program for community-residing older adults. Gerontologist 1990;30:
36. Gillies E, Aitchison T, MacDonald J, Grant S. Outcomes of a 12-week
functional exercise programme for institutionalised elderly people. Phys-
iotherapy 1999;85:349 –57.
37. Rubenstein LZ, Josephson KR, Trueblood PR, et al. Effects of a group
exercise program on strength, mobility, and falls among fall-prone elderly
men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M317–21.
38. Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, et al. Cardiovascular and behavioral
effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women. J
39. Emery CF, Blumenthal JA. Perceived change among participants in an
exercise program for older adults. Gerontologist 1990;30:516–21.
40. Blumenthal JA, Emery CF, Madden DJ, et al. Effects of exercise training on
cardiorespiratory function in men and women older than 60 years of age.
Am J Cardiol 1991;67:633–9.
41. Emery CF, Hauck ER, Blumenthal JA. Exercise adherence or maintenance
among older adults: 1-year follow-up study. Psychol Aging 1992;7:466 –70.
42. Dustman RE, Ruhling RO, Russell EM, et al. Aerobic exercise training and
improved neuropsychological function of older individuals. Neurobiol
Aging 1984;5:35– 42.
43. Steinhaus LA, Dustman RE, Ruhling RO, et al. Aerobic capacity of older
adults: a training study. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 1990;30:163–72.
44. Thompson RF, Crist DM, Marsh M, Rosenthal M. Effects of physical
exercise for elderly patients with physical impairments. J Am Geriatr Soc
45. McAuley E, Courneya KS, Rudolph DL, Lox CL. Enhancing exercise
adherence in middle-aged males and females. Prev Med 1994;23:498–506.
46. Hamdorf PA, Withers RT, Penhall RK, Haslam MV. Physical training effects
on the ﬁtness and habitual activity patterns of elderly women. Arch Phys
Med Rehabil 1992;73:603–8.
47. Hamdorf PA, Withers RT, Penhall RK, Plummer JL. A follow-up study on
the effects of training on the ﬁtness and habitual activity patterns of 60- to
70-year-old women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1993;74:473–7.
48. Hamdorf PA, Penhall RK. Walking with its training effects on the ﬁtness
and activity patterns of 79–91 year old females. AustNZJMed1999;29:
49. McAuley E, Katula J, Mihalko SL, et al. Mode of physical activity and
self-efﬁcacy in older adults: a latent growth curve analysis. J Gerontol B
Psychol Sci Soc Sci 1999;54:283–92.
50. McMurdo ME, Rennie LM. Improvements in quadriceps strength with
regular seated exercise in the institutionalized elderly. Arch Phys Med
Rehabil 1994;75:600 –3.
51. Nichols JF, Omizo DK, Peterson KK, Nelson KP. Efﬁcacy of heavy-resistance
training for active women over sixty: muscular strength, body composition,
and program adherence. J Am Geriatr Soc 1993;41:205–10.
52. Pollock ML, Carroll JF, Graves JE, et al. Injuries and adherence to walk/jog
and resistance training programs in the elderly. Med Sci Sports Exerc
53. Wallace J, Buchner DM, Grothaus L, et al. Implementation and effective-
ness of a community-based health promotion program for older adults. J
Gerontol Med Sci 1998;53A:M301–6.
54. McMurdo ME, Rennie L. A controlled trial of exercise by residents of old
people’s homes. Age Ageing 1993;22:11–15.
55. McMurdo ME, Burnett L. Randomised controlled trial of exercise in the
elderly. Gerontology 1992;38:292–8.
56. Rooks DS, Kiel DP, Parsons C, Hayes WC. Self-paced resistance training and
walking exercise in community-dwelling older adults: effects on neuromo-
tor performance. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997;52:M161–8.
57. Bassey EJ, Ramsdale SJ. Weight-bearing exercise and ground reaction
forces: a 12-month randomized controlled trial of effects on bone mineral
density in healthy postmenopausal women. Bone 1995;16:469–76.
58. Chow R, Harrison JE, Notarius C. Effect of two randomised exercise
programmes on bone mass of healthy postmenopausal women. Br Med J
Clin Res Educ 1987;295:1441–4.
