ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Celebrity worship has been conceptualized as having pathological and nonpathological forms. To avoid problems associated with item-level factor analysis, 'top-down purification' was used to test the validity of this conceptualization. The respondents (N = 249) completed items modelled after existing celebrity worship questionnaires. A subset of 17 unidimensional and Rasch scalable items was discovered (the local reliability ranged from.71 to.96), which showed no biases related to age and gender. This subset was dubbed the Celebrity Worship Scale (CWS). The items also showed no celebrity bias, indicating that CWS applies equally to acting, music, sports, and 'other' celebrities. The Rasch nature of the items defines celebrity worship as consisting of three qualitatively different stages. Low worship involves individualistic behaviours such as watching and reading about a celebrity. At slightly higher levels, celebrity worship takes on a social character. Lastly, the highest levels are characterized by a mixture of empathy with the celebrity's successes and failures, over-identification with the celebrity, compulsive behaviours, as well as obsession with details of the celebrity's life. Based on these findings, the authors propose a model of celebrity worship based on psychological absorption (leading to delusions of actual relationships with celebrities) and addiction (fostering the need for progressively stronger involvement to feel connected with the celebrity).
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Conceptualization and measurement of celebrity worship
Lynn E McCutcheon; Rense Lange; James Houran
British Journal of Psychology; Feb 2002; 93, ProQuest Psychology Journals
pg. 67
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... Western research has been quantifying celebrity worship for a long time and is more systematic and enriched. The results published by McCutcheon et al. (2002) have the most advanced logic as well as the richest facts and details (Singh and Banerjee, 2019). Based on the celebrity attitude scale, they proposed that the three crucial dimensions of celebrity worship can be further explained using the absorptionaddiction model, which describes that fans seek satisfaction in celebrity worship and, in turn, stimulates them to focus their personal attention on the celebrity whom they like, generate dynamic and enthusiastic behavior or emotional investment, and identify with that celebrity. ...
... Highly involved celebrity worship brings about borderlinepathological, which reflects an individual's social-pathological attitudes and behaviors (Maltby et al., 2006). Such fans may even display illegal actions because of excessive obsessions with their idols (McCutcheon et al., 2002;Peng et al., 2010). ...
... There were five types of motives: reality entertainment, social interaction, voyeurism, high production quality, and suspense (Papacharissi and Mendelson, 2007;Xu and Guo, 2018). Celebrity worship was gauged using the celebrity attitude scale (McCutcheon et al., 2002). To measure program commitment, we adopted the scale that Lin et al. (2016) derived through their revision of the scales developed by Rusbult (1983) and Sung and Choi (2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Idol-nurturing reality shows that aim to produce idol groups by audience-chosen have become a hotbed for nurturing celebrities. The unique concepts and designs of idol-nurturing reality shows have attracted a group of committed female fans. As a result, the idol-nurturing reality show has become an essential genre of reality shows in the Asian market and an essential part of idol culture. This study concerned the unique concepts and designs of idol-nurturing reality shows and the psychology and behavior of the fans throughout the shows. Results of structural equation modeling based on survey data with 3,352 young Chinese respondents revealed a significant relationship between prompts, motives, online fan engagement, celebrity worship, and program commitment. The data from this study show that the prompts ability, personality, and facial attractiveness positively impacted online fan engagement and that viewing motives social interaction, voyeurism, and suspense positively impacted online fan engagement. In addition, this study found that online fan engagement exerted a significant and positive effect on celebrity worship and program commitment; celebrity worship positively impacted program commitment. This study also provides suggestions on enhancing the fan stickiness of shows and idols.
... Research indicates that seeking social support helps individuals more effectively with long-term health benefits and psychological well-being (Gurung et al., 1997;Malik and Paswan, 2022;Pierce et al., 1996). Escapism or the self-selected detachment from one's immediate world through the consumption of social media resources (Dolan et al., 2016;Eisenbeiss et al., 2012;Whiting and Williams, 2013) such as text messaging (Grellhesl and Punyanunt-Carter, 2012), gaming (Billieux et al., 2015;Kuss and Griffiths, 2012), storytelling (Lund et al., 2018), gambling (Griffiths et al., 2010) and celebrity following (Maltby et al., 2001;McCutcheon et al., 2002;Reeves et al., 2012) has long been a popular topic in consumer research. These consumers require avenues presumably as an escape from the unpleasant results of introspection and resort to behaviors as a source of gratification to make up for their shortcomings. ...
