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An effective approach to violence prevention: Traditional martial arts in middle school

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Abstract

This study replicated and extended the design and outcome measures of several small studies. In these studies, juveniles at high risk for violence and delinquency showed decreased violence and positive changes in psychological risk factors after being required to take a school-linked course in traditional martial arts. In the present study, 60 boys in a large urban middle school were required to take a traditional martial arts course in their school. They were paired on problematic behavior profiles and assigned to a treatment group or to a wait-list control group. Thirty classes, three per week (45 minutes each), were taught by a master of Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo and his assistant (neither was a public school teacher). Results are reported here for 14 variables from the following measures: four teacher rating scales from the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory, five self-report scales of the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, four computerized measures of attentional self-control from the Intermediate Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test, and a count of permanent expulsions from school. The treatment students improved over baseline on 12 variables, while the controls improved on 5 by small amounts and deteriorated from baseline on 8, including teacher-rated violence. There were significant differences between the groups on self-reported happiness and schoolwork and on one measure of attention. After controls took the course, their scores resembled the postcourse scores of the treatment group. Importantly, the control group's increase in teacher-rated violence was reversed. Both groups were then pooled to compare baseline and postcourse teacher ratings. Their scores improved significantly in the areas of resistance to rules, impulsiveness, and inappropriate social behavior. There was also improvement in regard to violence, but the change in scores was not statistically significant. Follow-up on teachers' ratings showed that improvement remained, and in some cases increased, four months after completion of the course. Interestingly, all 6 permanent expulsions were among the control group students who had not yet taken, or had only begun taking, the martial arts course.

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... 7 As some authors have pointed out, much of the research on bullying continues to 8 be based on a theoretical approach that considers bullying as a unidimensional form of 9 aggression (Volk, Veenstra, and Espelage 2017). However, other theorists have 10 considered aggression as a multidimensional construct which includes a double 11 distinction, differing between the form of aggression (e.g., physical, verbal, or social 12 aggression) and its functions (e.g., offensive, defensive, or instrumental aggression) 13 (Little et al., 2003). Based on this multidimensional view, two forms of aggression have 14 traditionally been considered in the school context: physical aggression (e.g., hitting, 15 pushing, or causing damage to the victim's belongings) and relational/social aggression, 16 which refers to behaviors based on social exclusion or the spread of rumors (Menesini which authors underline those related to physical activities (Parrish et al., 2012; Stanley, 1 Boshoff, and Dollman 2012). ...
... As a result, these students tend to react by distancing 2 themselves from PE, which promotes school absenteeism (Tischler and McCaughtry 3 2011), and which would prevent bully victims from gaining access to the physical, 4 psychological, and social benefits that physical activity in general, and the subject of PE 5 in particular, can provide (Corral-Pernía et al., 2018; Hills, Dengel, and Lubans 2015; 6 Jaarsma and Smith 2018). 7 However, some prevention programs have considered the role of PE in the 11 climate during classes has been underlined, thereby favoring students' empowerment 12 and the development of social empathy (Gano-Overway 2014). According to some 13 authors, PE teachers and sports coaches should not only help students to improve their 14 physical status but also to develop their social skills, enhance their personal growth and 15 empowerment and to learn to live constructively in society (Fraser-Thomas, Côté, and 16 Deakin 2005; Gould, Flett, and Lauer 2012). ...
... Search strategy 8 A systematic search in the following electronic databases was conducted: 9 Medline, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Scopus. The descriptors used 10 were: School OR physical educat* OR teacher status AND bully* OR violen* OR 11 harrasm*. Given the shortage of similar studies, no temporal restrictions were 12 established in the search strategy, with the last access to the sources of information 13 made on 11/07/2018. ...
Article
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Objectives: To evaluate the associations of physical education (PE) with school violence and bullying. Design: Systematic review. Method: Using a systematic search in Medline, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Scopus, relevant studies with a quantitative and qualitative design were identified that met previously established eligibility criteria. Quality was assessed (bias risk analysis) and data were extracted from a previously elaborated template. Results: The systematic review finally included 16 studies, of which 10 had a quantitative design (n = 12795), 5 a qualitative design (n = 79) and 1 a mixed design (n = 86). The high heterogeneity presented by the measures used in the included studies hindered the comparison of the outcomes and prevented meta-analysis of the data. Although there is insufficient evidence about the positive impact of PE on bullying prevention, the results of this review indicate that some aspects of PE programs could improve students’ skills to cope with these situations. Conclusions: The results of this review suggest the importance of PE in the prevention of bullying. Secondly, it is emphasized that bullying situations have a negative impact on students’ enjoyment of PE, leading to detrimental consequences for their physical and psychological health. Thirdly, the figure of the PE teacher as a key element to prevent and/or encourage bullying was obvious. KEYWORDS: Physical education, bullying, school violence, student profile, teacher status
... Najafi's participants in traditional martial arts showed higher level of humility and hope than modern martial arts' participants. Traditional martial arts became also a supporting background for dealing with delinquency (Zivin, Hassan, DePaula, Monti, Harlan, Hossain & Patterson, 2001) or coping with aggressiveness (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989). ...
... As previous research has already established, the traditional martial arts training can be very helpful in therapy and personal development. For instance, its popularity has grown especially in the field of youth delinquency or coping with aggression (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989;Zivin, Hassan, DePaula, Monti, Harlan, Hossain & Patterson, 2001). Also, there are researches dealing with its positive influence in social skills and behavior (Daniels & Thornton, 1992;Movahedi, Bahrami, Marandi, & Abedi, 2013;Twemlow and Sacco, 1998). ...
... Not only the physical skill is improving with the time; Richman and Rehberg (1986) conducted their study to explore self-esteem and found out that the longer time the individual spent in the training, the higher self-esteem he had. Zivin et al. ( 2001) studied the target group of boys at high risk for deliquency and their improvement in lower aggressivness and higher self esteem after taking the class of traditional martial art. In this case, kempo as the style was used and the boys were given 30 sessions. ...
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Introduction: Wushu, Chinese martial art, consists of modern and traditional groups of styles. Previously it was researched that modern and traditional martial arts have different outcomes. Since traditional wushu is said to be rooted in Chinese values, its environment is a unique place to research psychological collectivism. Moreover, mental toughness is a new topic in the field of martial arts, and its connection with psychological collectivism was only researched on the society, not personality level. Methods: This mixed methods research consisted of qualitative Study 1 and quantitative Study 2. Study 1 aimed to understand, what is the experience of psychological collectivism in traditional wushu training. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight European adult participants of traditional wushu and were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In the Study 2, 277 European adult respondents (111 modern wushu and 166 traditional wushu practitioners) filled in the Sport Mental Toughness Questionnaire and Psychological Collectivism Questionnaire. To research the relationship of practicing modern or traditional wushu with psychological collectivism and mental toughness, several steps were taken. First, the Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were run to test both models. Next, the final model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling. Model comparisons, path analysis and effects were completed. Results: In Study 1, five themes emerged from the data. The first described how kung fu (traditional wushu) provided structure and direction for the interviewees. Also, it described how practitioners better adapted to the outer world and their ability to switch from being gentle to being ruthless. The second theme described perception of time. The third one explored the kung fu community, provided a probe into the group identity, and looked at how positioning closer to the master provided better learning options; the community served as the knowledge keeper. The fourth theme explored bridging gaps in communication. Finally, the fifth theme discovered seriousness of the practitioners, who had to endure mentally and physically torturous training. In Study 2, during the structural equation modeling the final model was confirmed as well as differences in the two groups of modern and traditional wushu. Moreover, it was found, that the number of joined competitions or years of training did not result in a significant path with mental toughness, but perceived level of skill did. The relationship between psychological collectivism and mental toughness was found only in the traditional wushu group, limited to a marginal p level. Conclusion: Psychological collectivism was explored in traditional wushu and helped to understand the structure and functioning of the wushu community. The seriousness of its members served as a commodity, to negotiate better position in the group. In the quantitative study, this seriousness seemed to be connected with the perceived level of skill. This variable resulted in the significant path with mental toughness. It is suggested that the social environment of the serious practitioners, who put themselves through demanding training, helped to develop mental toughness. This development is not based on the number of years in training, but rather on the way the practitioners perceive themselves.
... Moreover, these findings have been substantiated (e.g. Steyn & Roux, 2009;Zivin et al., 2001). In addition, a recent metanalysis indicates that martial arts do reduce aggressive and externalising behaviour (Harwood, Lavidor, & Rassovsky, 2017). ...
... The sociopsychological outcome differences between the martial arts may have several causes; one of which has been argued to be the philosophical foundation associated with the sport (Zivin et al., 2001). Traditional martial arts are primarily focused on developing "inner" strength and character, with strong associations to a deep pacifistic nature (Zivin et al., 2001), whereas modern martial arts seem to have a more competitively oriented scope. ...
... The sociopsychological outcome differences between the martial arts may have several causes; one of which has been argued to be the philosophical foundation associated with the sport (Zivin et al., 2001). Traditional martial arts are primarily focused on developing "inner" strength and character, with strong associations to a deep pacifistic nature (Zivin et al., 2001), whereas modern martial arts seem to have a more competitively oriented scope. In an early intervention, Trulson (1986) found that participants who were traditionally taught taekwondo reduced aggressive behaviour, whereas the group who were taught taekwondo without the associated values increased aggressive behaviour. ...
Article
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Contemporarily, two martial arts have emerged as highly popular among youth; Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) and Brazilian Jiu-Jiutsu (BJJ). Despite their popularity, we know little of how they affect individuals sociopsychologically. The current study sought to explore how the currently underexplored martial art disciplines may contribute to sociopsychological development among young people. In addition, it was investigated whether individuals who are predisposed to different traits may favor one sport over the other. This study was conducted with a longitudinal design; over the course of 5 months, 113 participants completed training in either condition. The results show that both groups displayed increased self-control and pro-social behavior; however, MMA practitioners also reported increased aggressiveness, whereas BJJ practitioners experienced a decline in aggression. Accordingly, individuals who trained in MMA displayed substantially higher pre-existing aggression levels than the BJJ practitioners. The current results further corroborate research suggesting that modern martial arts and MMA may not be suitable for at-risk youth to practice, whereas traditional martial arts and sports with a healthy philosophical foundation may be effective in reducing antisocial behavior while enhancing socially desirable behavior among young people.
... In relation to the use of physical education in bullying intervention, specific intervention programmes are scarce (Jiménez- Barbero et al. 2019;Ko 2017;Calmaestra et al. 2019;Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández, and Ibáñez-Cano 2011;Oliveira et al. 2017;Zivin et al. 2001) and they are usually part of a programme with other subjects (Garaigordobil and Aliri 2013). Jiménez- Barbero et al. (2019) carried out a systematic review on school bullying and physical education, in which their potential to promote attitudes and behaviours against violence and school bullying was highlighted, opening up an important field of innovation and research that seeks to increase scientific evidence in the proposals and programmes that are put forward. ...