59. Cunningham DA, Rechnitzer PA, Howard JH, Donner AP. Exercise train-
ing of men at retirement: a clinical trial. J Gerontol 1987;42:17–23.
60. King AC, Pruitt LA, Phillips W, Oka R, Rodenburg A, Haskell WL.
Comparative effects of two physical activity programs on measured and
perceived physical functioning and other health-related quality of life
outcomes in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2000;55:M74 – 83.
61. Lord SR, Ward JA, Williams P, Strudwick M. The effect of a 12-month
exercise trial on balance, strength, and falls in older women: a randomized
controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43:1198–206.
62. Kriska AM, Bayles C, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Sandler RB, Pambianco G. A
randomized exercise trial in older women: increased activity over two years
and the factors associated with compliance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1986;18:
63. Pereira MA, Kriska AM, Day RD, Cauley JA, LaPorte RE, Kuller LH. A
randomized walking trial in postmenopausal women: effects on physical
activity and health 10 years later. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1695–701.
64. Stevens W, Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, McArdle D. Cost-effectiveness of a
primary care based physical activity intervention in 45–74 year old men and
women: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Sports Med 1998;32:236–41.
65. Harland J, White M, Drinkwater C, Chinn D, Farr L, Howel D. The
Newcastle exercise project: a randomised controlled trial of methods to
promote physical activity in primary care. Br Med J 1999 25;319:828 –32.
66. Halbert JA, Silagy CA, Finucane PM, Withers RT, Hamdorf PA. Physical
activity and cardiovascular risk factors: effect of advice from an exercise
specialist in Australian general practice. Med J Aust 2000;173:84 –7.
67. Burton LC, Paglia MJ, German PS, Shapiro S, Damiano AM. The effect
among older persons of a general preventive visit on three health behav-
iors: smoking, excessive alcohol drinking, and sedentary lifestyle. The
Medicare Preventive Services Research Team. Prev Med 1995;24:492–7.
68. Burton LC, Shapiro S, German PS. Determinants of physical activity
initiation and maintenance among community-dwelling older persons.
Prev Med 1999;29:422–30.
69. German PS, Burton LC, Shapiro S, et al. Extended coverage for preventive
services for the elderly: response and results in a demonstration popula-
tion. Am J Public Health 1995;85:379–86.
70. Burton LC, German PS, Shapiro S. A preventive services demonstration:
health status, health behaviors, and cost outcomes 2 years after interven-
tion. The Johns Hopkins Medicare Preventive Services Demonstration
Team. Med Care 1997;35:1149–57.
71. Fries JF, Bloch DA, Harrington H, Richardson N, Beck R. Two-year results
of a randomized controlled trial of a health promotion program in a retiree
population: the Bank of America Study. Am J Med 1993;94:455–62.
72. Mayer JA, Jermanovich A, Wright BL, Elder JP, Drew JA, Williams
SJ. Changes in health behaviors of older adults: the San Diego Medicare
Preventive Health Project. Prev Med 1994;23:127–33.
73. Elder JP, Williams SJ, Drew JA, Wright BL, Boulan TE. Longitudinal effects
of preventive services on health behaviors among an elderly cohort. Am J
Prev Med 1995;11:354–9.
74. Hillsdon M, Thorogood M, Anstiss T, Morris J. Randomised controlled
trials of physical activity promotion in free living populations: a review. J
Epidemiol Community Health 1995;49:448–53.
75. Hoffman C, Rice D, Sung HY. Persons with chronic conditions: their
prevalence and costs. JAMA 1996;276:1473–9.
76. American Association of Retired People, American College of Sports
Medicine, American Geriatric Society, Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, National Institute on Aging, Robert Wood Johnson Founda-
tion. National blueprint: increasing physical activity among adults age 50
and older. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2001.
77. Dishman RK. Motivating older adults to exercise. South Med J 1994;87:
78. Fowler G. The challenge of prevention. Practitioner 1984;228:1143–7.
79. Stott NCH. The exceptional potential in each primary care consultation. J
R Coll Gen Pract 1979;29:201–5.
Am J Prev Med 2002;22(2) 133