Allergy to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed whey formula in infants with cow's milk allergy: A prospective, randomized study with a follow-up to the age of 2 years

Department of Pediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, Finland
Journal of Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 03/2002; 140(2):219-24. DOI: 10.1067/mpd.2002.121935
Source: PubMed


We conducted a prospective, randomized study to evaluate the cumulative incidence of allergy or other adverse reactions to soy formula and to extensively hydrolyzed formula up to the age of 2 years in infants with confirmed cow's milk allergy.
Infants (n = 170) with documented cow's milk allergy were randomly assigned to receive either a soy formula or an extensively hydrolyzed formula. If it was suspected that the formula caused symptoms, a double-blind, placebo-controlled challenge (DBPCFC) with the formula was performed. The children were followed to the age of 2 years, and soy-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies were measured at the time of diagnosis and at the ages of 1 and 2 years.
An adverse reaction to the formula was confirmed by challenge in 8 patients (10%; 95% confidence interval, 4.4%-18.8%) randomly assigned to soy formula and in 2 patients (2.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 7.8%) randomly assigned to extensively hydrolyzed formula. Adverse reactions to soy were similar in IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy (11% and 9%, respectively). IgE to soy was detected in only 2 infants with an adverse reaction to soy. Adverse reactions to soy formula were more common in younger (<6 months) than in older (6 to 12 months) infants (5 of 20 vs 3 of 60, respectively, P =.01).
Soy formula was well tolerated by most infants with IgE-associated and non-IgE-associated cow's milk allergy. Development of IgE-associated allergy to soy was rare. Soy formula can be recommended as a first-choice alternative for infants >or=6 months of age with cow's milk allergy.

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    • "However, we consider they provide a useful biological tool when ethics is concerning, and in situations in which co-sensitization in patients is almost impossible to disprove. There are some studies reporting the occurrence of clinical intolerance to soy-based formula in milk allergic patients without previous sensitization to soy allergens [9], [10]. Although they show that it occurs in a small proportion of patients (<15%), this intolerance is a clinical common concern in our population. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cross-reactivity between soybean allergens and bovine caseins has been previously reported. In this study we aimed to map epitopes of the major soybean allergen Gly m 5 that are co-recognized by casein specific antibodies, and to identify a peptide responsible for the cross-reactivity. Cow's milk protein (CMP)-specific antibodies were used in different immunoassays (immunoblotting, ELISA, ELISA inhibition test) to evaluate the in vitro recognition of soybean proteins (SP). Recombinant Gly m 5 (α), a truncated fragment containing the C-terminal domain (α-T) and peptides of α-T were obtained and epitope mapping was performed with an overlapping peptide assay. Bioinformatics tools were used for epitope prediction by sequence alignment, and for modelling the cross-recognized soy proteins and peptides. The binding of SP to a monoclonal antibody was studied by surface Plasmon resonance (SPR). Finally, the in vivo cross-recognition of SP was assessed in a mouse model of milk allergy. Both α and α-T reacted with the different CMP-specific antibodies. α-T contains IgG and IgE epitopes in several peptides, particularly in the peptide named PA. Besides, we found similar values of association and dissociation constants between the α-casein specific mAb and the different milk and soy components. The food allergy mouse model showed that SP and PA contain the cross-reactive B and T epitopes, which triggered hypersensitivity reactions and a Th2-mediated response on CMP-sensitized mice. Gly m 5 is a cross-reactive soy allergen and the α-T portion of the molecule contains IgG and IgE immunodominant epitopes, confined to PA, a region with enough conformation to be bound by antibodies. These findings contribute to explain the intolerance to SP observed in IgE-mediated CMA patients, primarily not sensitised to SP, as well as it sets the basis to propose a mucosal immunotherapy for milk allergy using this soy peptide.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "However, both tests are not required at the same time in all patients and either can be sufficient in a given patient.6,7 In particular, an oral challenge test is usually necessary for the diagnosis of non-IgE-mediated allergy.8 Usually, a specific IgE test is negative in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms; however, the diagnosis of CMPA should not be excluded even if a specific IgE test is negative in patients who have skin lesions.8,9 "
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    ABSTRACT: Calprotectin is a cytosolic protein with immunomodulatory, antimicrobial, and antiproliferative actions. The concentration of calprotectin increases in infection, inflammation, and malignancy. We determined if calprotectin can be used as a marker for the diagnosis and follow-up of bowel inflammation in cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). In total, 32 patients newly diagnosed with CMPA were included (24 IgE-mediated, 8 non-IgE-mediated). In all subjects, a complete blood count, total IgE, cow's milk-specific IgE, and fecal calprotectin (FC) were assessed before and after a cow's milk protein (CMP) elimination diet was started. The results were compared with those of 39 healthy children. The mean FC value before the CMP elimination diet was 516±311 µg/g in the 32 patients with CMPA and 296±94 µg/g in the control group (P=0.011). The mean FC value after the diet in these patients was 254±169 µg/g, which was significantly different from the mean value before the CMP elimination diet (P<0.001). When we compared FC levels before the CMP elimination diet in the IgE-mediated group with the control group, we found no significant statistical difference (P=0.142). The mean FC value before the CMP elimination diet was 886±278 µg/g in the non-IgE-mediated group and 296±94 µg/g in the control group; this difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). In the IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated groups, FC values after CMP elimination diet were 218±90 µg/g and 359±288 µg/g, respectively, and FC values before CMP elimination diet were 392±209 µg/g and 886±278 µg/g, respectively; these differences were statistically significant (P=0.001 and P=0.025, respectively). FC levels may be a useful marker for follow-up treatment and recurrence determination in CMPA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Allergy, asthma & immunology research
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    • "However, the infant formulas traditionally used in CMP allergy are not without certain difficulties (8–11). A study carried out in infants diagnosed with allergy to CMP showed adverse reactions with a double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) to extensively hydrolysed formula (2.2%) and to soy (10%) (12). "
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    ABSTRACT: Reche M, Pascual C, Fiandor A, Polanco I, Rivero-Urgell M, Chifre R, Johnston S, Martín-Esteban M. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow’s milk protein allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2010: 21: 577–585. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow’s milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow’s milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1–10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow’s milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow’s milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with moderate to severe symptoms of IgE-mediated CMP allergy. Children receiving this formula showed similar growth and development of clinical tolerance to those receiving an EHF. In accordance with current guidelines, this HRPF was tolerated by more than 90% of children with CMP allergy and therefore could provide an adequate and safe alternative to CMP-hydrolysed formulas for these infants.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2010 · Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
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