... Calmaestra et al. (2019) carried out an intervention programme in primary education in which physical education was one of the subjects chosen, in addition to artistic education and tutorials, with the aim of combating bullying. Jiménez- Barbero et al. (2019) reported that two works had been previously conducted in which an intervention methodology was carried out in physical education classes in secondary school for the intervention of violence through martial arts and self-defence (Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández, and Ibáñez-Cano 2011; Zivin et al. 2001). Here, they did not focus on a bullying intervention specifically, but instead, attitudes and behaviours to reduce aggression. ...
... The psychosocial contents developed were as follows: knowledge of bullying, the roles of victim and aggressor, knowledge and expression of basic emotions, importance of the social group, collaborative work, self-esteem, empathy, self-control, resilience and discrimination. They were determined based on the review of the literature on similar interventions, considering the aspects that are most evident (Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández, and Ibáñez-Cano 2011; Oliveira et al. 2017;Jiménez-Barbero et al. 2019;Zivin et al. 2001). These contents were adapted to the methodological strategies of physical education and its curriculum, including the following: cooperative games or challenges; body expression, mainly dramatisation; 'locomotor story' that is tale where a story is told and the students represent the actions with movement; awareness and body limitation activities; motor games with symbolic roles; relay games emphasising respect for rules; and competitive games adapted by changing roles Table 1. ...
Article
Background: Bullying is a social problem where there is a phenomenon of intentional aggression that occurs in all schools. It has multiple negative consequences for the victim’s psychological health. As school is a context for learning about life in society, strategies to prevent such attitudes and behaviours should be encouraged. Although some studies seem to indicate the potential of the subject of physical education to promote attitudes and behaviours against bullying, there is still insufficient scientific evidence to deduce a positive impact on the reduction or prevention of this phenomenon. Purpose: This study aimed to analyse the effectiveness of a specific intervention to prevent bullying in Physical Education classes in Secondary Education. 6 specific sessions inserted into the physical education curriculum to find out what bullying is, who its protagonists are and how to prevent it. Participants and setting: In the study, 764 students with an age range of 12–19 years (49.3% girls; age mean [M] = 14.80, standard deviation [SD] = 1.69) from two public educational centres participated. Among them, 439 were randomly assigned to the quasi-experimental group (48.1% girls; age M = 14.70, SD = 1.59) and 325 to the control group (51.1% girls; age M = 14.94, SD = 1.83). Data were collected at two timepoints, pre- and the post-intervention data. Data collection: The Spanish version of the European Bullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (EBIPQ) was used to measure the incidence of bullying. To measure cyberbullying, the Spanish version of the European Cyberbullying Intervention Project Questionnaire (ECIPQ) scale was used. Data analysis: The Student t-test was performed to compare possible differences between the experimental and control groups in the pre-test. To compare the means of the factors obtained based on the variables and the instruments used, as well as the scores obtained from the subjects of the experimental and control groups at the two timepoints, linear models of repeated measurements have been established comparing the pre- and post-intervention moments and the experimental and control groups, introducing sex and grade variables to compare the effectiveness of the programme based on them. Results: There were no differences in the pre-test measurements in any of the variables. After the intervention programme in the quasi-experimental group, the bullying victimisation (F = 16,951; p = .000) and bullying aggression (F = 5,215; p = .023) rates decreased significantly more than they did the control group. Likewise, victimisation in cyberbullying (F = 6,234; p = .013) decreased significantly differently, but aggression in cyberbullying did not (F = 0,099; p = .753). Conclusion: The implementation of a specific intervention to prevent bullying inserted into the physical education curriculum seems to have decreased bullying and cyberbullying victimisation.
... Badania wskazują także na negatywny związek pomiędzy satysfakcją z życia, a podejmowaniem zachowań ryzykownych oraz dokonywaniem aktów przemocy przez młodzież (MacDonald et al., 2005). Tymczasem trening karate skutecznie obniża poziom agresji i impulsywności (Zivin et al., 2001). Analizując te zależności można założyć, że osoby trenujące karate będą odczuwać wyższe zadowolenie z życia. ...
... Jednak badania porównujące trening sztuk walki z innymi aktywnościami fizycznymi sugerują, że wywołuje on pozytywne zmiany psychospołeczne, które są większe pod względem siły efektu i różnorodności niż te powodowane przez inne formy aktywności (Madden, 1995). Otrzymany rezultat może być tłumaczony poprzez wyższy poziom samokontroli (Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;Messaoud, 2015;Vertonghen & Theeboom, 2010) oraz niższą agresję (Zivin et al., 2001) osób trenujących karate, ponieważ zmienne te istotnie związane są z satysfakcją z życia (Hofmann et al., 2014;MacDonald et al., 2005). Dodatkowo badania pokazują, że trening karate pozwala istotnie podnieść jakość życia i dobrostan psychiczny osób trenujących (Jansen et al., 2017;Marie--Ludivine et al., 2010) co może przekładać się na subiektywne odczucie satysfakcji z życia. ...
... Hipoteza druga, zakładająca, że czas treningu na przestrzeni życia pozytywnie wiąże się z poziomem satysfakcji z życia także została potwierdzona. Rezultat ten może być wyjaśniany poprzez nabywanie w toku treningu umiejętności psychospołecznych związanych z zadowoleniem z życia, takich jak zdolność do samoregulacji (Messaoud, 2015), obniżanie poziomu agresji (Zivin et al., 2001) oraz zaspokojenie potrzeby przynależności (Mellor et al., 2008;Schumaker et al., 1993). Z drugiej strony zmienną wyjaśniającą taką zależność może być wiek osób badanych, który jest moderatorem czynników odpowiadających za satysfakcję z życia (George et al., 1985) oraz był z nią istotnie związany w badanej grupie. ...
Article
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Badania nad zadowoleniem z życia oraz dobrostanem psychicznym to szeroki i wciąż rozwijający się obszar psychologii. Karate jako specyficzna aktywność fizyczna może wiązać sięz satysfakcją z życia. Celem badania był pomiar poziomu zadowolenia z życia u osób regularnie trenujących karate, w porównaniu z osobami niepodejmującymi regularnych aktywnościfizycznych oraz zbadanie relacji pomiędzy czasem trwania i częstotliwością treningu a poziomem satysfakcji z życia. Po przebadaniu 112 osób, dobranych celowo do dwóch równolicznych grup (osoby regularnie trenujące karate vs. nietrenujące) analiza przy użyciu Skali Satysfakcji z Życia (SWLS) wykazała, że poziom satysfakcji z życia u osób regularnie trenujących karate jest istotnie wyższy. W badaniu wykazano także dodatnią korelację pomiędzy stażem treningowym a satysfakcją z życia. Związek pomiędzy częstotliwością treningu a satysfakcją z życia okazał się nieistotny. Otrzymane rezultaty poszerzają wiedzę na temat zadowolenia z życia w odniesieniu do aktywności fizycznych oraz mogą stanowić podstawę do prowadzenia dalszych analiz.
... Die Befundlage zum Zusammenhang zwischen Kampfsport und Aggressivität ist äußerst heterogen, sodass sich sowohl empirische Belege dafür finden lassen, dass das regelmäßige Ausüben von Kampfsport negativ mit Aggressivität zusammenhängt (z. B. Lamarre & Nosanchuk, 1999;Zivin et al., 2001), als auch Studien, die darauf hinweisen, dass Kampfsport mit erhöhter Aggressivität einhergeht (z. B. Endresen & Olweus, 2005). ...
... Aufgrund der heterogenen Befundlage zum Zusammenhang zwischen der regelmäßigen Ausübung von Kampfsport und Aggressivität (z. B. Endresen & Olweus, 2005;Reynes & Lorant, 2004;Zivin et al., 2001), des öffentlichen Interesses am aggressiven Potential des Thaiboxens (z. B. Akuma, 2013a, b) und der geringen Anzahl an wissenschaftlichen empirischen Studien (vgl. ...
... Ausgangspunkt für diese Untersuchung war zum einen die uneinheitliche Befundlage zum Zusammenhang zwischen der regelmäßigen Ausübung von Kampfsport und Aggressivität (z. B. Endresen & Olweus, 2005;Reynes & Lorant, 2004;Zivin et al., 2001) und zum anderen die immer wieder aufkommenden medialen Debatten bzgl. des Gewaltpotentials von Kampfsport sowie der in diesem Zusammenhang aufgebrachte Vorwurf, Kampfsport fördere die Aggressivität (vgl. ...
Article
In the media coverage, the potential to facilitate aggressiveness was attributed to Thai boxing. However, in a recently published qualitative study, kickboxers described themselves as refusing and avoiding violence. While the cognitive-neoassociation theory postulates a negative relationship between martial arts and aggression, the catharsis-hypothesis assumes that participating in martial arts may actually reduce aggression. The aim of the present study was to determine the self-reported aggressiveness of Thai boxers relative to athletes from two established sports (soccer and tennis). For that purpose, 114 male athletes in the city of Bern participated in a survey using a standardized aggressiveness scale. Thai boxers reported significantly higher general aggressiveness scores than soccer and tennis players. This was particularly due to higher scores on the subscale physical aggression. Soccer and tennis players did not significantly differ in their aggressiveness scores. The use of meditation techniques during Thai boxing training may help to reduce aggressiveness.
... Table 4 shows a summary of the analyzed variables for each of the nine selected studies. Four of them aimed at studying the emotion of anger (Brown et al., 1995;Focht et al., 2000;Hsu et al., 2016;Oh & Kim, 2016), three focused on aggressiveness (Mickelsson, 2020;Reynes & Lorant, 2002a,b, 2004Trulson, 1986), one focused on reactive and proactive aggressive behavior (Fung & Lee, 2018) and one focused on violent and inappropriate social behavior (Zivin et al., 2001). ...
... Regarding the effects obtained, it is understood that the decrease in anger or aggression is a positive effect for the subjects who participated in the study, however the increase in these could be a negative effect. Considering this, the results obtained in MA&CS participation showed positive outcomes in four of the investigations (Brown et al., 1995;Fung & Lee, 2018;Oh & Kim, 2016;Zivin et al., 2001). In another three MA&CS participation showed no differences (Focht et al., 2000;Hsu et al., 2016;Reynes & Lorant, 2002a,b, 2004. ...
... Studies that obtain reductions in the levels of anger or aggression, as the case may be, are carried out through martial arts where philosophical or meditative, aspects typical of traditional martial arts are taken into account (Brown et al., 1995;Fung & Lee, 2018;Oh & Kim, 2016;Trulson, 1986;Zivin et al., 2001). ...
Article
Martial Arts and combat sports (MA&CS) are the subject of a dispute. On the one hand, they have been considered an ideal means to acquire emotional self-control. On the other hand, they have been considered aggressive practices which may promote violent behaviors. The current systematic review aims to analyze the evidence of the effects of MA&CS participation in anger and aggression, and the quality of this evidence. The review was conducted according to the PRISMA-P protocol. The studied variables were study type and aims, sample, interventions and procedures, measurements and outcomes. Nine studies (three cohort studies and six randomized controlled trials) were selected for inclusion. The following results should be viewed with much caution, as the volume of studies and the methodological quality of most of them is not optimal. Training in traditional martial arts seems to be an effective means to lower levels of anger and aggression. Regarding the age of subjects, there is a predisposition to reduce anger in the adult population. In addition, young subjects with violent or behavioral problems show a positive response to working with martial arts. However, the available evidence, overall, shows no relationship between MA&CS practice and anger and aggression levels.
