famous for its different uses but especially its psychological effects as an anti-anxiety remedy for moods of impatience, irritability, and panic [15][16][17] . Additionally, small clinical trials have explored the antidepressant effectiveness of lavender oil, showing that lavender oil used in aromatherapy has a favorable effect on mood and can condense relaxation as observed in the increased beta power in EEG activity and reducing workplace stress-related symptoms 18,19 . ...
Article
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Test anxiety is an important factor that negatively affects nursing students’ success during the education process. The objective of this study was to identify the effectiveness of aromatherapy in decreasing test anxiety levels in nursing students. This experimental trial study’s sample consisted of 2nd year nursing students (n=154) at Faculty of Health Sciences, Ataturk University, in the 2013-2014 academic years. Personal information form and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1) were used to collect relevant data. Aromatherapy was applied by the inhalation method to the students in the experimental group during exam. As a result of the study, it was found that State-Trait Anxiety Inventory mean scores of the students in the experimental group was lower than the mean scores of the students in the control group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was determined that the lavender essential oil has effects on test anxiety. The results of this study can be integrated into education strategies for students who suffer from test-taking anxiety. The results of this study may guide the students and nursing educators to try lavender and other essential oils to reduce test-taking anxiety. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
... Das Risiko der kardiopulmonalen Depression wurde v. a. bei älteren Patienten beobachtet [5,6]. Darüber hinaus wurden Studien veröffentlicht, die eine angstreduzierende Wirkung durch nicht-invasive Methoden beschreiben, wie etwa durch ▶ den Einsatz von Lavendel [7], ▶ Musik [8,9] oder ▶ beruhigende Naturvideofilme. ...
Article
Es gibt unterschiedliche Auffassungen zur Rolle der Endoskopiepflegekraft bei Gastroskopien, die ohne Sedierung durchgefuhrt werden. Einige Endoskopiepflegekrafte vertreten die Haltung, dass entsprechende Informationen vor dem Eingriff ausreichend sind, um Angst zu reduzieren sowie Toleranz und Zufriedenheit zu verbessern, wahrend andere glauben, dass ein spezielles Verhaltenstraining und positive Verstarkung wahrend der Gastroskopie ebenfalls notwendig sind.
... Lavender oil has been used curatively for centuries because of its soothing, sleep-inducing ------*Corresponding author: * and anxiolytic effects 14 . Lavender essential oils are famous for its different uses but especially its psychological effects as an anti-anxiety remedy for moods of impatience, irritability, and panic [15][16][17] . Additionally, small clinical trials have explored the antidepressant effectiveness of lavender oil, showing that lavender oil used in aromatherapy has a favorable effect on mood and can condense relaxation as observed in the increased beta power in EEG activity and reducing workplace stress-related symptoms 18,19 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Test anxiety is an important factor that negatively affects nursing students' success during the education process. The objective of this study was to identify the effectiveness of aromatherapy in decreasing test anxiety levels in nursing students. This experimental trial study's sample consisted of 2 nd year nursing students (n=154) at Faculty of Health Sciences, Ataturk University, in the 2013-2014 academic years. Personal information form and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI 1) were used to collect relevant data. Aromatherapy was applied by the inhalation method to the students in the experimental group during exam. As a result of the study, it was found that State-Trait Anxiety Inventory mean scores of the students in the experimental group was lower than the mean scores of the students in the control group, and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was determined that the lavender essential oil has effects on test anxiety. The results of this study can be integrated into education strategies for students who suffer from test-taking anxiety. The results of this study may guide the students and nursing educators to try lavender and other essential oils to reduce test-taking anxiety.
... 34 In previous studies, the application of lavender via inhalation has yielded effective results. 16,35,36 Despite the demonstrated anti-nociceptive effect in animal models, 37 this state cannot be demonstrated directly in human studies. 38 Gedney et al. 18 and Kim et al. 15 reported that administration via inhalation increased patient satisfaction in terms of pain control; however, they attributed this finding not to the analgesic effect of aromatherapy but to its subjective effect of decreasing unpleasant feelings. ...
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To assess the usability of lavender oil as an adjuvant in the medical treatment of pain due to renal stones. One hundred patients age 19-64 years diagnosed with renal colic were included in the study. Group 1 (n=50) received standard medical therapy (diclofenac sodium, 75 mg intramuscularly); group 2 (n=50) received aromatherapy (lavender oil) in addition to the standard medical treatment. In both groups, the severity of the pain was graded between 0 (no pain) and 10 (severe pain) by using the visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS values at the beginning and at 10 and 30 minutes in group 1 were 7.70±1.61, 5.02±2.20, and 2.89±1.96, respectively; in group 2, the values were 7.83±2.02, 4.42±2.46, and 2.20±1.74, respectively. The VAS values for the male patients in group 1 at the beginning and at 10 and 30 minutes were 7.61±1.47, 4.80±2.00, and 2.67±1.74; in the female patients, the values were 7.81±1.80, 5.40±2.41, and 3.72±1.94. For the male patients in group 2, the VAS values at the beginning and at 10 and 30 minutes were 8.25±2.01, 4.93±2.72, and 2.96±1.90, respectively; for the female patients, the values were 7.52±1.94, 4.15±1.95, and 1.21±0.91, respectively. Results are presented as mean±SD. Although there was no significant difference between the VAS values at the beginning and at 10 minutes in both groups, the VAS values at 30 minutes in the group receiving aromatherapy plus conventional treatment were statistically significantly low. These findings suggest that the use of aromatherapy, which is a nonpharmacologic treatment method, as an adjuvant to conventional treatment methods will help decrease pain, particularly in female patients.
