Chemokine Expression Patterns Differ within Anatomically Distinct Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Ángeles, California, United States
Infection and Immunity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 04/2002; 70(3):1538-46. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.70.3.1538-1546.2002
Source: PubMed


Untreated infections with Chlamydia trachomatis commonly result in ascending infection to fallopian tubes and subsequent immune-mediated tubal pathology in females. The proposed immune-mediated injury may be associated with the increased recruitment of CD4 cells to the upper genital tract (GT) (oviducts) in comparison to the lower GT (cervix) during infection, as shown in animal models. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this biased recruitment of CD4 cells within the GT, we characterized chemokine expression patterns in the upper and lower GTs in mice during infection with the murine pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of supernatants from GT homogenates revealed that the levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9 (monokine induced by gamma interferon), CXCL10 (interferon-inducible protein 10), and CCL5 (RANTES) were significantly higher in the upper GT than in the lower GT after infection, while the CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha) level was not increased. In contrast, the level of chemokine CCL11 (eotaxin) was significantly elevated in the lower GT later in the course of infection. Increased levels of mRNA confirmed the selective differences in chemokine expression within the upper and lower GTs. The increased levels of Th1-inducible chemokines in the upper GT were not due to differences in the magnitude of infection or progesterone pretreatment. These data demonstrate that the upper and lower regions of the GT respond differently to Chlamydia infection.

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    • "In contrast, Buckner et al. [19] found a decrease of IP-10 secretion in C. trachomatis-infected polA2EN cells. MIG (CXCL 9) is an angiostatic and chemotactic substance closely related to IP-10 [52] and its increase after chlamydial infection was demonstrated in our study as well as in previous publications [50], [51]. Additionally, wIRA/VIS irradiation alone caused a similar secretion of MIG and IP-10 in HeLa cells whereas Shah et al. [48] found no change in the secretion of MIG 10 h after treating HUVEC cells with 40°C for 6 to 12 h. "
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    ABSTRACT: New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS) has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS) diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs) of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C.) in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa) regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E) as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi) led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi) during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero) neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8) and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β) from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination of water-filtered infrared A and visible light.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "We also speculate that the relatively low levels of IFN-␥ found in endocervical pretreatment samples might also be a consequence of the young age of these patients, as higher concentrations of IFN-␥, a key cytokine in the resolution of chlamydial infection, is associated with older age (Arno et al., 1990) and with recurrent infection (Agrawal et al., 2007). Maxion and Kelly (2002) demonstrated differential gene expression of chemokines within anatomically distinct regions of the female genital tract in mice infected with the C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar, C. muridarum. In this murine model, induction of CXCL9, IP-10, and RANTES in oviducts (upper genital tract) was much higher than that in the cervicovaginal region (lower genital tract) in response to C. muridarum. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Journal of Reproductive Immunology
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    • "We analyzed other cytokine and chemokines in the splenic cultures of Cxcr5−/− and WT cells stimulated with EB and found they produced a variety of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that are found in the GT and that attract neutrophils (IL-17α) and cDC (CXCL12: ligand for CXCR4; CCL3 & CCL5: ligand for CCR5; CCL2: ligand for CCR2) [41], [42]. Cultures from Cxcr5−/− mice produced a 2 to 10-fold increase in the level of most of cytokines and chemokines analyzed (Fig. 4B). "
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    ABSTRACT: Regulation of immune responses is critical for controlling inflammation and disruption of this process can lead to tissue damage. We reported that CXCL13 was induced in fallopian tube tissue following C. trachomatis infection. Here, we examined the influence of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis in chlamydial genital infection. Disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis by injecting anti-CXCL13 Ab to BALB/c mice or using Cxcr5-/- mice increased chronic inflammation in the upper genital tract (UGT; uterine horns and oviducts) after Chlamydia muridarum genital infection (GT). Further studies in Cxcr5-/- mice showed an elevation in bacterial burden in the GT and increased numbers of neutrophils, activated DCs and activated NKT cells early after infection. After resolution, we noted increased fibrosis and the accumulation of a variety of T cells subsets (CD4-IFNγ, CD4-IL-17, CD4-IL-10 & CD8-TNFα) in the oviducts. NKT cell depletion in vitro reduced IL-17α and various cytokines and chemokines, suggesting that activated NKT cells modulate neutrophils and DCs through cytokine/chemokine secretion. Further, chlamydial glycolipids directly activated two distinct types of NKT cell hybridomas in a cell-free CD1d presentation assay and genital infection of Cd1d-/- mice showed reduced oviduct inflammation compared to WT mice. CXCR5 involvement in pathology was also noted using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis in C. trachomatis infected women attending a sub-fertility clinic. Women who developed tubal pathology after a C. trachomatis infection had a decrease in the frequency of CXCR5 SNP +10950 T>C (rs3922). These experiments indicate that disruption of the CXCL13-CXCR5 axis permits increased activation of NKT cells by type I and type II glycolipids of Chlamydia muridarum and results in UGT pathology potentially through increased numbers of neutrophils and T cell subsets associated with UGT pathology. In addition, CXCR5 appears to contribute to inter-individual differences in human tubal pathology following C. trachomatis infection.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · PLoS ONE
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