... After participating in martial arts exercise, people can also improve their self-awareness and respond positively to challenges [43]. In addition, research by Zivin et al. [44] on traditional martial arts interventions also confirmed that the more years of martial arts practice, the more positive affect individuals produce, the calmer they are in the face of stressful events, and the more ACS they adopt [44]. Therefore, PA exercise, as an ACS, enables adolescents to experience more positive affect, which helps them to alleviate psychological stress and improve their coping ability [41]. ...
... After participating in martial arts exercise, people can also improve their self-awareness and respond positively to challenges [43]. In addition, research by Zivin et al. [44] on traditional martial arts interventions also confirmed that the more years of martial arts practice, the more positive affect individuals produce, the calmer they are in the face of stressful events, and the more ACS they adopt [44]. Therefore, PA exercise, as an ACS, enables adolescents to experience more positive affect, which helps them to alleviate psychological stress and improve their coping ability [41]. ...
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Coping style is an important psychological factor for adolescents. Martial arts, as forms of physical activity (PA), have a positive effect on the physical and psychological growth of adolescents. However, the internal mechanisms underlying the impact of physical activity volume (PAV) on the coping styles of adolescents are still unclear. Therefore, the aim of the current study was the knowledge about the intrinsic links between PAV and active coping style (ACS) among martial arts practicing adolescents and the possible mechanisms involved. This study included 403 Chinese adolescent practitioners of martial arts (mean age 13.66 ±1.14 years, mean duration of practice 1.36 ±1.33 years), and we analyzed the questionnaires designed to assess their PAV, general self-efficacy, positive affect, and (ACS). Different physical activity levels had significant effects on self-efficacy, positive affect, and ACS in martial arts practicing adolescents. PAV was positively correlated with self-efficacy, positive affect, and ACS; self-efficacy was positively correlated with positive affect and ACS; and positive affect was positively correlated with ACS. The structural equation model revealed that self-efficacy and positive affect played mediating effects between PAV and ACS in martial arts practicing adolescents. We suggest that primary and secondary schools should encourage students to take part in moderate- to highintensity physical activity to enhance self-efficacy and positive affect, thereby improving their coping style.
... A pesquisa de Zivin et al. 20 objetivou avaliar a efi cácia da prática das artes marciais para redução de comportamentos violentos, e das varáveis psicológicas que se correlacionam com a violência e a delinquência em adolescentes. Para tanto, um grupo de 60 adolescentes foi dividido em dois, grupo A e grupo B. O grupo A foi incluído num curso de artes marciais com um Mestre em kempo, um estilo de karatê, enquanto o grupo B esperaria um semestre para então poder também fazer o curso. ...
... Por sua vez, o estudo longitudinal de Zivin et al. 20 , o único que apresentou resultado favorável à prática das artes marciais como ferramenta de redução da agressividade, teve o cuidado de medir as variáveis antes dos adolescentes entrarem em contato com as artes marciais, o que permitiu ao pesquisador observar quais foram as mudanças ocorridas em decorrência exclusivamente do esporte. Além disso, os pesquisadores também auferiram os resultados logo após o término do curso e quatro meses depois, permitindo saber quais efeitos foram duradouros. ...
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Objetivo: Na busca de mitigar o problema da agressividade na adolescência, o esporte, em especial as artes marciais, é uma excelente alternativa. O presente estudo objetivou investigar as possibilidades pedagógicas da prática de artes marciais por adolescentes. Fontes de dados: Através de um procedimento metodológico rígido, realizou-se uma revisão de literatura de meta-análise. Utilizando os descritores "Artes Marciais", "Kung fu", "Judô" e "Karatê", foram coletados 1.647 artigos indexados no portal Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) e, após seleção dos critérios de inclusão, foram mantidos quatro documentos. Síntese dos dados: Constatou-se, ao longo do trabalho, que as artes marciais podem melhorar o autocontrole, a atenção e seguimento de regra. Conclusão: A prática de artes marciais pode ser uma importante ferramenta no trabalho com a violência e a agressividade em adolescentes. ABSTRACT Objective: When striving to mitigate the problem of aggressiveness during adolescence, sports, especially the martial arts, are an excellent option. This study investigates the educational possibilities of the martial arts for teenagers. Data source: A meta-analysis review of the literature was conducted through a strict methodological procedure, using the following keywords: "martial arts", "kung fu", "judo" and "karate" to identify 1,647 indexed articles in the University Level Staff Higher Education Coordination Unit (CAPES) portal. After defi nition of the inclusion criteria, four papers remained. Data Synthesis: In the course of this project, it was noted that the martial arts can enhance self-control, attention and compliance with rules. Conclusion: The martial arts can be an important tool for addressing violence and aggressiveness among adolescents. KEY WORDS Adolescent, martial arts, aggression, meta-analysis.
... Martial arts are credited with providing participants with enhanced self-esteem, self-control, mental and physical relaxation, and decrease in anxiety and depression (Cai, 2001;Fuller, 1998;Weiser Kutz, Kutz, & Weiser, 1995). Martial arts are also linked with greater emotional stability and assertiveness (Fuller, 1988;Konzak & Boudreau, 1984) and reductions in aggression and violent behaviors (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989;Zivin et al., 2001). A small number of studies have integrated martial arts with interventions designed to positively impact on mental health. ...
... In relation to the sporting element of the program, to date, research on such interventions have used sport as a context to improve mental health, with the participation in sport being linked to lowering instances of depression and anxiety (Brunet et al., 2013;Kvam, et al., 2016;Weinstein et al., 2017) and reductions in aggression and violent behaviors (Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989;Zivin et al., 2001). While some studies have employed techniques, which promote positive mental health through the medium of sporting contexts such as cognitive behavioral techniques (McGale et al., 2011) and mindfulness and guided imagery (Cai, 2001;Milligan et al., 2017), these programs do not combine sport with one-to-one psychotherapy. ...
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This research sought to establish the impact of a 10-week program combining mixed martial arts (MMA) and one-to-one psychotherapy on young males’ mental health and determine factors that predict help-seeking behavior in at-risk males. Preparticipation and post-participation interviews were employed as the method of data collection. Seven males (20–35 years; M = 24.57) completed preparticipation interviews and five completed follow-up interviews. Thematic analysis of preparticipation revealed that help-seeking behavior in at-risk males is impeded by the presence of male gender stereotypes, the absence of positive role models, as well as difficulty navigating challenging social landscapes. Post-participation interviews revealed that the sport provided structure and fitness for at-risk males, while the counseling was pivotal for personal growth. Improved relationships, work life, and self-esteem were also observed. The sporting element of the program helped to reduce stigma associated with engaging in psychotherapy, and positive male relationships were noted as particularly impactful. Findings support previous research indicating that combining sports and psychotherapy positively impacts young males’ mental health. Sport provides an acceptable doorway to psychotherapy, providing space to explore personal issues.
... Other authors reported psychological factors that could act as risk or protection factors against bullying. Thus, students' positive self-image was related to greater participation in PE and to a lower risk of being a victim of bullying (Roman and Taylor 2013;Zivin et al. 2001), whereas one study found that the self-perception of students who were suffering bullying in PE was threatened (Bejerot, Edgar, and Humble 2011). Similarly, cognitive empathy, promoted by teachers through the creation of a climate that supports prosocial attitudes in PE classes, was another variable to be considered to reduce bullying behaviors (Gano-Overway 2013). ...
... The authors only found two studies evaluating the efficacy of a PE program to reduce or prevent school violence by means of experimental or quasi-experimental designs, both based on martial arts (Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández, and Ibáñez-Cano 2011; Zivin et al. 2001). In both cases, however, methodological limitations were found during the risk-bias analysis, so it is recommended to perform more rigorous experimental studies that develop anti-bullying interventions in the context of PE. ...
Objetives: To explore perceptions of bullying in children’s football (8-13 years) based on the experiences of players, families, and coaches. Method: We conducted a multiple case study. Participants from four football clubs and one coaching academy in Catalonia (Spain) were selected to take part in nine focus group sessions (three for each group: players, families and coaches). Data from the sessions were analyzed by content analysis. Findings: Four main categories were identified: (1) type of bullying, (2) causes, (3) sites of occurrence, and (4) feelings and emotions towards bullying. These have included a series of direct quotes to reflect the main contributions made by the three sets of participants (players, parents, and coaches) based on their most significant experiences. Conclusions: The accounts of the participants show the existence of a wide range of bullying situations and experiences and highlight the need for immediate action towards the prevention and eradication of bullying in children’s football.
... This was confirmed recently by Seabra et al., who found a positive influence of soccer on perceived psychological status [16,17]. To the authors' knowledge, only two studies have examined the effects of a schoolbased intervention on aggression behaviour [11], with one focusing on adolescents [18]. Zivin et al. showed that traditional martial arts (Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo) provided positive outcomes for violence and psychological risk factors in adolescents [18]. ...
... To the authors' knowledge, only two studies have examined the effects of a schoolbased intervention on aggression behaviour [11], with one focusing on adolescents [18]. Zivin et al. showed that traditional martial arts (Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo) provided positive outcomes for violence and psychological risk factors in adolescents [18]. Shachar et al. also showed that after-school sports activities (e.g., soccer, basketball, volleyball, capoeira, martial arts) five times per week produce larger reductions in physical aggression, hostile thoughts, anger, and negative emotions in comparison to a standard physical education programme in children 8-12 years of age [11]. ...
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School-based programmes have shown promising results in the reduction of aggressive behaviour, but the effectiveness of physical activity modalities among adolescents remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a school-based soccer programme on physical fitness and aggression in adolescent students. One hundred and five high school students were randomized to a small-sided soccer training group (SG) or a control group (CG). In addition to the regular physical education classes performed as part of a curriculum, the SG completed eight months of small-sided soccer training twice a week after school. Aerobic fitness (YYIR1), vertical jump (VJ), backward overhead medicine ball throw (BOMBT), and Buss and Perry’s aggression questionnaire were evaluated before and after eight months of training. Greater improvements were observed in the SG than in the CG in the BOMBT (%diff=4.3, ŋp 2 =.308) and YYIR1 tests (%diff=2.2, ŋp 2 =.159), and physical aggression subscale (%diff=-12.1, ŋp 2 =.144). Extra, school-based recreational soccer for adolescents was accompanied by a significant improvement in physical fitness, compared to physical education classes only. Moreover, the implementation of recreational soccer into regular physical education classes seems to be a potentially appropriate stimulus for reducing aggression in high-school students.
... Practitioners' moral development is also a benefit usually linked to MA&CS, including learning about right and wrong, about self-control, the importance of working hard, respecting and helping others or doing the right thing [Lantz 2002]. Particularly, the close link between MA&CS and the development of positive moral values has led to the implementation of specific interventions aimed at reducing violence and aggression in students [Di Zio 2010; Tejero-Gonzalez, Balsalobre-Fernandez, Ibanez-Cano 2011; Twemlow et al. 2008;Zivin et al. 2001]. In general, these interventions have shown positive outcomes although more research is needed to provide stronger evidence of their effects. ...