... In many countries, aromatherapy is increasingly becoming a beneficial supplement to mainstream treatments for postpartum depression, especially when considering safety of drug treatment (Weier and Beal, 2004;Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2002). Some researches into complementary therapies for the treatment of depression have revealed that odorant aromatherapy can act on the central nervous system, relieving depression and anxiety, relaxing and restoring both physical and emotional well-being (Motomura et al., 2001;Edge, 2003). It has been verified by fMRI that the limbic structures are involved in both olfactory and emotional processing (Royet et al., 2003;Stöcker et al., 2006). ...
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Olfaction plays an important role in emotions in our daily life. Pleasant odors are known to evoke positive emotions, inducing relaxation and calmness. The beneficial effects of vanillin on depressive model rats were investigated using a combination of behavioral assessments and neurotransmitter measurements. Before and after chronic stress condition (or olfactory bulbectomy), and at the end of vanillin or fluoxetine treatment, body weight, immobility time on the forced swimming test and sucrose consumption in the sucrose consumption test were measured. Changes in these assessments revealed the characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Neurotransmitters were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicated that vanillin could alleviate depressive symptoms in the rat model of chronic depression via the olfactory pathway. Preliminary analysis of the monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that vanillin elevated both serotonin and dopamine levels in brain tissue. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effect of vanillin against chronic depressive disorder via olfactory pathway. This suggests that vanillin may be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
... Some studies reported that a relaxing aroma induced increases in theta and alpha band powers, or a decrease in beta band power. 22,31 In the present study, the power of beta band was increased with no changes in alpha and theta bands' powers during capsaicin stimulation. This change may presumably indicate an increase in attention induced by capsaicin, because increases in the beta band were previously observed with visual stimulation under attended condition and during eyeopening. ...
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Background/purpose Although it has been reported that capsaicin ingestion has effects of protecting stomach mucosa and promoting energy consumption, physiological responses to oral stimulation with capsaicin has not been elucidated. Therefore, we investigated the effect of oral capsaicin stimulation on oral health and mental conditions by measuring changes in salivation, autonomic nervous activity and electroencephalogram (EEG). Materials and methods Eighteen healthy adults participated in this study. The stimulus concentrations of capsaicin and five basic taste solutions were determined based on the measured threshold of each stimulus in each subject. The weight of secreted saliva and the changes in concentrations of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) induced by capsaicin and taste stimuli were measured. Salivary α-amylase activity and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured as indicators of autonomic nervous activity. From EEG, psychological condition was analyzed by measuring the powers of theta, alpha, and beta bands. Results The salivary secretion rate was significantly increased by stimulation with capsaicin, NaCl, and citric acid compared with deionized water, and capsaicin demonstrated the most potent effect among tested stimuli. The secreted amount of SIgA per minute was elevated by capsaicin stimulation. Salivary α-amylase activity and HRV analysis demonstrated an elevation of sympathetic nervous activity induced by capsaicin. EEG analysis showed a significant increase in beta band power. Conclusion These results suggest that oral stimulation with capsaicin may be effective in improving oral conditions by increasing salivary flow and SIgA secretion, and in enhancing physical and mental conditions as indicated by sympathetic nerve and EEG changes.
... The volatile oil of lavender is used in cosmetics as a perfume and in aromatherapy as a soap and skin lotion. In addition, lavender has also been reported to possess antibacterial, antioxidant, and sedative activities, and pharmaceutical, insecticidal and analgesic applications have been suggested [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] . ...
Article
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We investigated the hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods for the extraction of essential oils with antibacterial actions from lavender for use in aromatherapy and cosmetics. Extracts were analyzed by flame ionization detector-gas chromatography and mass spectrometer-gas chromatography. The HD method extracted 66 compounds, while SFE extracted 46. The principal components of the oils extracted by HD were linalyl acetate (25.3%), terpinen-4-ol (16.4%), and linalool (13.0%). The principal components extracted by SFE were linalyl acetate (30.6%), terpinen-4-ol (14.1%), and lavandulyl acetate (8.4%). The extraction rate of essential oil for the SFE method was at least 10 times that for the HD method. We also clarified that SFE is suitable for obtaining compounds that are unstable at relatively high temperatures and that HD is suitable for compounds with high volatility.
... In several studies, EEG results have demonstrated that different aromatic fragrances affect the electrical activity of the brain differently. It has been reported that essential oils such as lavender can raise the level of the happiness hormone, endorphin, in the brain eight to ten-fold and provide mental and physical relaxation a few minutes after exposure [7]. Studies have revealed that lavender is useful and can be applied safely [8e10]. ...
... The criticisms raised by the previous reviews were addressed by evaluating stress-reducing properties of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil in a more rigorous study. Lavender, popular for relaxation and stress reduction [6], has been previously shown to improve cognition [7] and decrease agitation [8,9], stress [10][11][12][13], and anxiety [14][15][16][17]. However, some studies demonstrated no specific lavender effects concluding that the changes after aromatherapy exposure occur solely due to expectancy of improvement [18,19] and considered aromatherapy an "ineffective treatment but an effective placebo" [20]. ...
