The Activated Health Education model: refinement and implications for school health education.
Dept. of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC 28403, USA.Journal of School Health (Impact Factor: 1.43). 02/2002; 72(1):23-6. DOI: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb06507.x
A behaviorally based, health education instructional model was developed from a review of successful health education interventions. The analysis identified three principles common to improvement of health behavior among program participants: 1) active involvement in the intervention process, 2) awareness of the positive and negative influences of the behavior on health, and 3) personal responsibility for managing health behavior. These principles and several theoretical premises then were organized into a structural framework for the model. Next, studies were conducted to validate applications of these conditions and refine strategic components. The model then was formatted into a curricular design to achieve optimum behavior and provide ease of replication. Research related to developing and field testing the model are included. The model's limitations and strengths, implications for school health education, and plans for the future are presented.
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ABSTRACT: This paper describes occupational health nurses' and school staff members' experiences of work ability maintenance carried out at schools and the development of ideas to promote the collaboration between occupational health care and school community and to enhance work ability maintenance. The data were collected in a baseline situation of an action research project to further plan and develop activities. The data were analysed by inductive content analysis. According to the results, school community staff members' work ability maintenance focused on the employee, the school community, school work and the working conditions as well as professional competence. The practical actions involved some individual and school-specific variation, focusing on actions to maintain individual and physical work ability. It seems that the collaboration between the school community and occupational health service for work ability maintenance took place at the individual level, but an obvious need for more structural collaboration emerged by several suggestions made by the participants (e.g. better information exchange between the school and occupational health care, improved collaboration between the school staff and the co-operative partners). The progress in collaboration may lead towards spontaneous collaboration, in which case both actors have the same target and work in a planned, continuous and natural way to ensure work ability maintenance in the school community.
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ABSTRACT: An important role for all health educators is to positively influencing the health behavior of individuals and communities as well as the living conditions that influence their health. Yet many health educators have found that despite their many efforts to educate individuals and communities to change unhealthy behaviors individuals after leaving a health education program go home and make choices to either do what has been taught or to continue to do what is expedient for the individual at the time.. Often what is expedient for the individual is not a healthy choice. Based on this reality it is necessary for health educators to include in their health education teaching plans an intervention that will teach learners how to better understand the choice process and how to correctly use the information given to make healthy choices at home. This intervention named "Choice Education Intervention" is guided by a new nursing theory entitled "The Theory of Choice". The new theory proposes the following assumptions. Many factors determine health which, include choice, gender, race, social class, work environment, employment status, income, housing conditions, spirituality, stability of the environment, transportation, diet, lifestyle and education. Further, in the Theory of Choice it is proposed that individuals use choice to exert a relatively high degree of control over their health by their adherence to medical advise, personal health choices made, and their health care utilization. Also to increase the effectiveness of health education provided learners need to be guided to make healthy choices after receiving the specific health information. It is therefore important for health educators to learn how to guide learners in making positive health choices.
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