... This is in line with previous research on the topic. Zivin et al. [2001] developed an experimental study in which they assessed a school-linked course in the traditional martial art of Koga Ha Kosho Shorei Ryu Kempo. After the course was finished (10 weeks, 30 sessions x 45' per session) students had decreased troublesome behaviours ("resists rules", "impulsive" and "inappropriate social behaviour", also "violent" but not significantly) according to teachers' ratings. ...
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Background and aim. The inclusion of martial arts and combat sports (MA&CS) in formal physical education (PE) has been suggested by many authors, although there is no strong evidence as yet of the benefits of its practice for students. This study aimed to describe the effects of the development of two MA&CS teaching units (judo and capoeira) on the motivational climate, enjoyment and attitudes toward violence of PE students, and to compare these effects with those experienced by students receiving team sports teaching units (football and basketball). Methodology. A quasi-experimental, pre-post (two groups), longitudinal study design was followed, involving 221 students aged between 13 and 16. The experimental group (n = 105) developed MA&CS teaching units, while the control group (n = 116) developed team sport, teaching units. A peer motivational climate questionnaire, the amusement/boredom in physical education scale and the attitudes toward violence scale psychological assessment tools were used. Statistical analyses included means and standard deviations, two-way equivalent multifactorial ANOVA and effect sizes Results: MA&CS teaching units significantly improved the classroom motivational climate involving tasks/learning, and students’ attitudes toward unjustified violence. The post-test intergroup comparison showed that the experimental group rejected unjustified violence to a higher degree than the control group (p = .014, d = .81). Improvements in attitudes to unjustified violence were for both males (p = .017, d = .82), and females (p = .021,d = .78) in the experimental group, while the climate involving tasks/learning only improved in males (p = .037, d = .77). Conclusion. MA&CS teaching units improved students’ attitudes toward violence and generated a higher peer motivational climate than, and similar fun as team sports teaching units.
... As Lafuente et al. (2021) point out, a decisive factor in whether martial arts may promote socio-psychological development seems to be contingent on whether the practiced martial art is considered traditional or modern. While modern martial arts lack a clear foundation or belief system with clear ethics and norms for practitioners to rely on, traditional martial arts are deeply seated in a pacifistic belief with an immense cultural legacy that emphasizes self-control, discipline, and humbleness (Zivin et al., 2001). In returning to the fragmented findings of reviews on aggression and martial arts, it is thus not surprising to note that Harwood et al. (2017) found the strongest positive effects, also almost exclusively included martial arts considered traditional. ...
... The evidence for this fact includes that the above references are mostly grey literature, with scattered scopes and research questions. Furthermore, these anecdotal reports and accounts of BJJ connect such practices to spirituality (Jennings et al., 2010), mindfulness (Miyata et al., 2020), discipline (Lakes & Hoyt, 2004), and pacifistic values (Zivin et al., 2001)and resembles the literature on more traditional martial arts. ...
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The results surrounding the socio-psychological contribution of the martial arts are contested. One analytical distinction that has been made is that traditional, as opposed to modern martial arts, are more well-suited to such ends. Yet, this distinction is not always made, rendering shallow the analytical depth of this topic. Brazilian jiujitsu (BJJ) is an emerging martial art that has been highly touted as a social and psychological form of therapy. However, this claim derives from anecdotal reports and narratives. BJJ's potentially therapeutic properties have been understudied because of the sport's recent emergence. It has not been systematically assessed to date. Considering BJJ's late emergence and direct connection to other modern martial arts, it is unclear whether BJJ is considered a modern-or traditional martial art; something that has implications for a martial art's potential to contribute towards developmental outcomes. This systematic review identified 12 articles of BJJ's potential social-and psychological properties. In summary, the research on BJJ is focused on two salient themes: the psychosocial outcomes and the social meanings of BJJ. The former tended to focus on the relationship with aggression, with little theoretical consideration for how BJJ functioned as an agent of social change. However, the latter offered a glimpse into such mechanisms through sociological inquiries that effectively highlighted how BJJ entails developing resilience. While the literature uniformly indicated that BJJ holds promise as a form of therapy, research also points to BJJ's complex social nature. This characteristic entailed social rituals that BJJ-practitioners go through, which are socially-and morally debatable. The review thus suggests further theoretical considerations to the emerging field of BJJ research. In summary, BJJ training may be an appropriate public health intervention considering its social climate and emphasis on developing resilience and its mitigating effect on aggression. However, more research is needed to explore unhealthy traditions that seem to exist in BJJ.
... The use of martial arts such as judo, 1 taekwondo, 2 karate, 3 and boxing 4 to reduce children's aggressive behavior has been well documented since the 1980s. For example, Lamarre and Nosanchuk 1 found that the level of judo training (a Japanese martial art) was negatively associated with aggression among 51 judo students aged 11 to 63 years. ...
... Compared with the control and placebo groups, the taekwondo (a Korean martial art) training group showed decreased aggressiveness, lowered anxiety, increased self-esteem, increased social adroitness, and a value orthodoxy. In a similar experiment with 60 middle school students aged 12 to 14 years, Zivin et al. 3 found that there was a significant decrease in teacher-rated violence in a Japanese martial arts training group compared with a wait-list control group. Finally, a study on training for boxing (a combat sport in which participants wear protective gloves and throw punches at each other) with 27 youth offenders aged 15 to 16 years found a reduction in recidivism, along with other intra-and inter-personal outcomes. ...
Article
Objective: This study examined the effectiveness of Chinese martial arts in reducing reactive and proactive aggressive behavior among schoolchildren with a cluster-randomized trial. Methods: A screening questionnaire was completed by 3511 schoolchildren of Grades 2 to 5 from 13 sites in Hong Kong. We shortlisted 298 children who scored z ≥ 1 on the total score of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in their respective sites to participate in the experiment. They were divided into 31 clusters that were blinded and randomly assigned to one of the 4 conditions: skills only, philosophy only, skills and philosophy, and physical fitness (placebo). Subjects were assessed at baseline, posttraining, and 6 months after training using aggression scales. Results: Results from the linear mixed model indicated that the time × training interaction effects were significant for aggressive behavior (reactive and proactive), delinquent behavior, anxiety/depression, and attention problems. Although all measures declined in all conditions over time, only the skills-and-philosophy condition showed a significant reduction at posttraining and/or 6-month follow-up compared with the placebo. Conclusion: The results provided a theoretical proof for the relationship between aggression and sport involvement combined with children's moral reasoning. This study gives practical implications to intervention that solely playing sports or teaching moral lessons is not effective enough for high-risk schoolchildren with aggressive behavior. However, combined traditional Chinese martial arts skills and moral philosophy training could be considered in the school curriculum to reduce school violence and facilitate creation of harmonious schools.
... La pratique d'un art martial s'avère un complément à la psychothérapie pour des sujets dépressifs (Weiser, Kutz, Jacobson Kutz et Weiser, 1995). Elle contribue à réduire les troubles de l'attention et de la conduite à l'école (Hébert, 1991;Zivin, De Paula, Monti, Harlan, Hossain et Patterson, 2001), les actes délinquants (Trulson, 1986) et les comportements violents (Twemlow et Sacco, 1998). La création d'une salle d'entraînement, dans un quartier défavorisé au plan socio-économique où coexiste beaucoup de détresse sociale, favorise l'insertion sociale de jeunes et l'établissement de relations plus pacifiques (Le Rest, 2001 Cette recension des écrits soulève une question à laquelle cette recherche portera une attention particulière. ...
... Le fait d'évaluer quelques élèves d'une classe sur une seule année ne constitue peut-être pas une base de comparaison suffisante. Une autre recherche a rencontré des problèmes similaires quand des enseignants ont eu à répondre aux effets d'un programme semblable (Zivin et al. 2001). Cette difficulté devrait tout au moins sensibiliser les évaluateurs à recourir à différents utilisateurs pour juger d'une intervention ou d'un programme dans un milieu. ...
... In their school intervention, Lakes and Hoyt (2004) found that an informed taekwondo program significantly helped youths develop selfregulation, including how they reacted to challenging situations. This has been corroborated in various studies (e.g., Zivin et al., 2001;Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2021). For example, Zivin et al. (2001) found that youths involved in MA learned to breathe to control their impulses, which is consistent with MA practiceholding your breath or having the body control the mind is detrimental to MA performance. ...
... This has been corroborated in various studies (e.g., Zivin et al., 2001;Blomqvist Mickelsson, 2021). For example, Zivin et al. (2001) found that youths involved in MA learned to breathe to control their impulses, which is consistent with MA practiceholding your breath or having the body control the mind is detrimental to MA performance. Considering long-term selfregulation, Massey et al. (2013) found self-regulation to be a critical factor in how MA practitioners prepared themselves before bouts. ...
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This paper introduces a model that explains psychosocial development by embedding the developmental concept of rough-and-tumble play (RTP) into the contextual settings of martial arts (MA). Current sport-for-change literature relies on theories that address contextual factors surrounding sport but agrees that sport in itself does not facilitate developmental outcomes. In contemporary times where western societies invest substantial resources in sport programs for their psychosocial contribution, this becomes problematic. If the contextual factors surrounding sport are exclusively what produce developmental outcomes, what is the rationale for investing resources in sport specifically? We challenge this idea and argue that although contextual factors are important to any social phenomena, the developmental outcomes from sport can also be traced to the corporeal domain in sport. To date, we have lacked the theoretical lenses to articulate this. The developmental concept of RTP emphasizes how “play fighting” between consenting parties stimulates psychosocial growth through its demand for self-regulation and control when “play fighting” with peers. In short, RTP demands that individuals maintain a self-regulated mode of fighting and is contingent on a give-and-take relationship to maintain enjoyment. RTP can thus foster empathy and prosocial behavior and has strong social bonding implications. However, such play can also escalate. A fitting setting to be considered as moderated RTP is MA because of its resemblance to RTP, and its inherent philosophical features, which emphasizes self-regulation, empathy, and prosocial behavior. This paper outlines what constitutes high-quality RTP in a MA context and how this relates to developmental outcomes. By doing so, we present a practitioner’s framework in which practitioners, social workers, and physical educators can explain how MA, and not merely contextual factors, contributes toward developmental outcomes. In a time where sport is becoming increasingly politicized and used as a social intervention, it too becomes imperative to account for why sport, and in this case, MA, is suitable to such ends.
... Other studies also indicate that Eastern martial arts training can directly improve trainees' self-control (Lakes and Hoyt, 2004). Karate training also effectively reduces the level of aggression and impulsiveness, both of which are negatively related to satisfaction with life (Zivin et al., 2001;MacDonald et al., 2005). This suggests that karate training may indirectly foster the attainment of a high quality of life by having a beneficial effect on self-control. ...
... Our results indicate that karate training can have a positive impact on satisfaction with life. It was also shown that eastern martial arts training helps to significantly improve participants' self-control and reduce levels of aggression and impulsivity (Zivin et al., 2001;Vertonghen and Theeboom, 2010). Furthermore, a study conducted by Kimberley D. Lakes and William T. Hoyt (Lakes and Hoyt, 2004) indicates that adolescents participating in a 3-month intervention using martial arts training (Tae Kwon Do) scored better in self-control than those participating in standard physical activity training. ...