... A number of researchers have argued that lavender can sometimes be used to enhance productivity by reducing stress (Ludvigson and Rottman, 1989;Motomura et al., 2001;Sakamoto et al., 2005). At the same time, however, lavender has long been mentioned in plays and literature as a scent that is commonly associated with sleep (Kirk-Smith, 2003). ...
Article
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The majority of the world’s population now lives an urban existence, spending as much as 95% of their lives indoors. The olfactory atmosphere in the built environment has been shown to exert a profound, if often unrecognized, influence over our mood and well-being. While the traditionally malodorous stench to be found indoors (i.e., prior to the invention of modern sanitation) has largely been eliminated in recent centuries, many of the outbreaks of sick-building syndrome that have been reported over the last half century have been linked to the presence of a strange smell in the environment. At the same time, however, there is also growing evidence that consumer behavior can be manipulated by the presence of pleasant ambient odors, while various aromatherapy scents are said to improve our mood and well-being. This Anglophone review focuses primarily on indoor western urban developed spaces. Importantly, the olfactory ambience constitutes but one component of the multisensory atmosphere and ambient odors interact with the visual, auditory, and haptic aspects of the built environment. Surprisingly, the majority of published studies that have deliberately chosen to combine ambient scent with other sensory interventions, such as, for example, music, have failed to increase store sales, or to enhance people’s mood and/or well-being, as might have been expected. Such negative findings therefore stress the importance of considering multisensory congruency while, at the same time, also highlighting the potential dangers that may be associated with sensory overload when thinking about the effect of ambient smell on our well-being.
... The findings however only seem consistent for a very limited number of odorants, whilst exposure to others has produced mixed or contradictory results. For instance, olfactory stimulation with lavender essential oil is associated with lower self-reported state anxiety, more positive (or decreased negative) mood and a greater sense of calmness, relaxation, and contentment [120,121,122,123,124], and so is exposure to orange oil [121,125]. On the other hand, inconsistent effects were observed e.g. for rosemary, which can increase anxiety [126] or decrease it [120] and enhance a sense of relaxation and contentment [120,123]. ...
Article
Previous laboratory research has shown that exposure to odours of contrasting pleasantness during sleep differentially affects the emotional tone of dreams. In the present study, we sought to investigate how a generally pleasant (vanillin) and unpleasant (thioglycolic acid, TGA) smell influenced various dream characteristics, dream emotions and post-sleep core affect during all-night exposure, controlling for appraisal of the olfactory environment during the assessments and sleep stage from which the participants woke up. We expected that exposure to vanillin would result in more pleasant dreams, more positive and less negative dream emotions, and more positive post-sleep core affect compared to the control condition, whereas exposure to TGA would have the opposite effect. Sixty healthy volunteers (37 males, mean age 23 ± 4 years) were invited to visit the sleep laboratory three times in weekly intervals. The first visit served to adapt the participants to the laboratory environment. On the second visit half the participants were exposed to odour (vanillin or TGA, 1:1) and the other half to the odourless control condition. On the third visit, they received control or exposure in a balanced order. On each visit, the participants woke up twice, first from the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage and then in the morning, mostly from non-REM. Repeated measures were taken upon each awakening of dream pleasantness, emotional charge of the dream, positive and negative emotions experienced in the dream, and four dimensions of post-sleep core affect (valence, activation, pleasant activation – unpleasant deactivation, and unpleasant activation – pleasant deactivation). We found a small effect of condition (exposure vs. control) in interaction with appraisal on the ambient olfactory environment on dream pleasantness. Specifically, false alarms (i.e., perceiving odour in the absence of the target stimulus) were associated with lesser dream pleasantness than correct rejections. Although exposure had a statistically significant positive influence on post-sleep core affect (namely, valence, activation, and pleasant activation – unpleasant activation), the size of the effect was small and lacked practical significance. The hypothesised differential effects of vanillin and TGA were only modelled for dream ratings because they decreased the fit of the other models. Neither dream pleasantness nor emotionality differed according to the odour used for stimulation. The results of the present study suggest that all-night exposure to odours is unlikely to produce practically significant positive effects on dreams and post-sleep core affect.
... The psychological effects of aromatherapy on patients with various diseases (e.g., insomnia, dementia, etc.) are well-known [20,41]. While there are slight differences as per type of fragrance, aromatherapy generally decreases anxiety and emotional stress and increases feelings [42,43]. Some people also use aromas to control their emotions or maintain mental stability [44]. ...
Article
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We analyzed participants’ feelings and arousal before, during, and after exercise as per whether they receive aromatherapy. Twenty university students who regularly took part in health exercises were selected through purposive sampling. Changes in feelings were measured through a 2D circumplex model and an in-depth interview. The effects on exercisers who received aromatherapy were more positive than for those who did not receive any treatment. Specifically, it induced positive feelings during exercise, reduced fatigue during exercise, and improved participants’ feelings during the recovery period. Aroma has a key influence on exercisers’ feelings, and it can positively influence exercise satisfaction and persistence.
