Cognitive research enhances accuracy of food frequency questionnaire reports: Results of an experimental validation study
To test whether changing a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on the basis of cognitive theory and testing results in greater accuracy. Accuracy was examined for 4 design issues: a) Grouping: asking about foods in a single vs multiple separate questions; b) different forms of a food: asking consumption frequency of each form of a food (eg, skim, 2%, whole milk) vs a nesting approach--asking frequency of the main food (eg, milk) and proportion of times each form was consumed; c) additions (eg, sugar to coffee): asking independent of the main food vs nested under the main foods; d) units: asking frequency and portion size vs frequency of units (eg, cups of coffee).
Participants in two randomly assigned groups completed 30 consecutive daily food reports (DFRs), followed by 1 of 2 FFQs that asked about foods consumed in the past month. One was a new, cognitively-based National Cancer Institute (NCI) Diet History Questionnaire; the other was the 1992 NCI-Block Health Habits and History Questionnaire.
623 participants, age range 25 to 70 years, from metropolitan Washington, DC. Statistical analyses performed Accuracy was assessed by comparing DFR and FFQ responses using categorical (percent agreement) and continuous (rank order correlation, discrepancy scores) agreement statistics.
Grouping: accuracy was greater using separate questions. Different forms of food: accuracy was greater using nesting. Additions: neither approach was consistently superior; accuracy of the addition report was affected by accuracy of the main food report. Units: both approaches were similarly accurate.
Accuracy of FFQ reporting can be improved by restructuring questions based on cognitive theory and testing.
Available from: Silvia Berciano
- "Fasting blood samples were collected to measure the lipid profile, and detailed methodology was described previously (Tsai et al., 2005). Dietary intake was estimated using the diet history questionnaire (Subar et al., 2001; Thompson et al., 2002). Physical activity was assessed by a questionnaire containing questions on the number of hours per day dedicated to different levels (heavy, slight, and sedentary) of activity (Corella et al., 2011). "
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ABSTRACT: Although apolipoprotein E (APOE) variants are associated with age-related diseases, the underlying mechanism is unknown and DNA methylation may be a potential one. With methylation data, measured by the Infinium Human Methylation 450 array, from 993 participants (age ranging from 18 to 87 years) in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study, and from Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) consortium, combined with published methylation datasets, we described the methylation pattern of 13 CpG sites within APOE locus, their correlations with gene expression across cell types, and their relationships with age, plasma lipids, and sequence variants. Based on methylation levels and the genetic regions, we categorized the 13 APOE CpG sites into three groups: Group 1 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the promoter region, Group 2 exhibited hypomethylation (< 50%) and were located in the first two exons and introns, and Group 3 showed hypermethylation (> 50%) and were located in the exon 4. APOE methylation was negatively correlated with gene expression (minimum r = -0.66, P = 0.004). APOE methylation was significantly associated with age (minimum P = 2.06E-08) and plasma total cholesterol (minimum P = 3.53E-03). Finally, APOE methylation patterns differed across APOE ε variants (minimum P = 3.51E-05) and the promoter variant rs405509 (minimum P = 0.01), which further showed a significant interaction with age (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that methylation may be a potential mechanistic explanation for APOE functions related to aging and call for further molecular mechanistic studies.
© 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
- "The study details and related methodology of GOLDN have been described (19). Dietary intake was collected using a diet history questionnaire, which was developed by the National Cancer Institute and was validated in two studies (20,21). Calculation of dietary glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) was according to the method described previously (22). "
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Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) is central to insulin signaling pathways. This study aimed to examine the association of IRS1 variants with insulin resistance (IR) and related phenotypes, as well as potential modification by diet.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Two IRS1 variants (rs7578326 and rs2943641) identified by genome-wide association studies as related to type 2 diabetes were tested for their associations with IR and related traits and interaction with diet in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study (n = 820) and the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS) (n = 844).RESULTSMeta-analysis indicated that rs7578326 G-allele carriers and rs2943641 T-allele carriers had a lower risk of IR, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Significant interactions on IR and MetS were found for these two variants and their haplotypes with diet. In GOLDN, rs7578326 G-allele carriers and rs2943641 T-allele carriers and their haplotype G-T carriers had a significantly lower risk of IR and MetS than noncarriers only when the dietary saturated fatty acid-to-carbohydrate ratio was low (≤0.24). In both GOLDN (P = 0.0008) and BPRHS (P = 0.011), rs7578326 G-allele carriers had a lower risk of MetS than noncarriers only when dietary monounsaturated fatty acids were lower than the median intake of each population.CONCLUSIONS IRS1 variants are associated with IR and related traits and are modulated by diet in two populations of different ancestries. These findings suggest that IRS1 variants have important functions in various metabolic disorders and that dietary factors could modify these associations.
Available from: Jose M Ordovas
- "Habitual dietary intake was assessed with a validated National Cancer Institute diet history questionnaire (DHQ) , ,  while data on physical activity and other lifestyle variables such as smoking and alcohol intake were collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Fasting glucose, insulin and lipid profiles (e.g., triglycerides, HDL-, LDL-, and total cholesterol) were measured following an eight-hour fast. "
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ABSTRACT: Trans fatty acids (TFA) lower HDL and increase triglyceride concentrations while polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) lower triglycerides and may decrease HDL concentrations. The effect of the interaction between trans fat and PUFA on lipids is uncertain.
Men and women (n = 1032) in the Genetics of Lipid-Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) study were included. Fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes were measured with gas chromatography while data on potential confounders were obtained from questionnaires. To test the interaction between total erythrocyte PUFA (ePUFA) and TFA (eTFA) on lipid concentrations we distributed eTFA into tertiles and dichotomized ePUFA at the median concentration.
For the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for HDL were 46.2±1.1, 46.3±1.1 and 45.5±1.0 mg/dL among those with low ePUFA, respectively, while they were 50.0±1.1, 46.9±1.1 and 44.7±1.1 mg/dL among those with high ePUFA, respectively (P for interaction = 0.01). For the 1(st), 2(nd) and 3(rd) tertiles of eTFA, multivariate-adjusted means±s.e.m for triglycerides were 178.6±11.3, 144.7±10.9 and 140.8±10.6, respectively, among those with low ePUFA, while they were 133.8±11.3, 145.7±10.9 and 149.3±11.5, respectively, among those with high ePUFA (P for interaction = 0.005). Results for VLDL were similar to those for triglycerides. No significant interactions were observed for LDL or total cholesterol.
The relation between trans fat and HDL, VLDL and triglycerides may depend on PUFA. The benefit of avoiding trans fat may be greater among individuals with higher PUFA intake. Supplementation with PUFA among individuals with relatively high trans fat intake may have limited benefits on lipid profiles.
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