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Physical activity is an important determinant of a healthy lifestyle. Regular participation in sports-related activities contributes to the maintenance of good psychophysiological and social health. Long-term physical activity has a positive impact on subjective well-being and can reduce stress. Karate is a specific physical activity which focuses on self-regulation and self-development; therefore, it may reduce impulsivity and improve self-control. Good self-control is also related to satisfaction with life and well-being. The presented study aimed to examine the possible intermediate impact of self-control and emotion regulation on the relationship between karate training and satisfaction with life. Fifty-eight karate practitioners and fifty-nine control subjects participated in the research. The Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Brief Self-Control Scale were applied in order to assess life satisfaction and the general level of self-control. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was used to assess suppression and reappraisal, both of which are distinct aspects of emotion regulation. The direct and indirect relationships between karate training and satisfaction with life were investigated using a linear regression model that included self-control, suppression and reappraisal as mediating variables. No direct effects of karate training on satisfaction with life were found, whereas karate training was indirectly associated with satisfaction with life via the indirect path that leads through self-control and reappraisal. This indicates that self-control and reappraisal fully mediate the impact of karate training on subjective well-being. Karate training can therefore play an important role in shaping volitional and personality characteristics, both of which contribute to increasing the well-being of trainees.
... We include a variety of strategies that enhance self-regulation in aroused states such as ''rough and tumble'' play and related martial arts training for children, as studies have shown it to reduce children's aggressive behavior (Bjorklund and Brown 1998;Paquette 2004;Pellegrini 1992;Shannon et al. 2002) and the mechanism appears to involve alteration of brain chemistry Siviy et al. 1996;Taylor et al. 1986). The martial arts studies with children show improved self-regulation, less aggression, and positive mood along with decreased impulsiveness (Lakes and Hoyt 2004;Palermo et al. 2006;Twemlow and Sacco 1998;Zivin et al. 2001), though student self-report may show less change than classroom teacher reports (McDiarmid 2008). ...
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This paper describes evidence-based kernels, fundamental units of behavioral influence that appear to underlie effective prevention and treatment for children, adults, and families. A kernel is a behavior–influence procedure shown through experimental analysis to affect a specific behavior and that is indivisible in the sense that removing any of its components would render it inert. Existing evidence shows that a variety of kernels can influence behavior in context, and some evidence suggests that frequent use or sufficient use of some kernels may produce longer lasting behavioral shifts. The analysis of kernels could contribute to an empirically based theory of behavioral influence, augment existing prevention or treatment efforts, facilitate the dissemination of effective prevention and treatment practices, clarify the active ingredients in existing interventions, and contribute to efficiently developing interventions that are more effective. Kernels involve one or more of the following mechanisms of behavior influence: reinforcement, altering antecedents, changing verbal relational responding, or changing physiological states directly. The paper describes 52 of these kernels, and details practical, theoretical, and research implications, including calling for a national database of kernels that influence human behavior.
... The legendary stories associated with Kalaripayattu and the practice, and presentation of 64 Kalari across Kerala offers tremendous scope for studies, leisure and enjoyments for those wish to make their travel meaningful. • Psychological engagement: Like other martial art, psychological engagement through basic training in Kalaripayattu, probably for a period of one week or two, could develop a respectful attitude, physical skill, mental clarity, and an understanding of the body and of the physics of action (Zivin et al., 2001). The practice also helps the tourists to develop a centred, calm, discriminating mind which is imperative for all aspects of life. ...
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Kalari is the Malayalam (language spoken in Kerala) word for a special kind of gymnasium, where the martial art known as Kalaripayattu is practised based on the idea of a sound mind in the sound body. It is one of the most ancient and comprehensive art form of India rather the world, because it has an excellent system of physical training, effective self-defence techniques, both armed and unarmed, training for excellent flexibility for physical and mental strength and is based on the Dravidian culture of India. Kalaripayattu is considered as the basis for all martial arts. This martial art has been practised on the basis of a scientific system of medicine called Kalarichikilsa (Kalari-related treatment). This article investigates the potential of cultural heritage resources from a supply and demand perspective, as cultural resource management is the need of the hour to preserve and commercialize cultural and heritage resources. The study reveals that cultural heritage resources like Kalaripayattu could become a unique selling proposition of Indian tourism market, provided these resources are protected, preserved and encouraged through effective promotion strategies in various target markets.
... La práctica de artes marciales ha demostrado también ser un medio para disminuir los impulsos agresivos y promover los comportamientos socialmente positivos (Diamond & Lee, 2011;Layton, Higaonna & Arneil, 1993;Zivin et al., 2001). En un caso de desorden de déficit de atención la práctica de taekwondo promovió la concentración, la ansiedad y el control del enojo (Harris, 1998;Woodward, 2009). ...
... Much of the debate in the physical education literature centers on whether martial arts classes in primary and secondary education foster or inhibit violence, and many of the empirical studies focus on this, as well. Specifically, with regard to youth in school-based programs, studies have focused on beneficial effects in different domains: self-regulation (Lakes and Hoyt, 2004); stress reduction (Wall, 2005); school violence prevention (Smith et al., 1999;Zivin et al., 2001); juvenile delinquency (Gonzalez, 1990;Gorbel, 1991;Nosanchuk, 1981;Trulson, 1986;Twemlow & Sacco, 1998);bullying (Twemblow et al., 2008); and conflict management (Rew and Ferns, 2005;. ...
... Incorporating martial arts/self-defense into a physical education class or lesson is one method of increasing all students' confidence and self-esteem. Zivin et al. (2001) conducted a study in which 60 middle school-aged boys took part in a martial arts class. They found a significant decrease in violent behaviors, an improvement in school work and an increase in happiness as reported by the students. ...
... A further difficulty with longitudinal studies is that the authors often choose a time period that is too short in which to measure the effects, so Edelman [57] chose a twelve, Lakes and Hoyt [58] a sixteen and Zivin et al. [59] a ten-week test period. However, many authors have expressed doubts about the reliability of short-term measurement periods because such a short period does not cause noticeable changes in personality. ...
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Background and Study Aim: We hypothesized: (H1) there is a significant difference between genders in the total score of trait aggression and subscales (verbal, physical aggression, hostility and anger) in both groups (budo and control group), wherein the boys exhibit a higher score of trait aggression than girls significantly; (H2) there is a significant difference in the trait aggression total score and the sub-scales scores based on school type, wherein the vocational school students would achieve the highest, whereas high school students the lowest values in both groups (budo and control group); (H3) budo martial arts practitioners are characterized significantly lower trait aggression (total scores) than their counterparts of the same age, and youngsters practising martial arts also had a significantly lower value for all aggression subclasses than their peers in the control group; (H4) the length of sport practice, the number of workouts, and competitive variables of budo group have a significant correlation, with trait aggression (the total score and the value of the sub-scales). This study aims to verify this hypothesis. Materials and Methods: This study examined students between the ages of 14 and 18 (n = 1,488). There were 149 people in the budo group who had been practising for at least a year spending at least one and a half hours twice a week in martial arts classes. The control group consisted of 1,339 students. The Buss-Perry Questionnaire (AQ) was used. IBM SPSS Statistics 22 were used for statistical analysis. Results were considered as significant if p<0.05. Results: In the control group, the score for trait aggression and the score for the physical sub-scale for the boys was significantly higher than for the girls. However, in the verbal aggression category and the anger subcategory, there is a significant difference in favour of girls. In the martial arts group there was only a significant difference in the physical aggression subscale score for males; but not in the total score and other sub-scales. There was a significant difference in scores based on the type of schooling in the control group. In both groups, those in vocational school had the highest trait-aggression score. Budo practitioners had a lower trait-aggression level; their trait-aggression overall score and the subscale scores were also significantly lower than those of the control group. However, competitors have significantly lower levels of hostility. Conclusions: Negative prejudices against martial arts athletes practitioners to the effect that they would be more aggressive than average were not proven in the investigation.
... One of the most innovative concepts of modern therapies and preventive rehabilitation programs is based on the elements of martial arts (safe-fall, collision avoidance by tai-sabaki, ashi-sabaki, fun forms of martial arts etc.). These programs could be apply not only to the blind or visually impaired but also to the people with other disabilities (amputations of the extremities, or with intellectual disabilities [40][41][42][43][44][45]), or for reducing aggressiveness [46][47][48] etc. ...
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Background & Study Aim: Self-defence for persons with some disability is a neglected area by most experts on self-defence. The aim of this study is to create the basic methodology of self-defence course for people with visual impairments Material & Methods: Ten persons (5 sightless and 5 short sighted, 5 men and 5 women; aged between 16 and 57) have attended 24 hour course of self-defence. We use a set of questions to determine the degree of self-confidence in self-defence situations such as prevention, verbal conflict and physical assault before and after the course. Second evaluation method is an expert analysis of scenario training. Results: After the self-defence course self-confidence during prevention and communication and inner security during conflict situations increased, which was shown in scenario trainings as well. Conclusions: A self-defence course for people with visual disabilities should be focused on the early recognition of danger, verbal defence training and the use of physical contact. Post conflict stays as a challenge in this area.
... Kaum etwas Schlüssiges lässt sich auch über die Wirkung von Kampfsportarten als Mittel zur Gewaltprävention sagen. Während einzelne kleine Studien über positive Effekte berichten (Zivin et al., 2001), fand eine jüngere und methodisch gut angelegte grössere Studie, dass die Teilnahme an Kampfsportarten das Ausmass von antisozialem Verhalten sogar verstärkt (Endresen & Olweus, 2005). ...
... Indeed, whereas a substantial amount of research indicates increased aggression amongst martial artists (e.g., Endresen & Olweus, 2005;Kreager, 2007;Mutz, 2012;Sofia & Cruz, 2017), other scholars report positive effects, such as increased self-control (e.g., Lakes & Hoyt, 2004, Zivin et al., 2001, Twemlow et al., 2008. Verthongen and Theeboom (2010) reviewed over two decades of martial arts research and found that, while the majority of the data seemed to indicate positive effects due to the practice, there still remained occasional negative reports. ...
Article
Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) is a popular, yet controversial, martial art which have amassed plenty of practitioners and fans in recent years. MMA-gyms frequently conveys the message that the sport of MMA facilitates sociopsychological development; however, the evidence for this claim is weak. Instead, Blomqvist Mickelsson (2019) have reported that young and novel MMA practitioners may increase in aggression. However, the same practitioners also exhibited increased self-control. This finding is peculiar, as the psychological core of these characteristics are opposite to one another. This would suggest that the increased self-control did not mitigate aggression levels. Thus, a series of moderation analyses were performed with the same MMA practitioners (n = 63) who underwent a 5-month training intervention. The results indicated that initial levels of either trait both predicted and interacted with each other. These results suggest that, despite the parallel increase in both characteristics, high levels in one of aforementioned traits may mitigate the other. Finally, further inquiry revealed that, some items in the Self-Control Scale may draw from different dimensions related, and non-related, to aggression; thus, allowing practitioners to increase in both self-control and aggression simultaneously. These findings may have practical implications. Whereas MMA-training may be harmless when practiced by individuals with high self-control and low aggression, the combination of these traits is not common amongst youths at risk.