... Many studies have attempted to clarify whether olfactory capacity could be a hallmark or biomarker of mental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (Del Valle Rubido et al., 2018;Endevelt-Shapira et al., 2018;Larsson, Tirado, & Wiens, 2017), depression (Kamath et al., 2018), and schizophrenia (Moberg et al., 2013;Mossaheb et al., 2018). These studies were mainly based on the association between olfaction and emotion (Damjanovic, Wilkinson, & Lloyd, 2017;Motomura, Sakurai, & Yotsuya, 2001) or social interaction (Endevelt-Shapira et al., 2018) as these mental disorders are often accompanied by emotional and social cognitive deficits. Furthermore, olfaction plays the most important role in the anticipation phase of eating, namely, to detect food sources in the environment and induce appetite prior to eating behavior (Boesveldt & de Graaf, 2017). ...
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Researchers have examined if olfaction is a sensitive biomarker of anorexia nervosa, but considerable heterogeneity across studies makes it difficult to reach a consensus. This review and meta-analysis sought to clarify if olfaction is altered in individuals with anorexia nervosa and explore potential moderators of olfaction in this population. We performed quantitative and qualitative analyses of olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa compared with healthy controls. A random effect model was used to estimate pooled effect sizes, and meta-regression was conducted to identify potential moderators. We found that individuals with anorexia nervosa had largely intact olfactory function compared with healthy controls in terms of threshold (g = −0.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] (−0.65,0.47), p = 0.757), identification (g = −0.06, 95% CI (−0.32,0.20), p = 0.642), and overall olfactory function (g = −0.47, 95% CI (−1.02,0.07), p = 0.090). Discrimination was different from control (g = −0.51, 95% CI (−0.97,-0.05), p = 0.029). However, after sensitivity analysis, the pooled effect size was nonsignificant in discrimination. Olfactory sensitivity covaried with anorexia nervosa severity, body mass index (BMI) positively modulated olfactory threshold score (β = 0.79, 95% CI (0.18,1.41), p = 0.020) in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Disease duration negatively moderated olfactory threshold score (β = −0.21, 95% CI (−0.40,-0.03), p = 0.034). The results suggest that olfaction is not a sensitive marker of anorexia nervosa diagnosis, but olfactory sensitivity may be a useful indicator of anorexia nervosa severity.
... Another form of environmental enrichment is aromatherapy, which uses volatile essential oils that have physiological and psychological effects on the animal [24]. Lavender essential oil has been associated with improved psychological well-being and relaxation in humans [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], and with sedative effects and more relaxed behaviours in animals, including mice [33,34], pigs [35], dogs [36], horses [37] and sheep [38]. Shelter dogs exposed to lavender oil spent more time resting and less time walking around the kennel and barking, compared to other essential oils and a Control treatment with no olfactory stimulation [39]. ...
Article
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Shelter environments are stressful for dogs, as they must cope with many stimuli over which they have little control. This can lead to behavioural changes, negatively affect their welfare and downgrade the human‐animal bond, affecting re-homing success. Arousal is evident in their behaviour, particularly increased activity and frequent vocalisation. Environmental enrichment plays an important role in reducing arousal behaviour, either through direct physiological effects or by masking stressful stimuli. The present study focused on sensory environmental enrichment, using olfactory and auditory stimuli under shelter conditions. Sixty dogs were allocated to one of four treatments: three types of enrichment, Lavender, Dog appeasing pheromone (DAP) and Music, and a Control group. Stimuli were applied for 3 h/d on five consecutive days. Dogs exposed to DAP lay down more, and those exposed to Music lay down more with their head down, compared to the Control. Those in the Control stood more on their hind legs with their front legs on the exit door, compared to those exposed to Music and DAP, particularly if they had only been in the shelter for a short time. They also panted and vocalised much more than dogs in the three enrichment treatments, which tended to persist during the 4 h period post treatment, and in the case of vocalisation into the subsequent night. The study suggests that all three enrichments had some positive benefits for dogs in shelters, as well as being non-invasive and easy to apply in the shelter environment.
... The olfactory bulb has direct connections to the amygdala and the hippocampus, two brain areas of the limbic system responsible for processing and controlling emotions and memories [4]. Previous work has shown that odors modulate pain perception [5], [6] and reduce stress and anxiety [7], [8]. Researchers suggested a close relationship between olfactory and affective information processing, with the power of odors to modulate mood, cognition, and behavior [3]. ...
Article
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The ability to relax is sometimes challenging to achieve, nevertheless it is extremely important for mental and physical health, particularly to effectively manage stress and anxiety. We propose a virtual reality experience that integrates a wearable, low-cost EEG headband and an olfactory necklace that passively promotes relaxation. The physiological response was measured from the EEG signal. Relaxation scores were computed from EEG frequency bands associated with a relaxed mental state using an entropy-based signal processing approach. The subjective perception of relaxation was determined using a questionnaire. A user study involving 12 subjects showed that the subjective perception of relaxation increased by 26.1 % when using a VR headset with the olfactory necklace, compared to not being exposed to any stimulus. Similarly, the physiological response also increased by 25.0 %. The presented work is the first Virtual Reality Therapy system that uses scent in a wearable manner and proves its effectiveness to increase relaxation in everyday life situations.
