Mechanism of Vascular Relaxation by Cholinomimetic Drugs with Special Reference to Pilocarpine and Arecoline

ArticleinJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 18(1):25-34 · February 2002with16 Reads
DOI: 10.1089/108076802317233180 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The muscarinic receptor-mediated and non-muscarinic vascular effects of cholinomimetic drugs used in glaucoma were quantified. On the isolated rat aorta, the vascular tone induced by phenylephrine is functionally antagonized by cholinomimetic drugs. Based on EC50, the relative order of potency for the endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation was acetylcholine (0.05 microM) 1 > (+/-)-methacholine (0.35 microM) 1/7 > carbachol (0.63 microM) 1/12 > (+/-)-aceclidine (1.26 microM) 1/25. The maximal effects of the four agonists varied between 82-87%. The muscarinic vascular relaxation of 0.03 microM to 100 microM pilocarpine was less than 15%. At high concentrations, pilocarpine had 1/20.000 the vascular activity of acetylcholine. Physostigmine failed to potentiate the vascular relaxation of exogenous acetylcholine, indicating the absence of acetylcholine esterase in the tissue. Arecoline, with an EC50 of 7.76 microM, was partly sensitive to the removal of the endothelium. Atropine treatment did not block the vascular effect of high concentrations of pilocarpine. Atropine, as expected, blocked the vascular effects of carbachol with K(B) = 3.2 nM. Pilocarpine produces vascular relaxation by its competition with spasmogens like phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, vasopressin or latanoprost. Arecoline also shares these properties with pilocarpine in the blood vessel. The molecular mechanism of the vascular effects as well as ocular clinical implications of cholinomimetic drugs is discussed.
    • "Actually, both agents could have different effects in different vascular beds. Patil and Stearns [30] reported that pilocarpine produces vascular relaxation in the rat aorta by its competition with spasmogens like phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, vasopressin, or latanoprost and not by blocking NO-mediated vasodilation. Furthermore, the endothelial function is predominantly mediated by NO in the large arteries. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arterial hypertension (HT) has been reported in all studies involving bevacizumab, an antiangiogenic agent designed to target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The mechanism underlying bevacizumab-related HT is not yet clearly understood. As far as endothelial dysfunction and microvascular rarefaction are hallmarks in all forms of HT, we tested the hypothesis that anti-VEGF therapy could alter the microcirculation in nontumor tissues and, thus, result in an increase in blood pressure (BP). We used intravital video microscopy to measure dermal capillary densities in the dorsum of the fingers. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry combined with iontophoresis of pilocarpine (acetylcholine analogue). All measurements were carried out in 18 patients before and after a 6-month treatment with bevacizumab (mean cumulative dose: 3.16 +/- 0.90 g). Mean BP was increased after 6 months of therapy compared with baseline, from 129 +/- 13/75 +/- 7 mmHg to 145 +/- 17/82 +/- 7 mmHg for systolic BP and diastolic BP, respectively (P < 0.0001). Compared with the baseline, mean dermal capillary density at 6 months was significantly lower (75 +/- 12 versus 83 +/- 13/mm(2); P < 0.0001), as well as pilocarpine-induced vasodilation (P < 0.05). Thus, bevacizumab treatment resulted in endothelial dysfunction and capillary rarefaction; both changes are closely associated and could be responsible for the rise in BP observed in most patients.
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  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main objective of this investigation was to compare the acetylcholine potentiating action of huperzine-A with acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine on the frog rectus abdominus muscle, rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation, guinea pig ileum and human iris sphincter muscle. In vitro on the frog rectus abdominus muscle, microM of each alkaloid, incubated for 10 min, shifted the acetylcholine concentration response curve to the left. At EC(50) level, physostigmine potentiated acetylcholine response by 4-fold. The potentiation by huperzine-A was 40-fold. The acetylcholine maximum effect, relative to the control, increased to approximately 130% by each alkaloid. Neurally mediated twitch contraction of the rat diaphragm, a skeletal muscle at 1 microM was also potentiated more by huperzine-A than that by physostigmine. Neuromuscular block by (+)-tubocurarine was reversed more easily by huperzine-A than that by physostigmine. On guinea pig ileum, a 30 nM concentration of each alkaloid incubated for 5 min potentiated acetylcholine (10 nM) by 42%, and 33% for huperzine-A and physostigmine respectively. The difference in potentiation between the alkaloids was not significant. At 300 nM of each alkaloid, intrinsic indirect contractions were observed on the ileum, where the rate of contraction by huperzine-A was faster than that by physostigmine. On the iris sphincter, huperzine-A and physostigmine produced a concentration-dependent effect. Maximum effect after each alkaloid was achieved at 30 microM. Potentiation of acetylcholine response by 0.3 microM huperzine-A after a 10-min incubation was greater than that achieved by physostigmine at an equivalent concentration on the contralateral iris sphincter. In summary, huperzine-A exhibits greater acetylcholine potentiating activity on vertebrate muscles than that produced by physostigmine. The results are discussed in relation to the potential therapeutic value of huperzine-A.
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