... Even when psychological collectivism appears to move away from the societal level of analysis, society still plays a crucial role. Therefore, it is curious that this phenomenon has been overlooked, especially when many research studies of traditional Asian martial arts use foreigners as their subjects [Daniels and Thornton 1992;Lantz 2002;Movahedi et al. 2013;Najafi 2003;Nosanchuk and MacNeil 1989;Twemlow and Sacco 1998;Zivin et al. 2001]. ...
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This paper conceptualizes a new perspective in viewing traditional martial arts in terms of psychology. Traditional martial arts offer the complete package: physical skills, moral codes, rituals, roles and hierarchical relationships, which make them the perfect environment for psychological collectivism. This phenomenon becomes even more interesting when this cultural and philosophical background differs from the Western practitioner's original background. Psychological collectivism focuses on individuals and their abilities to accept norms of an in-group, understand hierarchy, and feel interdependence or common faith of the group. Surprisingly, many research studies have used foreigners as subjects to study Asian martial arts, but there is no intention directed towards the difference in backgrounds of both the participants and the martial art. At first, this paper will introduce the theory of psychological collectivism and explain its hypothesized connection with traditional martial arts. Using the example of Chinese traditional wushu (kung fu) will be used to illustrated the theory in practice. Relationships to the others and to the self are taken as one of the bases for this illustration. The research gap will be also compared to the new and small but existing body of psychological collectivism research in individual sport. This paper argues that traditional martial arts create situations strong enough to activate collectivistic attributes of self. Based on the theory, it is suggested that practitioners' mind-set can be different within the environment of the training context and outside of it. This kind of collectivistic interaction may be one explanation of how foreigners function in the training setting and how the traditional martial arts can work in psychosocial therapies.
... Estudos de menor escala têm evidenciado que a prática de AM reduz os níveis de agressividade entre pares (Palermo et al., 2006;Theeboom, De Knop, & Wylleman, 2008). De referir, ainda, alguns estudos que sugerem que as AM têm um efeito positivo no desenvolvimento pessoal e social (Lakes & Hoyt, 2004), e diminuem significativamente os níveis de violência (Zivin et al., 2001). Refere-se ainda o currículo comum de aprendizagens desenvolvidas nas AM assente na promoção do desenvolvimento de áreas interligadas nos domínios cognitivo, social, emocional e físico fundamentais para todas as áreas de desenvolvimento dos praticantes (Gil-Espinosa, García, & Rodríguez, 2018). ...
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Resumo. Esta revisão sistemática teve por objetivo sintetizar e analisar os estudos que relacionam a prática de Artes Marciais & Desportos de Combate (AM&DC) com a violência, nomeadamente com o fenómeno de Bullying em idade escolar. De fevereiro a agosto de 2018 foram recolhidas e analisadas 48 publicações de sete bases de dados científicas internacionais, mas apenas 18 cumpriram os critérios para serem incluídas neste estudo. Esta revisão evidencia que a prática de AM&DC promove alterações genericamente favoráveis no léxico biopsicossocial das crianças e adolescentes que as praticam. São um ótimo meio de desenvolvimento biopsicoemocional, ético e estético de crianças e adolescentes, sendo reportados nos seus praticantes níveis superiores de comportamentos pró-sociais entre pares. Esta condição é tanto mais benéfica quanto maior for a graduação do praticante (tempo de prática), a modalidade de participação nas AM&DC (praticante ou competidor), as qualificações profissionais dos treinadores, as características dos locais de prática, a tipologia de artes marciais ou mesmo o estilo (tradicional ou moderno). Palavras-Chave: artes marciais; bullying; relações entre pares; crianças; adolescentes. Abstract. This systematic review aims to synthesize and analyse studies that relate the practice of Martial Arts and Combat Sports (AM&DC) with violence, in particular the phenomenon of school bullying. From February to August, 48 publications were collected from seven international scientific databases on the subject under analysis, but only 18 met all the criteria to be included in this study. This review shows that the practice of AM&DC promotes generically favorable changes in the biopsychosocial lexicon of children and adolescents who practice them. They are great ways of biopsychosocial, ethical and aesthetic development of children and adolescents, and their practitioners report higher levels of prosocial behavior among peers. This condition is all the more beneficial the higher the practitioner's degree (length of practice), mode of participation in the AM&DC (practitioner or competitor), the professional qualification of coaches, characteristics of places of practice, the typology of martial arts or even the style (traditional or modern). Resumen. Esta revisión sistemática tuvo como objetivo sintetizar y analizar los estudios que relacionan la práctica de artes marciales y deportes de combate (AM&DC) con la violencia, en particular el fenómeno del acoso escolar. De febrero a agosto se recopilaron 48 publicaciones de siete bases de datos científicas internacionales sobre el tema en análisis, pero solo 18 cumplieron con todos los criterios para ser incluidos en este estudio. Esta revisión muestra que la práctica de AM&DC promueve cambios genéricamente favorables en el léxico biopsicosocial de niños y adolescentes que los practican. Son un excelente medio de desarrollo biopsicosocial, ético y estético de niños y adolescentes, con niveles más altos de comportamiento prosocial entre los pares en sus practicantes. Esta condición es tanto más beneficiosa cuanto mayor sea el grado del profesional (duración de la práctica), el modo de participación en AM&DC (profesional o competidor), las calificaciones profesionales de los entrenadores, las características de los lugares de práctica, la tipología de artes marciales o incluso el estilo (tradicional o moderno).
... I partecipanti a tali programmi, in particolare ragazzi di scuola media, hanno mostrato un comportamento significativamente meno violento, nonché riduzioni nella violazione delle regole e comportamenti impulsivi. Inoltre, i ragazzi hanno manifestato uno stato emoti-282 |Ricerche Sezione SIPeS vo positivo dopo l'allenamento e un miglioramento significativo nell'autocontrollo dell'attenzione (Zivin et al., 2001). ...
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This contribution aims to connect the topic of health education with that of social inclusion. We will move along two directives. On the one hand, the need to implement health literacy on old and new health problems pointed out by scientific literature. This need suggests that an increasing number of disadvantaged children, adolescents, and adults, do not have tools to collect information on their health and use it; this increases the exclusion from vital common goods, such as health. On the other hand, we will move from the perspective of a critical pedagogy of traditional health education; the latter, pathologizing behaviors, can create new forms of uneasiness, educational discomfort, and social exclusion. Our proposal will be that of a new model of health education, capable of recovering education generativity, in terms of opportunities, resources for daily life, and for learning and planning the future, in a salutogenic and resilient perspective. This contribution aims to connect the topic of health education with that of social inclusion. We will move along two directives. On the one hand, the need to implement health literacy on old and new health problems pointed out by scientific literature. This need suggests that an increasing number of disadvantaged children, adolescents, and adults, do not have tools to collect information on their health and use it; this increases the exclusion from vital common goods, such as health. On the other hand, we will move from the perspective of a critical pedagogy of traditional health education; the latter, pathologizing behaviors, can create new forms of uneasiness, educational discomfort, and social exclusion. Our proposal will be that of a new model of health education, capable of recovering education generativity, in terms of opportunities, resources for daily life, and for learning and planning the future, in a salutogenic and resilient perspective.This contribution aims to connect the topic of health education with that of social inclusion. We will move along two directives. On the one hand, the need to implement health literacy on old and new health problems pointed out by scientific literature. This need suggests that an increasing number of disadvantaged children, adolescents, and adults, do not have tools to collect information on their health and use it; this increases the exclusion from vital common goods, such as health. On the other hand, we will move from the perspective of a critical pedagogy of traditional health education; the latter, pathologizing behaviors, can create new forms of uneasiness, educational discomfort, and social exclusion. Our proposal will be that of a new model of health education, capable of recovering education generativity, in terms of opportunities, resources for daily life, and for learning and planning the future, in a salutogenic and resilient perspective.
... En esta línea, Edelman (1994) analizó en 15 estudiantes con problemas emocionales en su entorno educativo desarrollando 12 semanas de entrenamiento en Aikido y obteniendo resultados que llevaron a afirmar que podrían mejorar sus conductas agresivas. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio coinciden con los del estudio de Zivin et al. (2001) sólidas en los beneficios de las artes marciales y deportes de combate en los centros para mejorar las conductas violentas, demuestran en su estudio de 221 estudiantes (entre 13 y 16 años) como estas actividades mejoran la motivación, el disfrute y evitando las actitudes hacia la violencia. ...
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Hoje, há um aumento de situações de bullying entre adolescentes. No ambienteeducacional, são tomadas diferentes medidas para detectar essas situações e, assim,serem capazes de enfrentar o problema do bullying. Uma das maneiras de resolver esseproblema é através da interação entre os alunos em atividades conjuntas ou através deprotocolos de mediação. O objetivo da presente investigação foi avaliar e analisar o uso do Kenbudo como recurso educacional para aumentar o fair play e diminuir comportamentosperturbadores, a fim de evitar o bullying entre adolescentes. Para isso, foi realizada umaintervenção de duas sessões de Kenbudo. Participaram um total de 173 estudantes deprimeiro e segundo ano do ensino médio obrigatório (ESO) de dois centros educacionaisda província de Alicante. Por um lado, foram observadas diferenças significativas nas duasvariáveis irresponsabilidade e baixo comprometimento, pois aumentaram com a atividadee, por outro, a variável vitória que diminuiu no grupo experimental.
... Forming the foundation for the current study, a recent metaanalysis demonstrated the potential for martial arts to reduce aggressive behaviors (8). Despite the promising findings, only twelve studies were relevant for inclusion, and just one studied aggression in at-risk youths (12). While aggressive behaviors are the most widely studied effects of martial arts, recent studies suggest that martial arts may also improve cognitive function, primarily executive functions (13,14), which have been repeatedly associated with delinquency, criminality, and at-risk youths (15). ...
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The current study assessed whether an extended program of martial arts training was a viable intervention for at-risk youths in improving cognitive and psychological functions. Adolescent boys attending specialized education facilities for at-risk youths took part in regular sport lessons or martial arts practice twice a week for 6 months. Hormonal reactivity was assessed during initial training, and measures of psychological (aggression, self-esteem) and cognitive (inhibition, flexibility, speed of processing, and attention) functions were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. Participants in the martial arts training demonstrated significant improvement in the domains of inhibition and shifting and speed of processing. Additionally, initial hormonal reactivity (oxytocin and cortisol) to the intervention predicted significant post-intervention change on several measures of cognitive and psychological functioning. Specifically, oxytocin reactivity predicted improvement in processing speed, as well as reduction of aggression, whereas cortisol reactivity predicted increases in self-esteem. This pioneering, ecologically valid study demonstrates the initial efficacy of this enjoyable, readily available, group intervention for at-risk boys and suggests potential mechanisms that may mediate the process of change.
... I partecipanti a tali programmi, in particolare ragazzi di scuola media, hanno mostrato un comportamento significativamente meno violento, nonché riduzioni nella violazione delle regole e comportamenti impulsivi. Inoltre, i ragazzi hanno manifestato uno stato emoti-vo positivo dopo l'allenamento e un miglioramento significativo nell'autocontrollo dell'attenzione (Zivin et al., 2001). ...