... Belonging to the family Lamiaceae, lavender is a herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean area and is widely cultivated [1]. It has been suggested that lavender aroma may be associated with improved mood, reduced mental stress and anxiety, sedation, and good sleep [2][3][4][5][6][7]. In addition, it has been reported that topical application of lavender cream (containing 1.25% essential oils) reduces stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women [8]. ...
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Introduction: Aromatherapy is prominent in complementary and alternative medicine. Little endocrinological evidence, however, of the effects of aromatherapy has yet been presented. We used salivary stress marker chromogranin A (CgA) to examine the effects of lavender aroma on women watching a stressful video. Methods: Healthy female university students (n = 23) aged 20-22 years old were randomly assigned to two groups: an aroma group exposed to lavender and an unexposed control group. Both groups watched a stressful video for 10 min. During the protocol, the aroma group was exposed to lavender aroma. Samples of salivary chromogranin A (CgA) were collected immediately before and after watching the video, and at 5 and 10 min after that. Results: In the aroma group, the levels of CgA statistically significantly decreased throughout the experimental period. In the control group, there was no such change. Conclusion: The findings suggest that lavender aroma may reduce the stress effects of watching a stressful video.
... Complementary therapies for the treatment of depression has revealed that odorant aroma can relieve depression and anxiety, restoring both physical and emotional well-being [8,9]. As an odorant, vanillin is generally rated as pleasant and correspondingly evokes positive moods [10]. ...
... Graham et al. (2005a) analyzed the behavior of 55 shelter dogs during exposure to 4 essential oils, namely chamomile, lavender, peppermint and rosemary. According to previous results with studies on humans (Motomura et al., 2001;Amsterdam, 2012) chamomile and, to a greater extent, lavender resulted in dogs spending more time performing behaviors suggestive of relaxation. Specifically, they spent less time moving and more time resting than in any other experimental condition. ...
Article
Millions of dogs enter public and private shelters every year. Shelters are often very stressful environments to dogs, which are kept in very limited space and are impeded to appease their social motivations. Furthermore, the environmental stimuli provided are generally quantitatively - hyper/hypo-stimulation - and qualitatively inadequate. In such conditions dogs are likely to develop abnormal behaviors as maladaptive coping strategies that are not only a symptom of low welfare, but they also drastically decrease their chances of being permanently adopted. Environmental enrichment, such as training sessions, additional cage furniture and food-filled toys have been shown to decrease levels of stress in confined dogs. However, many of these programs require a noticeable financial and time commitment. Unfortunately, many shelter running institutions lack necessary funds, personnel and time to provide their dogs with complex environmental enrichment programs. In this light, sensory stimulation may represent a scientifically valid, low-cost and no time-wasting instrument to enhance the average level of welfare of shelter dogs, limit the development of behavioral problems and increase dog adoptability.
... The olfactory bulb has direct connections to the amygdala and the hippocampus, two brain areas of the limbic system responsible for processing and controlling emotions and memories [4]. Previous work has shown that odors modulate pain perception [5], [6] and reduce stress and anxiety [7], [8]. Researchers suggested a close relationship between olfactory and affective information processing, with the power of odors to modulate mood, cognition, and behavior [3]. ...
... Lavender is soothing and relaxing in cases of mental fatigue. It can both calm the mind and uplift the spirit, making it excellent for chronic fatigue symptoms (Motomura, Sakurai & Yotsuya, 2001). ...
... An essential oil extracted from the flower tip of the lavandula angustifolia or lavender, a complex mixture of natural chemicals such as linalool and linalyl acetate (Shellie et al., 2002), was used. Lavender may reduce stress or agitation (Koulivand et al., 2013;Lin et al., 2007;Motomura et al., 2001) and insomnia (Chien et al., 2012;Lee and Lee, 2006;Lytle et al., 2014) and induce a feeling of relaxation (Sayorwan et al., 2012). Relaxation may reduce substance craving as observed in a study of behavioral treatment of cigarette craving (Limsanon and Kalayasiri, 2015). ...
Article
Inhalants, which are neurotoxic central nervous system (CNS) suppressants, are frequently abused by young adults. Unlike other CNS depressants, including alcohol and opiates, no treatment is currently approved for inhalant dependence. In this report, a novel approach of substitution treatment for inhalant addiction was explored in a double-blinded, randomized, controlled crossover design to examine the effects of inhalation of essential oil and perfume on the reduction of cue-induced craving for inhalant in thirty-four Thai males with inhalant dependence. The craving response was measured by the modified version of Penn Alcohol Craving Score for Inhalants (PACS-inhalants). The participants (mean age ± SE = 27.9 ± 1.4) in this trial had used inhalant for 5.8 ± 1.1 years. Cravings could be induced in all participants by visual cues as assessed by ^50% increases in inhalant craving levels. Generalized estimating equations showed a significant suppressant effect of essential oil, but not perfume, on the craving response as compared with baseline cue-induced craving. Moreover, essential oil, but not perfume, had significant effects on physiological responses including decreasing pulse rate. It is concluded that inhaling essential oil as a substitution treatment for inhalant may be used as part of treatment programs for reducing inhalant craving.