... While the findings of this study suggests that followers turn to SMIs as an escape from aversive consequences of introspection, or in pursuit of compensating for their deficiencies, the overdependence on them may prove harmful as well. Literature suggests that attachments with celebrities (Giles and Maltby, 2004) may bring undesirable outcomes, as deeper levels of such attachments appear to be pathological (McCutcheon et al., 2002). Future research should include additional variables to more carefully map degrees of intrinsic needs fulfillment to assess both positive and negative or pathological, aspects of relationships with SMIs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Social media influencers (SMIs) are becoming a powerful force within the marketing and branding landscape, with several leading brands opting to use SMI endorsements for their products and brands. Extant SMI literature has primarily focused on the influence mechanism exerted by SMIs on their followers. Less is known about how followers view their favorite SMIs. This study aims to explore the SMI–follower relationship from the follower’s perspective and examine the underlying attachment mechanism. Design/methodology/approach – First, a qualitative study was conducted to explore the attributes that individuals consider following an SMI and ensure that it is consistent with the literature review. This was followed by a survey-based quantitative study where a structural equation modeling technique was used to test the hypotheses using 508 SMI followers. Findings – Followers find the SMI as a source to fulfill their intrinsic needs, that is, need to escape or self-improvement. The findings of this study suggest that followers attribute glamor, fun and connectedness to the SMIs driven by their need for self-improvement and fun with their need to escape. Finally, these attributions influence the overall perceived image of the SMI in followers’ minds. Originality/value – This study uses qualitative and quantitative approaches to picture SMIs as human brands from a follower’s need fulfillment perspective. Keywords Social media influencers, Attachment theory, Escape, Self-improvement, Human brand theory
... In this aspect, individuals often have less controllable thoughts. This celebrity is a well-known individual who excels in any field, including medicine, science, politics, sports, religion, entertainment, or other celebrity relatives (Boortin 1961in (McCutcheon et al., 2002. Before graduating from boarding school, these alumni lacked any celebrities or the latest updates from their favorite celebrities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Celebrity Worship is a reflection of the development of appreciation and deeper enthusiasm for individuals or certain individuals or for their talents. There are several impacts on Celebrity Worship behavior. One of the impacts is a lifestyle, especially a dress style. Changes in dress style have also occurred among some alumni of pesantren Daarul Qur'an Putri Cikarang. The change in dress style also depends on who the celebrity is followed by the individual. The aim of this study is to determine how different the impact of celebrity worship is on the tendency of Muslim dress styles in groups that idolize celebrities in hijab versus non-hijab celebrity idol groups. This research was quantitative research with a questionnaire Likert scale. The sampling was using purposive sampling. The subjects were 84 alumni divided into groups. The data was analyzed using moderation analysis by moderating the variables of the group. The results of this study showed that there were differences in the direction of the impact of both groups. In the hijab group, there was a positive impact and in the non-hijab idol group, there was a negative impact. Celebrity Worship merupakan suatu pencerminan pengembangan apresiasi serta antusiasme yang lebih dalam terhadap individu atau beberapa individu tertentu ataupun terhadap bakat mereka. Terdapat beberapa dampak dari perilaku Celebrity Worship salah satunya adalah gaya hidup terutama gaya berbusana. Perubahan gaya berbusana juga terjadi pada beberapa alumni pondok pesantren Daarul Qur’an Putri Cikarang. Perubahan gaya berbusana tersebut juga tergantung dari siapakah selebriti yang diikuti oleh individu tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat bagaimana perbedaan pengaruh celebrity worship terhadap kecenderungan gaya berbusana muslimah pada kelompok yang mengidolakan selebriti berhijab dan kelompok pengidola selebriti nonhijab. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif dengan quetioner Skala Likert. Pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling. Subjek sebanyak 84 alumni yang dibagi menjadi kelompok. Data dianalisa menggunakan analisa moderasi dengan memoderasikan variabel kelompok. Hasil penelitian ini terdapat perbedaan arah pengaruh dari kedua kelompok. Pada kelompok berhijab terdapat pengaruh positif dan pada kelompok pengidola non hijab terdapat pengaruh negatif. Dari penelitian ini menunjukkan pentingnya memiliki nilai-nilai karakter positif sebagai dasar bagi individu untuk mempertimbangkan hal-hal eksternal yang dapat mempengaruhi gaya hidupnya, terutama gaya berpakaiannya
... According to McCutcheon (2002), Two types relationships with celebrities, Entertainment oriented individuals (take pleasure in learning about celebrities and discussing the information with others offhandedly), while (intense attachment based individuals think continuously and associate Para socially with the celebrities). Physically attractive celebrity endorsers can develop a brand's image and persuade consumers to procure that brand. ...
