Longitudinal Follow-Up of Bone Density and Body Composition in Children with Precocious or Early Puberty before, during and after Cessation of GnRH Agonist Therapy

Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 03/2002; 87(2):506-12. DOI: 10.1210/jcem.87.2.8202
Source: PubMed


We studied bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism, and body composition in 47 children with central precocious puberty (n = 36) or early puberty (n = 11) before, during, and after cessation of GnRH agonist. Bone density and body composition were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and expressed as SD scores. Bone age and biochemical parameters of bone turnover were assessed. Measurements were performed at baseline, after 6 months, and on a yearly basis thereafter. Mean lumbar spine BMD SD scores for chronological age were significantly higher than zero at baseline and decreased during treatment. Lumbar spine bone mineral apparent density and total body BMD did not differ from normal at baseline and showed no significant changes during treatment. In contrast, BMD SD scores for bone age were significantly lower than zero at baseline and at cessation of therapy. Two years after therapy, bone mineral apparent density and BMD SD scores for bone age and chronological age did not differ from normal. Markers of bone turnover decreased during treatment, mainly in the first 6 months. Patients had increased percentage of fat and lean body mass at baseline. After an initial increase of percentage body fat during treatment, percentage body fat decreased and normalized within 1 yr after cessation of treatment. Our longitudinal analysis suggests that peak bone mass or body composition will not be impaired in patients with precocious or early puberty after GnRH agonist therapy.

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Available from: Annemieke M Boot
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    • "Furthermore, both our patients with CPP or EP showed a decreasing trend in BMI z-scores and in the obesity/overweight rate following GnRHa treatment discontinuation. Accordingly, some previous studies have demonstrated that the mean BMI z-score returned to pre-treatment values after therapy withdrawal [2,9,19]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: 1. To determine BMI, obesity/overweight rates, glucose and lipids at baseline, during GnRHa treatment and shortly after therapy discontinuation in female children with CPP and EP. 2. To compare this response to that seen in a similar group of untreated patients. A retrospective analysis of 71 children with either CPP (n = 37) or EP (n = 34) was undertaken. Forty three were treated with a GnRHa for at least 2 years, while 28 were followed without treatment. At the time of diagnosis, a higher BMI (z-score of 1.1 +/- 0.8 vs. 0.6 +/- 0.7, p = 0.004) and a higher prevalence of obesity/overweight (72.9 vs. 35.3%, p = 0.001) was observed in subjects with CPP when compared to those with EP. Children with EP had higher fasting glucose and total cholesterol than those with CPP. BMI z-score, obesity/overweight rates, fasting glucose and lipids did not change significantly in girls with CPP or EP during 3 yrs of follow up, regardless of treatment. Weight z-scores were higher at 3 years in treated than in untreated girls with CPP (p = 0.02), while it was higher in untreated than in GnRHa-treated patients with EP at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 years (p = 0.007, p = 0.002, p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) and remained so shortly after stopping therapy (p = 0.03). There is a high prevalence of obesity/overweight in girls with CPP and EP at diagnosis. However, this risk is greater in CPP than in EP girls. BMI, Obesity/overweight rates, fasting glucose and lipids remained stable in CPP and EP girls regardless of therapy. Weight z-scores were found to be higher in treated CPP girls and in untreated girls with EP.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology
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    • "There are reports of a decrease in bone density during the clinical evolution of precocious puberty. No differences were, however, found in the same individuals in adulthood when compared with those with normal pubertal development (Van der Sluis et al., 2002). SUMMARY This investigation examined the effects of pharmacologically induced precocious puberty on cranial growth in Wistar rats. "
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    ABSTRACT: This investigation examined the effects of pharmacologically induced precocious puberty on cranial growth in Wistar rats. Forty-eight female newborn Wistar rats were divided into two groups: a control group (C) and an experimental group (E), with four subgroups of six animals each. The time interval from birth until sacrifice differed between the subgroups, and was set at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. An intramuscular single dose (300 μg) of steroid hormone danazol was administered on day 5 after birth, as a means of inducing precocious puberty. Alizarin (2 mg/100 g) was administered to three animals in each subgroup three days prior to sacrifice. Body mass and dates corresponding to the beginning of the oestrous cycle were recorded. Craniometric measurements were undertaken. Histological analysis using light and fluorescence microscopy was then carried out to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and to visualize bone deposition patterns. The results were analysed with a Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Precocious puberty was effectively induced and differences between groups denoted an earlier maturation in the experimental rats. In qualitative analysis, a significant increase of total synchondrosis width was noted only in group E60, in comparison with C60, and an increase in the E90 subgroup cortical bone width compared with the C90 subgroup. Histomorphometrically, a statistical difference between total width values of subgroups E60 (434.3 μm) and C60 (323.5 μm) was detected. However, body mass and macroscopic measurements did not show statistically significant differences. An appropriate model for studying bone growth associated with precocious puberty in Wistar female rats was not achieved using steroid hormone danazol, when evaluated at 30 day intervals.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2012 · The European Journal of Orthodontics
    • "GnRH analog treatment may theoretically cause decreased bone mineral density due to decreased estradiol levels. While this adverse effect has not been observed in most studies,[40] calcium supplementation (1 g calcium carbonate every day) should be given to all girls on GnRH analog. There is no increased risk of polycystic ovarian disease, obesity and compromised reproductive potential. "
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    ABSTRACT: Precocious puberty poses significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to the physician. Recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology of precocious puberty have resulted in improved management. Timely intervention is mandatory to achieve successful outcome. The identification of critical role of KISS-1-kisspeptin-GPR54 system has gone a long way to provide an insight into pubertal physiology. It is likely that the system would become an important diagnostic and therapeutic target in children with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies point toward earlier thelarche. This is, however, associated with slower progression as the age of menarche is static. These changes have led to suggestions of lowering the age cutoffs for precocious puberty in girls. New developments in assessment of precocious puberty including gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist test have made characterization of precocious puberty easier. Longstanding GnRH analogs have become the mainstay of treatment of gonadotropin-dependent precocious puberty, while aromatase inhibitors and inhibitors of sex hormone action are increasingly being used in gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2011
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