... The volatile oil of lavender is used in cosmetics as a perfume and in aromatherapy as a soap and skin lotion. In addition, lavender has also been reported to possess antibacterial, antioxidant, and sedative activities, and pharmaceutical, insecticidal and analgesic applications have been suggested [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] . ...
Research
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We investigated the hydrodistillation (HD) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) methods for the extraction of essential oils with antibacterial actions from lavender for use in aromatherapy and cosmetics. Extracts were analyzed by flame ionization detector-gas chromatography and mass spectrometer-gas chromatography. The HD method extracted 66 compounds, while SFE extracted 46. The principal components of the oils extracted by HD were linalyl acetate (25.3%), terpinen-4-ol (16.4%), and linalool (13.0%). The principal components extracted by SFE were linalyl acetate (30.6%), terpinen-4-ol (14.1%), and lavandulyl acetate (8.4%). The extraction rate of essential oil for the SFE method was at least 10 times that for the HD method. We also clarified that SFE is suitable for obtaining compounds that are unstable at relatively high temperatures and that HD is suitable for compounds with high volatility.
Article
Ein Überblick über die relevante Literatur zum Thema zeigt, dass bei Wirkungen von Duftstoffen auf die Aktivierung auf physiologischer, emotionaler und kognitiver Ebene prinzipiell zwischen Anwendungen, die den Geruchssinn einschließen, und solchen, die ihn gänzlich umgehen, unterschieden werden muss. Obwohl auch bei letzteren nicht grundsätzlich ausgeschlossen werden kann, dass pharmakologische Wirkungen von Riechstoffen gemeinsam mit nicht-pharmakologischen Effekten auftreten, die sich aus dem Erfahrungshintergrund des Behandelten wie auch aus der Interaktion zwischen dem Patienten und dem Therapeuten ergeben können, liegt die Wahrscheinlichkeit für das Auftreten rein pharmakologisch vermittelter Wirkungen von Riechstoffen insofern höher, als zumindest rein mit dem Geruch der verabreichten Substanz assoziierte Wirkungen ausgeschlossen werden können.
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Psychological disorders are associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. We aimed to evaluate the effect of Lavender cream with or without foot-bath on depression, anxiety and stress of pregnant women. In this trial, 141 women at 25 to 28 weeks gestation were randomly assigned into three groups (47 at each group); receiving Lavender cream with foot-bath, only Lavender cream, or placebo, 2g every night for two months. Depression, anxiety and stress were assessed at baseline, and 4(th) and 8(th) weeks after intervention, using DASS-21. General linear model was used to compare the groups. There were three losses to follow-up at the 4(th) and one more at the 8(th) week. Scores of all three outcomes in both Lavender and foot-bath and only Lavender groups were significantly lower than those in the placebo group at the 8(th) week; adjusted difference of depression score -3.3, 95% confidence interval -4.6 to -1.9;-2.4, -3.7 to -1.0, respectively, anxiety score -1.4, -2.6 to -0.2; -1.7,-2.9 to -0.5 and stress score -3.1, -4.7 to -1.5; -2.7, -4.3 to -1.1. At the 4(th) week, only score of anxiety in the lavender group (-2.3, -3.9 to -0.8) and stress in the both groups (-2.3, -4.1 to -0.5; -1.9, -3.7 to -0.1) were significantly less than those in the placebo group. There were not statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups in terms of the outcomes. Lavender cream with foot-bath or alone can be used for pregnant women for reducing their stress, anxiety and depression.
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The efficacy of aroma-therapeutic textiles was quantified by gauging the psychophysiological responses of twenty female subjects exposed to treated as well as untreated textile specimens. In congruence with previous studies, statistical analysis of the psychophysiological responses showed stress relief in subjects after exposure to the essential oils. Aroma-therapeutic textiles in this study were developed by finishing 100% cotton fabric with β-cyclodextrin and one of two essential oils using the sol-gel method. The comparative SEM analysis of treated versus untreated textiles revealed the presence of treatment materials on the surface of the cotton fabric. © 2016, American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Part 1: Orientation and Basic ConceptsPart 2: Fears and Phobias: Treatment Procedures and Protocols
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There is a disparity between nurses about the ideal role of nurses in endoscopies without sedation. Some nurses think that providing information to the patient is sufficient to reduce anxiety and improve tolerance and satisfaction, while others believe that behavioral training and positive reinforcement during the procedure are also necessary. The objectives of this study were to test the differences that are produced in the patient's state of anxiety between the two types of nursing intervention, as well as in the patient's tolerance and satisfaction. The study included 109 outpatients who had an endoscopy without sedation. They were divided into two groups, the experimental group who received nursing support based on information, behavioral training and positive reinforcement during the procedure, and the control group, who received nursing support based solely on information provided about the procedure. Anxiety was evaluated with a STAI-state test and with psychophysiological parameters at different moments during the process. The data was analyzed with repeated measures of analysis of the variance, which resulted in the following: the STAI score decreased more in the experimental group. Tolerance was greater in the experimental group, patient satisfaction was equal in the two groups, and the difference in the levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate was equal in the two groups. Experimental investigations are useful in nursing to obtain scientific evidence about the ideal clinical practice. It is possible to improve the tolerance of gastroscopy and reduce anxiety due to the procedure, with the intervention of the nurses centered in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the person.