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Il contributo partendo da un’analisi comparata della letteratura volta a argomentare l’importanza delle funzioni esecutive e del loro sviluppo attraverso le arti marziali, intende riflettere sul tema del disturbo da deficit di attenzione iperattività (DDAI) e quanto la pratica delle arti marziali può supportare la persona iperattiva. Il disturbo DDAI si caratterizza per lo specifico deficit nelle funzioni esecutive (Barkley, 1997), pertanto individuare le caratteristiche specifiche delle arti marziali che agiscono nel loro potenziamento, può risultare un approccio metodologico estendibile anche aldilà degli ambienti sportivi e soprattutto in ambito scolastico. Nel presente lavoro si vogliono considerare gli studi di settore e gli esiti di ricerca nello sviluppo delle funzioni esecutive in bambini con e senza iperattività che hanno partecipato a percorsi di arti marziali. A valle del contributo si presenterà una riflessione pedagogica su come a livello metodologico la pratica di tali arti, e in particolare del Jiu-Jitsu brasiliano e del Taekwondo, può aiutare i bambini a migliorare le proprie abilità di pianificazione, concentrazione, problem solving e soprattutto il controllo e gestione delle proprie emozioni.
... The ecological and environmental protection teaching development of Emishi martial arts teaching allows Emishi martial arts teaching to obtain maximum effectiveness. However, due to various restricti ons, there are increasingly fierce competitions among the ecological protection teaching businesses an d channels in the ecological protection teaching of Emishi martial arts teaching in the fields of ecologic al protection teaching rights and effectiveness sharing [1]. Although the course organizers have taken measures to carry out feasibility and related dissemination one after another, how to carry out a brandnew validity allocation and refinement combination for different students is a thorny issue facing the fe asibility and feasibility of the Emei Mountain Wushu Teaching Ecological Environmental Protection R esearch Camp. ...
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With the global environmental pollution and the lack of material resources, people are aware of the importance of ecological problems, and people begin to look at sports from an ecological perspective. Martial arts is a traditional sport of the Chinese nation. It has a long history and has evolved into today’s competitive martial arts after many years. The development status of Emishi martial arts is relatively slow compared to other provinces in China. This article will investigate and study the training venues of Emishi martial arts training institutions and the degree of support for martial arts projects by relevant government departments in various regions and cities. The environmental protection values of most training institutions do not meet the standards. There are few areas with standard competition venues. Local governments lack attention to martial arts and the reward system is not perfect. The study found that the application of Emishi martial arts aerobics in martial arts research camps from the perspective of ecological sports should be reflected in venues, props and costumes, music, teaching methods and non-intellectual factors. Choose a martial arts research camp with better air for the venue, environmental protection of props and clothing, music soothing to reduce noise, teaching methods and non-intellectual factors should follow the law of student development.
... I partecipanti a tali programmi, in particolare ragazzi di scuola media, hanno mostrato un comportamento significativamente meno violento, nonché riduzioni nella violazione delle regole e comportamenti impulsivi. Inoltre, i ragazzi hanno manifestato uno stato emoti-282 |Ricerche Sezione SIPeS vo positivo dopo l'allenamento e un miglioramento significativo nell'autocontrollo dell'attenzione (Zivin et al., 2001). ...
... The results extended the current understanding of the role that sport can play in supporting the mental health of at-risk males. To date, research on such interventions have used sport as a context to improve mental health, with participation in sport being linked with improving self-esteem (Biddle & Asare, 2011;Eather et al., 2016), lowering depression and anxiety (Brunet et al., 2013;Kvam et al., 2016;McMahon et al., 2017;Weinstein et al., 2017), and reducing in aggression and violent behaviors (Zivin et al., 2001). While some studies have employed techniques that promote positive mental health through the medium of sporting contexts such as CBT (McGale et al., 2011), and mindfulness and guided imagery (Cai, 2000;Milligan et al., 2017), these programs do not combine sport with one-to-one psychotherapy. ...
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This qualitative research sought to establish the impact of an 8-week program combining football and one-to-one psychotherapy on young males’ mental health, determining the factors that predict help-seeking behaviors in this group of men. Pre- and post-participation focus groups were used as the method of data collection. Six males (19–35 years old; M = 25.5) completed both pre-intervention and follow-up focus groups. Help-seeking behaviors were influenced by the appeal of football and the perception of the counselor being accessible. Barriers included gender norms, socialization, financial difficulties, and challenging social landscapes. Post-participation focus groups revealed that positive social and counseling relationships facilitated improved mental health. Sport was deemed an acceptable medium to deliver a mental health intervention as it increased social connections and facilitated help-seeking. Findings support previous research indicating that combining sports and psychotherapy positively impacts young males’ mental health.
... The terminologies of both traditional and modern martial arts are not all well defined. Mainly, traditional approach of martial arts is emphasized on developing "inner" strength and character, focusing on meditative aspects, stressing self-control, conflict avoidance, and respect for others (Zivin et al., 2001;Donohue & Taylor, 1994). Meanwhile, modern martial arts seem to be emphasized on focusing more on the competitively oriented scope and physical aspects only (Mickelsson, 2019;Nosanchuk & MacNeil, 1989). ...
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Mixed Martial Arts has grown into a spectacle since its start in 1993. Despite the violence and drama in this particular combat sport and usually ended in a confrontation, people still watch the sport as their favorite pastime. The purpose of this research is to figure out the motivation of Mixed Martial Arts spectators. The study was developed by taking several variables from Sport Fan Motivation Scale (SFMS) and Motivation Scale of Sport Consumption. The data was collected via a survey of MMA spectators and 205 respondents participated. The results showed that despite all independent variables have positive relationship with the dependent variable, only physical skills, hero worship/adoration, and entertainment aspect of the sport significantly motivate the respondents, while the drama side does not.
... En esta línea, Edelman (1994) analizó en 15 estudiantes con problemas emocionales en su entorno educativo desarrollando 12 semanas de entrenamiento en Aikido y obteniendo resultados que llevaron a afirmar que podrían mejorar sus conductas agresivas. Los resultados obtenidos en el presente estudio coinciden con los del estudio de Zivin et al. (2001) sólidas en los beneficios de las artes marciales y deportes de combate en los centros para mejorar las conductas violentas, demuestran en su estudio de 221 estudiantes (entre 13 y 16 años) como estas actividades mejoran la motivación, el disfrute y evitando las actitudes hacia la violencia. ...
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Hoy en día se aprecia un aumento de las situaciones de bullying entre los adolescentes. En el entorno educativo se toman medidas de distinta índole para conseguir detectar estas situaciones y así poder atajar el problema del acoso. Una de las formas de solucionar este problema es mediante la interacción entre el alumnado en actividades conjuntas o a través protocolos de mediación. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue evaluar y analizar el uso del Kenbudo como recurso educativo para aumentar el fair play y disminuir las conductas disruptivas para evitar el acoso entre adolescentes. Para ello se realizó una intervención de dos sesiones de Kenbudo. Participaron un total de 173 estudiantes de primero y segundo de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO) de dos centros educativos de la provincia de Alicante. Por un lado, se observaron diferencias significativas en las dos variables irresponsabilidad y bajo compromiso, ya que aumentaron con la actividad y, por otro lado, la variable victoria que disminuyó en el grupo experimental.
... It is not yet clear in the literature whether martial arts practice can help control aggression, or does it increase aggression. Although there is some evidence of the use of martial arts to control aggressiveness (Abrahams, 2004;Zivin, et al., 2001), certain studies have shown that martial arts practice may increase antisocial behavior (Endresen & Olweus, 2005), while others have highlighted the possibility that physical strength and martial arts violence are related to violent behavior and increased aggressiveness (Kusnierz, Cynarski, & Litwiniuk, 2014). ...
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This study, through a systematic review, analyzed scientific production concerning sport psychology in mixed martial arts. The review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the search was performed using the S ciELO, S cienceDirect , PsycInfo, and Web of Science databases . Of the 79 studies screened, eight satisfied the eligibility criteria, with explicit addressal of the topics of fear, aggression, emotional control, confidence, mental toughness, motivation, arousal, coping, rational emotive behavioral therapy for MMA athletes, fighting experience and MMA competition. Consequently, the scarce scientific production was found to evidence the need for further research in this modality. It is suggested that studies that investigate other variables of sport psychology such as mood, anxiety, and burnout.
... Apesar de, como mencionado acima, a presença dessas práticas ser muito limitada nos currículos de Educação Física da Espanha, têm um grande número de estudos que analisaram as possibilidades do DDCC nessa área (Espartero, Gutiérrez , & Villamón, 2005;Robles, 2008;Tejero-González, Balsalobre-Fernández, & Ibáñez-Cano, 2011;Tejero-González, Ibáñez-Cano, & Pérez-Alonso, 2008;Villamón, Gutiérrez & Espartero, 2005) Da mesma forma, no nível internacional, também é notável o número de investigações realizadas Brown & Johnson, 2000;Chyu, Feng, Esperat, & Ochoa, 2010;Figueiredo, 2009;Lakes & Hoyt, 2004;Twemlow & Sacco, 1998;Zivin et al., 2001;Pereira et. al, 2017). ...
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O objetivo deste estudo é, em uma perspectiva comparada, compreender as diferenças e semelhanças acerca da efetividade do conteúdo Lutas nas aulas de Educação Física da Espanha e do Brasil. Para tanto foram analisadas as principais legislações que regulamentam os currículos escolares de ambos os países; o Real Decreto, na Espanha, e a Base Nacional Comum Curricular, no Brasil. Em complemento a essa análise documental foram elencadas algumas pesquisas correlatas ao tema, cujo propósito consiste na verificação do cumprimento das normativas legais acerca do conteúdo de Lutas nas escolas. Notou-se, a partir das fontes selecionadas para este estudo, que existem, nos dois países, legislações robustas preconizando o ensino de Lutas nas aulas de Educação Física. No entanto, algumas pesquisas apontam para o fato de que esse conteúdo raramente está presente nas aulas de Educação Física, devido a alguns fatores restritivos, tais como: falta de estrutura, incapacidade dos professores, vinculação com violência.
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This chapter investigates the potential of Kalaripayattu as a tourism product. The study adopted interview method both personal and telephonic to extract primary data from practitioners and tourists. The study result shows that various facets of Kalaripayattu practices provide scope for visual engagement, psychological engagement, spiritual/wellbeing engagement, therapeutic engagement, engagement in specialized treatment, and engagement in combat and self-defense applications. These engagement are found to be appropriate to develop tourism products which could meet the general, wellness, cultural, as well as health tourism sectors. Study further investigates the impeding factors, while developing Kalaripayattu as a tourism product and suggested strategies to overcome the same. The study also suggests that the contemporary marketing practice can create a vibrant market for Kalaripayattu, and thereby, this ancient martial art could become a unique selling proposition (USP) in the tourism market.
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The Field of Psychotherapy has seen a renaissance of mindfulness, the practice of being in the present moment without judgement. Scientific evidence suggests that mindfulness helps to counter Depression and has a beneficial effect on the brain. The martial arts of Eastern origin, which work directly with the body, are as old as mindfulness; can they too be beneficial for mental health? Iulius-Cezar Macarie and Ron Roberst explore this question.