Book
Full-text available
Indian society is characterized as highly democratic, humanistic and advanced. But still the arguments regarding the equality of people with regard to social class, gender, race etc still persists. A “glass ceiling” represents all invisible barriers present in the workplace which are beyond the thoughts of the women. These hidden parameters become the hurdles between the middle and top management for the women. Glass Ceiling and Gender inequality are the prominent challenges these days which are stopping women from holding high positions of prominence in the business world. Due to the presence of this phenomenon working women in India are often struggling to go up in the corporate hierarchies and faces exclusions from significant decision-makings also. The present research paper explores the presence of glass ceiling effect in leading industries/sectors in India along with a focus on highlighting obstacles, key concerns and possible remedies on account of this. This study also attempts to identify the factors which create the grounds of glass ceiling amongst working women in an organization.
... Among the most-studied examples of extreme fan behavior in the field of psychology is that of celebrity worship. Researchers studying celebrity worship have created measures, adapted from measures of more routine fan engagement among sport fans, aimed at measuring the extent to which fans derive entertainment from celebrities, whether fans feel a sense of personal connection to celebrities, and, most presently relevant, whether the fan's interest in celebrities is pathological in nature (e.g., Maltby et al., 2002;McCutcheon et al., 2002). Among the pathological elements of celebrity worship assessed are items about the desire to learn about the celebrity, willingness to engage in illegal behavior on behalf of the celebrity, and desire to own objects from the celebrity (e.g., napkin). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the present research, we examine what it means for fans to take their interests "too far" in a multi-fandom, qualitative study. Specifically, we asked self-identified anime fans, furries, and Star Wars fans to describe what, to them, marked the point where a fan could be said to be taking their interest too far. From these responses we extracted five common themes across fandoms: (1) when one's fan interest negatively impacts their life, (2) when one's fan interest becomes the sole or defining feature of their personality, (3) when one's fan-related opinions are pushed on others, (4) when a fan loses touch with reality, and (5) when there is a connection between one's fan interest and their sexual desire. We also note that anime fans cited a unique, sixth theme, when fans excessively worship Japanese culture. The responses suggest that excessive fan behavior may be ubiquitous across fandoms, although there may be idiosyncratic excesses characteristic of specific fandoms. We discuss these findings in the context of existing fan literature as well as their implications, both practical and for future research.
... (Wen, 2017) but from the mediated interaction of followers with celebrities through some form of social media use (Perse and Rubin, 1989), such as SMPs in our study context. Despite the celebrities' lack of active knowledge (Giles, 2002) or contribution to such PSRs, these one-sided relationships can encourage followers to admire, imitate and become obsessed with celebrities (McCutcheon et al., 2002). Extrapolating from the extant research, we believe that, like traditional celebrities, SMCs influence their followers via such PSRs and hypothesise as follows: ...
Social media celebrities (SMCs) and social media platforms (SMPs) have become indispensable in today's business and marketing settings. Drawing on the celebrity influence model (CIM), this study examines the impact of SMCs on their followers' purchase intention and the moderating influence of SMP usage on the relationships between (a) SMCs and their followers' purchase intention, (b) para-social relationships (PSR) and purchase intention, and (c) identification and purchase intention. We collected 665 valid responses via an online questionnaire in China and then employed partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) to examine the proposed relationships between the variables. The findings revealed that SMCs do not significantly influence their followers' purchase intention directly; however, they do exert such influence through PSR and identification. The results further indicated that SMP usage moderates the effect of PSR and identification on purchase intention. Our study offers both theoretical and managerial contributions. Theoretically, the incorporation of CIM into this study's model augments the PSR and identification literature in the context of SMCs. Again, the moderating effect of SMP usage that we reveal is novel in the social media literature. In practice, marketers in China should consider the credibility and rapport a particular social media celebrity has with his or her followers before contracting that particular celebrity to endorse their products.
... Celebrity is supposed to be a spine of every advertisement. Hiring a celebrity cost a lot to companies so it is very important that a celebrity must be having positive image in consumer markets (McCutcheon, Lange, & Houran, 2002). When trustworthy celebrity who is also socially acceptable in behavior wise and personality traits wise it had been seen that consumers paid heed to what he/she conveyed about brands. ...
