The Stripped Basophil Histamine Release Bioassay as a Tool for the Detection of Allergen-Specific IgE in Serum
For the detection of allergen-specific IgE in serum, IgE-binding assays such as the radioallergosorbent assay (RAST) are commonly used. In this study, the applicability and sensitivity of the stripped basophil histamine release bioassay was investigated and compared to the RAST.
Basophils were stripped of their IgE by an acidic buffer, sensitized by human serum and stimulated by allergen with or without interleukin (IL)-3. The histamine release was determined by fluorometric analysis.
We showed that for enhancement of the maximal histamine release and the sensitivity of the stripped basophil assay, the priming cytokine IL-3 can be added to the basophils simultaneously to the stimulus. Preincubation of the cells with IL-3, as described in other studies, was not necessary. The bioassay can be used to study the specificity of IgE-mediated reactions. Basophils sensitized by serum absorbed to a particular allergen did not respond to this allergen anymore. This method is very suitable to study cross-reactivity between allergens. The results obtained in the bioassay were comparable to those obtained in the RAST. Using the RAST, lower concentrations of allergen-specific IgE were detected than in the bioassay. However, sera containing IgE against minor allergenic components were negative in the RAST, but strongly positive in the basophil assay.
The stripped basophil histamine release bioassay is useful to complement and extend serological detection of allergen-specific IgE. Especially with sera containing IgE against minor components, this assay is more suitable than the RAST. Furthermore, in this assay, the dependency of IgE and of allergen-specific IgE in reactions can be studied in more detail.
Available from: Anand B Singh
- "After 90 min, the leukocyte-rich upper layer was drawn, centrifuged and washed twice with saline. The basophils in suspension were stripped off bound IgE by incubation with lactic acid buffer for 3.5 min (Kleine Budde et al., 2001). Following incubation, cells were washed in HEPES buffer. "
Available from: Martin D Chapman
- "The GMP batches of allergens were submitted to an extensive physico-chemical and structural characterisation. The formulated and lyophilised candidate materials, however, could not be properly characterised or quantified by physico-chemical methods due to interference of the formulation components, mainly human serum albumin (HSA), and needed to be further characterised in biological assays, i.e. basophil histamine release after passive immunisation using sera from allergic patients . "
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ABSTRACT: The potency of allergen extracts is determined as total allergenic activity without consideration of their composition and the units differ from one manufacturer to another, making it very difficult to compare the different products. Recently, purified major allergens have been obtained by recombinant DNA technology and produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. In principle, such recombinant allergens could be established as reference standards and could help for the standardisation of the major allergen content of allergen extracts. Two recombinant major allergens, one from birch pollen, rBet v 1, and one from Timothy grass pollen, Phl p 5a, have been selected at the end of the CREATE programme as a potential starting point for the establishment as European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Reference Standards through a project run by the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). To this end, bulk candidate recombinant materials, produced under GMP conditions, were procured from two European manufacturers and subsequently formulated and lyophilised. Four ELISA systems from three different manufacturers were included in the project, two for Bet v 1 and two for Phl p 5a with the aim of establishing reference methods for determination of the respective major antigens both in natural allergen extracts as well as in recombinant allergen products. The project was run in 3 phases: a preparatory and preliminary testing phase (feasibility phase or Phase 1), an extended feasibility phase carried out in 3 laboratories (Phase 2) to confirm the transferability of the methods and an international collaborative study with a large number of participating laboratories (Phase 3). This article describes the work done in Phase 1 and Phase 2, i.e. the physico-chemical and biological characterisation of the recombinant candidate reference standards, the assessment of their suitability for the intended purpose as well as the evaluation of the candidate ELISA systems. The results show that both candidate reference standards are suitable for the intended purpose. In addition, three out of the four ELISA systems that were included in the preliminary phase were found to be appropriate for further evaluation in the collaborative study which was organised in 2011. The results of the collaborative study will be published separately.
Available from: Raj Kumar
- "Reaction was stopped by the addition of 750 l of ice cold 0.9% NaCl (w/v). Histamine released was determined as described earlier (Kleine Budde et al. 2001). A histamine release of more than 10% was considered positive. "
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ABSTRACT: Legumes are the major elicitors of IgE-mediated food allergy in many countries of the world. Purified major allergens are prerequisite for component resolved diagnosis of allergy. The present study was aimed to isolate and characterize a major allergenic protein from blackgram (Phaseolus mungo). Respiratory allergy patients with history of blackgram allergy were skin prick tested (SPT) and sera were collected from SPT positive patients. The blackgram extract was fractionated using a combination of anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purified protein was characterized by indirect ELISA, immunoblot, ELISA inhibition, SPTs, stripped basophil histamine release, lymphoproliferation assay and digestibility assay. The purified protein separated at 28 kDa on 12% gel and showed IgE binding with 81% of blackgram hypersensitive patients' sera on immunoblot indicating it to be a major allergen. Periodic Acid Schiff's and meta-periodate treatment staining detected it to be a glycoprotein. The 28 kDa protein recognized 7/9 (77.8%) of blackgram positive patients by SPT, where as all 9 patients showed significant histamine release on stimulation with protein as compared to controls. The 28 kDa protein remained stable up to 15 min on incubation with SGF. Bands of 14-16 kDa appeared after 15 min of pepsin digestion that remained stable up to 60 min of incubation. However, purified protein degraded within 5 min after incubation with SIF. The N-terminus-12 residues sequence of 28 kDa protein was GRREDDYDNLQL. A stretch of residues 'DDYDNLQL' showed homology with Rho-specific inhibitor of transcription termination (E=0.42, Identity=87%) and NBS-LRR type disease resistant protein from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) (E=2, Identity=77%). In conclusion, the purified 28 kDa protein is a potent major allergen that may have implication in diagnosis of blackgram allergy.
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