Article
This study was conducted to clarify the physiological and psychological effects of the odor of orange essential oil in humans. Thirteen healthy male university students (mean age 23.0±1.1 years) participated. The study was conducted in an artificial climate chamber with temperature 24°C, relative humidity 50%, and illumination 50 lux. The subjects randomly inhaled orange essential oil for 120 s. Fresh air inhalation was used as the control condition. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure, and pulse rate were continuously measured before (resting time) and during inhalation of the experimental odor. In addition, sensory evaluation and subjective odor intensity were evaluated after inhalation. The high frequency component of HRV was significantly higher, systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower, and the subjective “feeling of comfort” was significantly greater during inhalation of the orange essential oil than during inhalation of fresh air. These findings indicate that inhalation of orange essential oil effectively induces relaxation in humans.
Article
Résumé Il existe une abondante littérature, depuis plusieurs décennies, sur les liens entre olfaction et dépression. La revue de la littérature proposée ici n’a donc pas vocation à être exhaustive sur les travaux publiés mais vise plutôt à mettre en exergue les études les plus récentes et leurs apports à la compréhension des mécanismes olfactifs dans la dépression. En effet, étant donné l’existence de connexions étroites entre voies olfactives et aires cérébrales impliquées dans la régulation de l’humeur et des émotions (notamment au niveau du système limbique et des aires préfrontales), l’olfaction constitue une voie de recherche intéressante et novatrice à de nombreux égards. En premier lieu, l’étude des troubles olfactifs occurrents dans la dépression peut aider au diagnostic et surtout à la compréhension des mécanismes sous-jacents aux troubles thymiques. Les travaux publiés révèlent que l’épisode dépressif caractérisé est associé à une réduction de la sensibilité olfactive, ce qui n’est pas retrouvé dans la dépression bipolaire et la dépression saisonnière. En second lieu, il a été montré que des déficits de perception des odeurs pouvaient être à l’origine de symptômes dépressifs. Les corrélats neuro-anatomiques et neurochimiques plaident assez clairement pour un effet causal de la perte olfactive sur les troubles de l’humeur en général et, dans ce contexte, un modèle animal (rat bulbectomisé) conforte l’hypothèse du rôle non négligeable de l’olfaction dans les troubles dépressifs. En troisième lieu, plusieurs travaux tendent à prouver que les odeurs peuvent potentiellement avoir un impact sur l’amélioration des états dépressifs. Une remédiation par l’utilisation d’odeurs dans les troubles dépressifs et anxieux est une voie de recherche prometteuse, notamment du fait de l’impact sur le fonctionnement neurochimique de la dépression qui semble démontré chez l’animal.
Article
Purpose: Aromatherapy (AT) is a complementary therapy recently used in the perianesthetic period. However, the scientific data on its effectiveness are limited. The aim of this systematic review is to present and analyze the results of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that studied the effectiveness of AT as a complementary treatment for postoperative pain. Design: PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched from 1965 to December 2015. Nine randomized controlled trials that met the inclusion criteria were eventually included. Methods: The studies included a total of 644 patients, who underwent various types of surgeries. The modified Jadad scale with eight items was used for the methodological evaluation of the RCTs. Findings: Five RCTs support AT, which can alleviate postoperative pain, whereas four found no statistically significant differences between groups. Conclusions: Although AT is presented as an inexpensive complementary treatment with a low rate of adverse effects that improves patient satisfaction, it cannot be determined that there is sufficient evidence to conclude its effectiveness as a nonpharmacologic approach to the reduction of postoperative pain intensity.
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Today, one of the most important issues in big cities is transportation and city traffic. The development of all countries in the world depends on the development of transport systems. One of the most effective solutions to this problem is to develop and strengthen urban public transportation systems. Also, deficiencies and inadequacies in the land transportation system, especially urban transportation, are considered as one of the obstacles to the growth and development of any country. Due to the urbanization phenomenon in Afghanistan and the increase in the number of cars in cities, we are witnessing exponentially increasing traffic and environmental pollution on the streets of cities, which has become a major problem for city administrators in Mazar-e-Sharif city. This research first mentions the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in terms of location, type of urban roads, existing public transport systems and traffic management. Then, the performance of existing systems, problems, existing challenges and high influencing factors of Mazar e-Sharif transportation system are examined. Finally, after the analysis, logical solutions to the existing problems are presented using the experiences of developed countries. Keywords: transportation, sustainable system, traffic, public transport system, road network
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Background Understanding the emotional changes in children during dental treatment is necessary for providing stress-free care. Aim To objectively assess the stress associated with dental treatment in children, based on the autonomic nervous activity and the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design Twenty-two children aged 4-9 years were recruited from outpatients of a paediatric clinic. Electrocardiogram and EEG were recorded throughout the treatment to analyze the autonomic nervous activities and the powers of brain waves, respectively. Changes in these measurements during each treatment process were evaluated in two age groups: 4-6 years old (4-6 yrs) and 6-9 years old (6-9 yrs) groups. Results Elevations in sympathetic activities accompanied by decreased parasympathetic activities induced by stress were observed during rubber dam setting (RD) in the 4-6 yrs group and during infiltration anesthesia (IA), RD, and cavity preparation with a dental turbine (CP-T) in the 6-9 yrs group. Stress-related beta wave increments in EEG were observed during IA and CP-T in the 6-9 yrs group but not in the 4-6 yrs group. Conclusion Monitoring the autonomic nervous activities during treatments is useful in assessing stresses in a wide age of young children, while EEG monitoring is applicable only to children over 6 years old.