Article
Full-text available
Positive consumer attitude is an important factor that influences consumer's purchase intention. Success in formation of positive consumer attitude arises from understanding and managing attributes that effect consumer purchase intention that will influence consumers when making their choices about products and services. This study focuses on the importance of these dimensions (Endorser credibility, Service quality, corporate credibility and Consumer attitude) on consumer purchase intention. This is based on the assumption that all these dimensions of consumer purchase intention will have influence on consumer's attitude towards brand. However, this research aims to find out which among these three dimensions (Corporate credibility, Endorser credibility, service quality) appear to have the least influence on formation of positive consumer attitude which leads to purchase intention. All dimensions were treated equally because of the same scale. A structured questionnaire was constructed to collect primary data. In this study, two hundred questionnaires were distributed to gather data. The study surveyed three dimensions of consumer's purchase intention namely corporate credibility, Endorser credibility, Service quality. Among the three dimensions, Endorser credibility appears to have the least influence on consumer purchase intention than the other dimensions.
Chapter
This chapter “Models of romantic love” describes one of the most scholarly visible forms of love, yet frequently misunderstood in its content and features. Some of its characteristics are shared with other models, while the others are unique. Several salient attributes of romantic love, such as its sexual and passionate nature, are reviewed in comprehensive and cross-cultural perspectives. The specific romantic beliefs and perceptions, especially idealization, which make romantic love “romantic,” received special emphasis in the chapter. Parasocial and narcissistic models of love are elucidated in light of the romantic features.KeywordsConcept of romantic loveFeatures of romantic loveDiversity of romantic loveComplexity of romantic loveCultural complexity of romantic lovePsychological complexity of romantic loveSexuality of romantic loveIdealization in romantic lovePassion of romantic loveAffection of romantic loveRomantic beliefsRomantic beliefs across culturesIrrationality of romantic beliefsRomantic love as a destinyRelations between romantic beliefs and real lifeRelations of romantic love with other models of loveAdmiration in romantic loveAdoration in romantic loveParasocial romantic loveIdolizing romantic loveFanatic romantic loveRomantic self-loveNarcissistic romantic love
Chapter
This chapter examines the significance of fan memorabilia and other music heritage related collectibles as expressions of lifestyle and cultural identity through the inscription of meaning and value in gathered artefacts—in this case, those associated with musical taste and associated aesthetic preferences. As such artefacts age, it is argued, the cultural meaning inscribed in them deepens and assumes added historical value—this serves to accentuate such artefacts’ aura of cultural significance. The collection of rare and vintage artefacts is also considered. Underpinning each of these elements, however, is a process through which music fans’ practices of personal consumption and collection of objects contribute to forms of ritual enshrinement which, although obscured from the public eye, amounts to a significant form of popular music heritage practice in its own right.
Article
Full-text available
Data collected on 97 members of the Star Trek fan subculture showed that previous trends for other fan subcultures persisted, with introverts and intuitives significantly over-represented. Gender differences suggested the presence of two fan subcultures, an INT male subculture and an INF female subculture. A discussion comparing and contrasting rock star and Star Trek fan subcultures concluded that group norms for public behavior of the group are related to the type of the group.
Article
In a probe study we tried to register the psychological importance which individuals long addicted to heroin ascribe to the drug and how they assess themselves at various stages or treatment. The study included two groups of heroin addicts. The first one consists of patients who are undergoing treatment at a sanatorium. The second group comprises patients after a treatment who go to the H-club (post treatment process). We used the semantic differential method to study the distance between the "SELP" and the "DRUG". The results showed that patients under treatment at a sanatorium have not yet created a distance for themselves from the drug. On the other hand, patients in the H-club already do have a distance from the drug.
Article
This article reports on an aspect of a larger study which investigated the relationship between reports of past-life experiences and certain psychological variables. Extracted from a larger data pool of 271 subjects, on which preliminary analyses were conducted, a smaller cohort of 99 people, who had identified themselves as having had a past-life experience (experiencers), provided the data for specific analyses on whether fantasy proneness (as measured by the ICMI) and personality characteristics (as measured by the MBTI) affect the vividness and certainty of reported past- life experiences (Robertson, 1998).
Article
Objective : To examine the phenomenology of erotomania and to discuss the relevance of its classification into primary and secondary forms. Method : Two case reports are presented. Both were female, non-Irish nationals who travelled to Ireland expressly to pursue their objects, who were both members of an internationally famous rock band. Case 1 and Case 2 are presented as primary and secondary erotomania, respectfully. Result : The difficulty in distinguishing primary from secondary erotomania is discussed; the modern literature is referred to, which appears to be divided about the status of the primary form of this disorder as a distinct entity. Conclusion : Until further advances are made in elucidating mental disorders, diagnosis will remain symptom-based, leaving diagnostic formulations somewhat over-crowded with syndromes of undetermined aetiology. Such is the case with erotomania.