2002 Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer

Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 04/2002; 34(6):730-51. DOI: 10.1086/339215
Source: PubMed


This article, prepared by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) Fever and Neutropenia Guidelines Panel, updates guidelines established a decade ago by the Infectious Disease Society of America for the use of antimicrobial agents to treat neutropenic patients with unexplained fever [1].

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Available from: Kenneth V Rolston, Feb 16, 2015
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    • "A prospective cohort study was conducted in the haematology ward of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, a teaching hospital and tertiary referral centre for bone marrow transplantation in southern Brazil. In this hospital, the application of an ASP protocol for FN (which is based on the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America [18]) has been part of the institutional recommendations since 2003. We screened all consecutive cancer patients admitted between October 2009 and August 2011. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Initial management of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropaenia (FN) comprises empirical therapy with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial. Currently, there is sufficient evidence to indicate which antibiotic regimen should be administered initially. However, no randomized trial has evaluated whether adherence to an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) results in lower rates of mortality in this setting. The present study sought to assess the association between adherence to an ASP and mortality among hospitalised cancer patients with FN. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in a single tertiary hospital from October 2009 to August 2011. All adult patients who were admitted to the haematology ward with cancer and FN were followed up for 28 days. ASP adherence to the initial antimicrobial prescription was determined. The mortality rates of patients who were treated with antibiotics according to the ASP protocol were compared with those of patients treated with other antibiotic regimens. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and propensity score were used to estimate 28-day mortality risk. Results A total of 307 FN episodes in 169 subjects were evaluated. The rate of adherence to the ASP was 53%. In a Cox regression analysis, adjusted for propensity scores and other potential confounding factors, ASP adherence was independently associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.14–0.92). Conclusions Antimicrobial selection is important for the initial management of patients with FN, and adherence to the ASP, which calls for the rational use of antibiotics, was associated with lower mortality rates in this setting.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BMC Infectious Diseases
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    • "The mean age of healthy controls was 38 (16–66). Established criteria for fever and infection were defined (Huges et al., 2002). Patients , who developed febrile episodes, were examined and investigated for the cause of the fever. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the mannose-binding lectin 2 (MBL-2), interleukin (IL)-4, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), chemokine receptor 5 (CCR-5), and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) gene polymorphisms (GPs) in acute leukemias (ALs) and to evaluate their roles in febrile neutropenia (FN) resulting from chemotherapy. Methods: The study included 60 AL patients hospitalized between the period of July 2001 and August 2006. Polymorphisms for the genes ACE(I/D), CCR-5, IL-1RA, MBL-2, TLR-4, and IL-4 were typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or PCR-restriction fragment length polymerase. Genotype frequencies for these genes were compared in the patient and control groups. The relationships between the genotypes and the body distribution of infections, pathogens, the duration of neutropenia, and febrile episodes in AL patients were evaluated. Results: No significant differences in either the genotype distribution or the allelic frequencies of TLR-4, IL-4, CCR-5, IL-1RN GPs were observed between patients and healthy controls. The AB/BB genotype (53.3%) in the MBL-2 gene was found to be significantly higher in the AL patients compared with control groups. There were correlations between the presence of MBL-2, TLR-4, and ACE polymorphisms and clinical parameters due to FN. Overall, bacteremia was more common in MBL BB and ACE DD. Gram-positive bacteremia was more common in ACE for ID versus DD genotype. Gram-negative bacteremia was more common for both the MBL-2 AB/BB genotype and TLR-4 AG genotype. Median durations of febrile episodes were significantly shorter in ACE DD and MBL AB/BB. Conclusion: Although TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 GPs have been extensively investigated in different clinical pictures, this is the first study to evaluate the role of these polymorphisms in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs. As a conclusion, TLR-4, ACE, and MBL-2 genes might play roles in the genetic etiopathogenesis of FN in patients with ALs.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
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    • "The primary and secondary antifungal prophylaxis protocols described in the Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Neutropenic Patients with Cancer by the Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2002 and subsequently updated in 2010 were followed in the hematology ward.1,4 Patients with a risk of invasive Candida infection and/or invasive Aspergillus infection or who were undergoing intensive remission-induction or salvage-induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia received antifungal prophylaxis in accordance with the guidelines. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with hematological malignancies often develop febrile neutropenia (FN) as a complication of cancer chemotherapy. Primary or secondary antifungal prophylaxis is recommended for patients with hematological malignancies to reduce the risk of invasive fungal infection (IFI). This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and potential harm of administration of primary and secondary antifungal prophylaxis to patients with hematological malignancies at one hospital. Methods All patients with hematological malignancies older than 14 years of age who had experienced at least one FN attack during chemotherapy while being treated at one hospital between November 2010 and November 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. Results A total of 282 FN episodes in 126 consecutive patients were examined during a 2-year study period. The mean patient age was 51.73±14.4 years (range: 17–82 years), and 66 patients were male. Primary prophylaxis with posaconazole was administered to 13 patients and systemic antifungal treatment under induction or consolidation chemotherapy to seven patients. Of 26 patients who received secondary antifungal prophylaxis with either oral voriconazole (n=17) or posaconazole (n=6) during 46 FN episodes, systemic antifungal therapy was administered in 16 of 38 episodes and three of eight episodes, respectively. Secondary antifungal prophylaxis with caspofungin was found effective in treating six FN episodes in three patients who had experienced at least two persistent candidemia attacks. The mortality rates associated with IFI were 9% in the first year, 2% in the second year, and 6% overall. The mortality rates associated with candidemia were 33% in the first year, 22% in the second year, and 27% overall. Conclusion Primary antifungal prophylaxis should be administered to selected patients on the basis of consideration of efficacy, cost, and potential harm. Use of secondary prophylaxis may reduce systemic antifungal use and IFI frequency but may increase risk of colonization and infection with azole-resistant fungal strains.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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