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Olfactory loss is associated with symptoms of depression. The present study, conducted on a large cohort of mostly dysosmic patients, aimed to investigate whether improvement in olfactory performance would correspond with a decrease in depression severity. In 171 participants (157 dysosmic), we assessed olfactory function and severity of depression before and after an average interval of 11 months, with many patients showing improvement in olfactory function. Separate analyses were conducted for (a) the whole group of patients and (b) the group of dysosmic patients using both classic and Bayesian approaches. For odor identification, Student t test demonstrated that the whole sample improved consistently, especially within the group of dysosmic patients. The dysosmic group also improved in odor threshold and overall olfactory function. Pearson correlation showed that an increase in olfactory function was associated with a decrease in depression severity, particularly in dysosmic patients. To conclude, the present results indicate that symptoms of depression change with olfactory function in general and odor identification in particular.
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This study explored the influence of five types of olfactory stimulation (control, lavender, chamomile, rosemary and peppermint) on the behaviour of 55 dogs housed in a rescue shelter. The dogs were exposed to each type of olfactory stimulation, through the diffusion of essential oils, for 4h a day for 5 days, with an intervening period of 2 days between conditions. The dogs’ behaviour was recorded on days 1, 3 and 5, during each condition of olfactory stimulation. Certain aspects of the dogs’ behaviour were influenced by the odours. Dogs spent more time resting and less time moving upon exposure to lavender and chamomile than any of the other olfactory stimuli. These odourants also encouraged less vocalisation than other types of aroma. The diffusion of rosemary and peppermint into the dogs’ environment encouraged significantly more standing, moving and vocalising than other types of odour. It is suggested that the welfare of sheltered dogs may be enhanced through exposure to appropriate forms of olfactory stimulation. Lavender and chamomile appear particularly beneficial, resulting in activities suggestive of relaxation and behaviours that are considered desirable by potential adopters. These types of olfactory stimulation may also appeal to visitors, resulting in enhanced perceptions of the rescue shelter and an increased desire to adopt a dog from such an environment.
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The effects of so-called antistress music tapes on reduction of mental stress were examined using Cox and Mackay's SACL, Japanese edition (J-SACL). Fifty-two subjects were exposed to experimentally induced stressful situations and the J-SACL was administered before and after this stress exposure. The results indicated that: (1) music tapes in general could reduce both the stress and arousal factors of the J-SACL; (2) however, differential effects in stress reduction of antistress music tapes were not demonstrated; (3) stress-reducing effects were more prominent in stress than in arousal factors.
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This paper provides further discussion on the measurement of mood using self-report inventories. It comments on questions raised by Cruickshank (1984) about the structure and use of the stress-arousal checklist developed by Mackay and Cox (Mackay et al., 1978).
In trigeminal deafferented encéphale isolé and intact cats immobilized with gallamine triethiodide, and midpontine pretrigeminal cats, an arousal effect of olfactory stimulation on the neocortical and hippocampal electrical activities was studied. The goal was to explore the desynchronizing system for the olfactory arousal and to determine the olfactory pathway to this desynchronizing system. 1. 1. Neocortical and hippocampal arousal responses were elicited either by odor or by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb. The latter stimulation occasionally provoked seizure discharges in the prepyriform cortex and hippocampus. Phenobarbital markedly affected the olfactory arousal response and abolished it in doses of 6-10 mg/kg. 2. 2. In a high cerveau isolé cat, in which the brain stem was transected at the border between the diencephalon and the mesencephalon, either blowing of odorized air into the nostril or electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb failed to elicit the EEG arousal response, though electrical stimulation of the nuclei ventralis anterior and centralis medialis of the thalamus still provoked a neocortical desynchronization. This is interpreted as meaning that the mesencephalic reticular formation plays an important role in producing the olfactory arousal. 3. 3. Among anatomically proposed olfactory pathways to the mesencephalon, a lesion of the medial forebrain bundle led to a complete disappearance of the olfactory arousal, while it was not abolished by lesions of the fornix and the stria terminalis. It is concluded that the olfactory arousal response is produced by projection of olfactory impulses to the mesencephalic reticular formation through the medial forebrain bundle.
Article
Recent human and animal research suggests that the startle reflex might serve as a psychophysiological indicator of the emotional valence of foreground stimulation. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the emotional effects of positive and negative odorant stimuli. We examined the effects of continuous hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and vanillin stimulation on the magnitude of the acoustic startle reflex (measured at the M. orbicularis oculi) and on ratings of subjective valence in 16 healthy subjects. In accordance with the view that odors have emotional qualities, we found that H2S, a presumed negative foreground stimulus, significantly enhanced the startle-reflex amplitude relative to neutral air stimulation, whereas vanillin, a positive foreground stimulus, tended to reduce the reflex amplitude compared with neutral air stimulation. Both odorant stimuli were rated as equally intense by the subjects, and heart rate and electrodermal activity were not affected differentially by the two odorants.