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This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students' misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom (in‐school) or on school premises (out‐of‐school). In some extreme cases the student is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion). The review summarises findings from 37 reports covering nine different types of intervention. Most studies were from the USA, and the remainder from the UK. Included studies evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions to reduce the rates of exclusion. Interventions were implemented in mainstream schools and targeted school‐aged children from four to 18, irrespective of nationality or social background. Only randomised controlled trials are included. The evidence base covers 37 studies. Thirty‐three studies were from the USA, three from the UK, and for one study the country was not clear. School‐based interventions cause a small and significant drop in exclusion rates during the first six months after intervention (on average), but this effect is not sustained. Interventions seemed to be more effective at reducing some types of exclusion such as expulsion and in‐school exclusion. Four intervention types – enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, and skills training for teachers – had significant desirable effects on exclusion. However, the number of studies in each case is low, so this result needs to be treated with caution. There is no impact of the interventions on antisocial behaviour. Variations in effect sizes are not explained by participants' characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, or the quality of the intervention. Independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. Plain language summary Interventions can reduce school exclusion but the effect is temporary Some interventions – enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, and skills training for teachers – appear to have significant effects on exclusion. The review in brief Interventions to reduce school exclusion are intended to mitigate the adverse effects of this school sanction. Some approaches, namely those involving enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring and those targeting skills training for teachers, have a temporary effect in reducing exclusion. More evaluations are needed to identify the most effective types of intervention; and whether similar effects are also found in different countries. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the impact of interventions to reduce exclusion from school. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students’ misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom (in‐school) or on school premises (out‐of‐school). In some extreme cases the student is not allowed to come back to the same school (expulsion). The review summarises findings from 37 reports covering nine different types of intervention. Most studies were from the USA, and the remainder from the UK. What is this review about? School exclusion is associated with undesirable effects on developmental outcomes. It increases the likelihood of poor academic performance, antisocial behavior, and poor employment prospects. This school sanction disproportionally affects males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those with special educational needs. This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes to reduce the prevalence of exclusion. What are the main findings of this review? What studies are included? Included studies evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions to reduce the rates of exclusion. Interventions were implemented in mainstream schools and targeted school‐aged children from four to 18, irrespective of nationality or social background. Only randomised controlled trials are included. The evidence base covers 37 studies. Thirty‐three studies were from the USA, three from the UK, and for one study the country was not clear. School‐based interventions cause a small and significant drop in exclusion rates during the first six months after intervention (on average), but this effect is not sustained. Interventions seemed to be more effective at reducing some types of exclusion such as expulsion and in‐school exclusion. Four intervention types ‐ enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/ monitoring, and skills training for teachers – had significant desirable effects on exclusion. However, the number of studies in each case is low, so this result needs to be treated with caution. There is no impact of the interventions on antisocial behaviour. Variations in effect sizes are not explained by participants’ characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, or the quality of the intervention. Independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. What do the findings of this review mean? School‐based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion immediately after, and for a few months after, the intervention (6 months on average). Four interventions presented promising and significant results in reducing exclusion, that is, enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, skills training for teachers. However, since the number of studies for each sub‐type of intervention was low, we suggest these results should be treated with caution. Most of the studies come from the USA. Evaluations are needed from other countries in which exclusion is common. Further research should take advantage of the possibility of conducting cluster‐randomised controlled trials, whilst ensuring that the sample size is sufficiently large. How up‐to‐date is this review? The review authors searched for studies published up to December 2015. This Campbell systematic review was published in January 2018. Executive Summary/Abstract BACKGROUND Schools are important institutions of formal social control (Maimon, Antonaccio, & French, 2012). They are, apart from families, the primary social system in which individuals are socialised to follow specific codes of conduct. Violating these codes of conduct may result in some form of punishment. School punishment is normally accepted by families and students as a consequence of transgression, and in that sense school isoften the place where children are first introduced to discipline, justice, or injustice (Whitford & Levine‐Donnerstein, 2014). A wide range of punishments may be used in schools, from verbal reprimands to more serious actions such as detention, fixed term exclusion or even permanent exclusion from the mainstream education system. It must be said that in some way, these school sanctions resemble the penal system and its array of alternatives to punish those that break the law. School exclusion, also known as suspension in some countries, is defined as a disciplinary sanction imposed by a responsible school authority, in reaction to students’ misbehaviour. Exclusion entails the removal of pupils from regular teaching for a period during which they are not allowed to be present in the classroom or, in more serious cases, on school premises.Based on the previous definition, this review uses school exclusion and school suspension as synonyms, unless the contrary is explicitly stated. Most of the available research has found that exclusion correlates with subsequent negative sequels on developmental outcomes. Exclusion or suspension of students is associated with failure within the academic curriculum, aggravated antisocial behaviour, and an increased likelihood of involvement with punitive social control institutions (i.e., the Juvenile Justice System). In the long‐term, opportunities for training and employment seem to be considerably reduced for those who have repeatedly been excluded. In addition to these negative correlated outcomes, previous evidence suggest that the exclusion of students involves a high economic cost for taxpayers and society. Research from the last 20 years has concluded quite consistently that this disciplinary measure disproportionally targets males, ethnic minorities, those who come from disadvantaged economic backgrounds, and those presenting special educational needs. In other words, suspension affects the most vulnerable children in schools. Different programmes have attempted to reduce the prevalence of exclusion. Although some of them have shown promising results, so far, no comprehensive systematic review has examined these programmes’ overall effectiveness. OBJECTIVES The main goal of the present research is to systematically examine the available evidence for the effectiveness of different types of school‐based interventions aimed at reducing disciplinary school exclusion. Secondary goals include comparing different approaches and identifying those that could potentially demonstrate larger and more significant effects. The research questions underlying this project are as follows: • Do school‐based programmes reduce the use of exclusionary sanctions in schools? • Are some school‐based approaches more effective than others in reducing exclusionary sanctions? • Do participants’ characteristics (e.g., age, gender, ethnicity) affect the impact of school‐based programmes on exclusionary sanctions in schools? • Do characteristics of the interventions, implementation, and methodology affect the impact of school‐based programmes on exclusionary sanctions in schools? SEARCH METHODS The authors conducted a comprehensive search to locate relevant studies reporting on the impact of school‐based interventions on exclusion from 1980 onwards. Twenty‐seven different databases were consulted, including databases that contained both published and unpublished literature. In addition, we contacted researchers in the field of school‐exclusion for further recommendations of relevant studies; we also assessed citation lists from previous systematic and narrative reviews and research reports. Searches were conducted from September 1 to December 1, 2015. SELECTION CRITERIA The inclusion and exclusion criteria for manuscripts were defined before we started our searches. To be eligible, studies needed to have: evaluated school‐based interventions or school‐supported interventions intended to reduce the rates of suspension; seen the interventions as an alternative to exclusion; targeted school‐aged children from four to 18 in mainstream schools irrespective of nationality or social background; and reported results of interventions delivered from 1980 onwards. In terms of methodological design, we included randomised controlled trialsonly, with at least one experimental group and onecontrol or placebo group. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Initial searches produced a total of 42,749 references from 27 different electronic databases. After screening the title, abstract and key words, we kept 1,474 relevant hits. 22 additional manuscripts were identified through other sources (e.g., assessment of citation lists, contribution of authors). After removing duplicates, we ended up with a total of 517 manuscripts. Two independent coders evaluated each report, to determine inclusion or exclusion. The second round of evaluation excluded 472 papers, with eight papers awaiting classification, and 37 studies kept for inclusion in meta‐analysis. Two independent evaluators assessed all the included manuscripts for risk of quality bias by using EPOC tool. Due to the broad scope of our targeted programmes, meta‐analysis was conducted under a random‐effect model. We report the impact of the intervention using standardised differences of means, 95% confidence intervals along with the respective forest plots. Sub‐group analysis and meta‐regression were used for examining the impact of the programme. Funnel plots and Duval and Tweedie's trim‐and‐fill analysis were used to explore the effect of publication bias. RESULTS Based on our findings, interventions settled in school can produce a small and significant drop in exclusion rates (SMD=.30; 95% CI .20 to .41; p<.001). This means that those participating in interventions are less likely to be suspended than those allocated to control/placebo groups. These results are based on measures of impact collected immediately during the first six months after treatment (on average). When the impact was tested in the long‐term (i.e., 12 or more months after treatment), the effects of the interventions were not sustained. In fact, there was a substantive reduction in the impact of school‐based programmes (SMD=.15; 95%CI ‐.06 to .35), and it was no longer statistically significant. We ran analysis testing the impact of school‐based interventions on different types of exclusion. Evidence suggests that interventions are more effective at reducing expulsion and in‐school exclusion than out‐of‐school exclusion. In fact, the impact of intervention in out‐of‐school exclusion was close to zero and not statistically significant. Nine different types of school‐based interventions were identified across the 37 studies included in the review. Four of them presented favourable and significant results in reducing exclusion (i.e., enhancement of academic skills, counselling, mentoring/monitoring, skills training for teachers). Since the number of studies for each sub‐type of intervention was low, we suggest that results should be treated with caution. A priori defined moderators (i.e., participants’ characteristics, the theoretical basis of the interventions, and quality of the intervention)showed not to be effective at explaining the heterogeneity present in our results. Among three post‐hoc moderators, the role of the evaluator was found to be significant: independent evaluator teams reported lower effect sizes than research teams who were also involved in the design and/or delivery of the intervention. Two researchers independently evaluated the quality of the evidence involved in this review by using the EPOC tool. Most of the studies did not present enough information for the judgement of quality bias. AUTHORS’ CONCLUSIONS The evidence suggests that school‐based interventions are effective at reducing school exclusion immediately after, and for a few months after, the intervention. Some specific types of interventions show more promising and stable results than others, namely those involving mentoring/monitoring and those targeting skills training for teachers. However, based on the number of studies involved in our calculations, we suggest that results must be cautiously interpreted. Implications for policy and practice arising from our results are discussed.
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The literature gives some indication that martial arts (MA) practice can influence youth development positively. However, previous reviews have shown that the outcomes of MA practice are still ambiguous. Furthermore, the ‘black box’ of MA practice is not yet fully understood and described. This review contributes to unpacking this black box for youth, by providing an overview of, and describing, the recent research on MA practice for youth development. The literature data were collected mainly through systematic computer searches of journal articles and dissertations, together with a manual search. After the exclusion of articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria, 17 articles were selected for this review. The results show that many positive developmental outcomes of MA have been found in recent years. The most common research topics are prosocial and antisocial behaviour, aggression, and resilience. There seems to be a growing consensus on the potential of MA for positive youth development. Furthermore, this review shows very clearly that the main effect of MA practice is attributed to the coach and his/her teaching style.
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This study developed a method of in-school intervention that dramatically reduced the suspension rate and violence in elementary schools. It suggests that children who were not read to by their parents often become bullies and/or victims of bullies. Other parental practices, including inconsistent discipline in the home, also may be contributing factors.